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Occupational Therapy Code of Ethics 2015 Essay

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The 2015 Occupational Therapy Code of Ethics (Code) of the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA) is designed to reflect the dynamic nature of the ___, the evolving ___ ____ environment, and emerging ____ that can present potential ethical concerns in __ , __, and ___
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profession; health care; technologies; research; education; practice
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AOTA members are committed to promoting_____, ____, ___, and ___ for all recipients in various stages of life, health, and illness and to empowering all beneficiaries of service to meet their occupational needs. Recipients of services may be ______ ______ _____ _____ _____ or populations.
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inclusion, participation, safety, and well-being; individuals, groups, families, organizations, communities
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The ____ is an AOTA Official Document and a public statement tailored to address the most prevalent *ethical concerns* of the occupational therapy profession.
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Code
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*The Code serves two purposes:* 1. It provides aspirational ___ ____ that guide members toward ethical courses of action in professional and volunteer roles. 2. It delineates enforceable ____ and ____ of ____ that apply to ____ members.
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Core Values; Principles and Standards of Conduct; AOTA
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Whereas the Code helps guide and define decision-making parameters, ____ action goes beyond rote compliance with these Principles and is a manifestation of ____ character and mindful ____
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ethical; moral; reflection
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Recognizing and resolving ethical issues is a systematic process that includes ___ of the complex dynamics of situations, weighing of ____, making reasoned ____, taking ____, and reflecting on ____
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analysis; consequences; decisions; action; outcomes
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Occupational therapy personnel, including students in occupational therapy programs, are expected to abide by the ____ and ____ of ____ within this Code.
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Principles and Standards of Conduct
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Personnel roles include ____ (e.g., direct service, consultation, administration); ____; researchers; ____; business owners; and those in elected, appointed, or other professional ____ service.
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clinicians; educators; entrepreneurs; volunteer
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The process for *addressing ethics violations by AOTA members* (and associate members, where applicable) is outlined in the ____ _____ _____
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Code’s Enforcement Procedures
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The Code is meant to be a _____-___ document, guiding ethical dimensions of professional____, _____, _____, and _______ making. This Code is not exhaustive; that is, the Principles and Standards of Conduct *cannot* address every possible situation.
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free-standing; behavior; responsibility; practice; decision
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Therefore, before making complex ethical decisions that require further expertise, occupational therapy personnel should seek out _____ to assist in resolving ethical issues *not* addressed in this document. Resources can include, but are not limited to, ethics _______, ethics _____, the AOTA Ethics Commission or Ethics Program ______, or an ethics _____
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resources; committees; officers; manager; consultant
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The profession is grounded in *seven* long-standing Core Values. *Name all 7.*
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(1) Altruism (2) Equality (3) Freedom (4) Justice (5) Dignity (6) Truth (7) Prudence
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_______ involves demonstrating concern for the welfare of others. ______ refers to treating all people impartially and free of bias. ________ and personal choice are paramount in a profession in which the values and desires of the client guide our interventions. _______ expresses a state in which diverse communities are inclusive;
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(1) Altruism (2) Equality (3) Freedom (4) Justice
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The promotion and preservation of the individuality and _______ of the client, by treating him or her with respect in all interactions. In all situations, occupational therapy personnel must provide accurate information in oral, written, and electronic forms -______ . Occupational therapy personnel use their clinical and ethical reasoning skills, sound judgment, and reflection to make decisions in professional and volunteer roles -______
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Dignity; Truth; Prudence
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The *seven Core Values* provide a foundation to guide occupational therapy personnel in their ______ with others. Although the Core Values are not themselves enforceable standards, they should be considered when determining the most ethical course of action.
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interactions
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The *Principles and Standards of Conduct* that are enforceable for professional behavior include *6.* *Name them all.* (& learn in order for principles later on..)
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(1) Beneficence (2) Nonmaleficence (3) Autonomy (4) Justice (5) Veracity (6) Fidelity
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Reflection on the historical foundations of occupational therapy and related professions resulted in the inclusion of Principles and Standards of Conduct that are consistently referenced as a guideline for ethical ____ _____
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Decision making
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_______ *Principle ______.* Occupational therapy personnel shall demonstrate a ______ for the well-being and safety of the recipients of their services.
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Beneficence; 1; concern
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Beneficence includes all forms of action intended to ____ other persons. The term beneficence connotes acts of ______, _______, and _______ Beneficence requires taking action by helping others, in other words, by promoting good, by ______ harm, and by ______ harm.
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benefit; mercy; kindness; charity; preventing; removing HARM
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*Examples of beneficence* include—- protecting and defending the ______ of others, preventing _______ from occurring to others, removing ______ that will cause harm to others, helping persons with disabilities, and rescuing persons in _______
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rights; harm; conditions; danger
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*Related Standards of Conduct* of Beneficence *Occupational therapy personnel shall* A. Provide appropriate ______ and a plan of _______ for recipients of occupational therapy services specific to their needs. B. ______ and _______ recipients of service in a timely manner to determine whether ______ are being achieved and whether intervention plans should be ______
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evaluation; intervention; Revaluate; reassess; goals; revised
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C. Use, to the extent possible, evaluation, planning, intervention techniques, assessments, and therapeutic equipment that are _____ ______, _______ , and within the recognized scope of occupational therapy practice. D. Ensure that all duties delegated to other occupational therapy personnel are congruent with ______, _______, _______, ______ and scope of practice with respect to service delivery, supervision, fieldwork education, and research.
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evidence based; current; credentials; qualifications; experience; competency
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E. Provide occupational therapy services, including ______ and _______, that are within each practitioner’s level of competence and scope of practice. F. Take steps (e.g., continuing education, research, supervision, training) to ensure _______, use careful _______, and weigh potential for _______ when generally recognized standards do not exist in emerging technology or areas of practice.
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education; training; proficiency; judgement; harm
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G. Maintain competency by ongoing _______ in education relevant to one’s practice area. H. ________ occupational therapy services in collaboration with the service recipient or responsible party when the services are no longer beneficial.
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participation; terminate
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I. ________ to other providers when indicated by the needs of the client. J. Conduct and disseminate research in accordance with currently accepted ethical guidelines and standards for the protection of research participants, including determination of potential _______ and ________ –Last of beneficence–
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Refer; risk; benefits
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_________ *Principle ______* Occupational therapy personnel shall refrain from actions that cause _______
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Nonmaleficence; 2; harm
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______ “obligates us to abstain from causing ______ to others”. The Principle of Nonmaleficence also includes an obligation to not impose _______ of harm even if the potential risk is without malicious or harmful intent.
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Nonmaleficence; harm; risks;
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This Principle often is examined under the context of _____ ______. The standard of due care “requires that the goals pursued justify the ______ that must be imposed to achieve those goals”
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due care; risks
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(Nonmaleficence) For example, in occupational therapy practice, this standard applies to situations in which the client might feel _______ from a treatment intervention; however, the acute pain is justified by potential ______, _____-______, benefits of the treatment
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pain; longitudinal evidence-based
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*Related Standards of Conduct Occupational therapy personnel shall* A. Avoid inflicting ______ or ______ to recipients of *occupational therapy services, students, research participants, or employees.* B. *Avoid abandoning* the service recipient by facilitating appropriate ________ when *unable* to provide services for any reason.
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harm; injury transitions
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C. Recognize and take appropriate action to remedy ________ problems and limitations that might cause harm to recipients of service, colleagues, students, research participants, or others. D. Avoid any undue ______ that may impair practice and compromise the ability to _______ and competently provide occupational therapy services, education, or research.
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personal; influences; safely
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E. Address ________ practice and when necessary report to the appropriate ________. F. Avoid _______ relationships, conflicts of interest, and situations in which a *practitioner, educator, student, researcher, or employer* is unable to maintain clear professional boundaries or ________.
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impaired; authorities; dual; objectivity
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G. Avoid engaging in _______ activity with a recipient of service, including the *client’s family or significant other, student, research participant, or employee,* while a ________ relationship exists. H. Avoid compromising rights or well-being of others based on _____ ______ (e.g., unrealistic productivity expectations, falsification of documentation, inaccurate coding) by exercising professional _______ and critical ________
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sexual; professional; arbitrary directives; judgment; analysis
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I. Avoid exploiting any relationship established as an occupational therapy clinician, educator, or researcher to further one’s own _______, ________, ________, ________, or ________ interests at the expense of *recipients of services, students, research participants, employees, or colleagues.* J. Avoid ______ for services when there is the potential for exploitation and conflict of interest. –Last of nonmaleficence–
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physical; emotional; financial; political; or business; bartering
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_________ *Principle ____* Occupational therapy personnel shall respect the right of the individual to self- _____ ,______ , ______, and *consent.*
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Autonomy; 3; self—->determination; privacy; confidentiality
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The Principle of _______ expresses the concept that practitioners have a duty to treat the client according to the client’s _______, within the bounds of accepted standards of ________, and to protect the client’s _______ information. *Often, respect for Autonomy is referred to as the ______-_____ principle.*
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Autonomy; desires; care; confidential; self-determination;
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However, respecting a person’s autonomy goes beyond acknowledging an individual as a *mere agent* and also acknowledges a person’s right “to hold ______, to make ______, and to take _______ based on [his or her] ______ and _______”
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views; choices; actions; values; beliefs
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Individuals have the right to make a determination regarding care decisions that directly affect their lives. In the event that a person *lacks decision-making capacity*, his or her *autonomy* should be respected through involvement of an _____ ____ or _____ ____ ______
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authorized agent; surrogate decision maker
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*Related Standards of Conduct Occupational therapy personnel shall* A. Respect and honor the expressed _______ of recipients of service. B. *Fully disclose* the ______, _______, and potential _______ of any intervention; the personnel who will be providing the intervention; and any reasonable ________ to the proposed intervention.
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wishes; benefits; risks; outcomes; alternatives
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C. Obtain ______ after disclosing appropriate information and answering any questions posed by the recipient of service or research participant to ensure _______ D. Establish a _______ relationship with recipients of service and relevant stakeholders, to promote shared ______ making.
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consent; voluntariness; collaborative; decision
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E. *Respect* the client’s right to ________ occupational therapy services *temporarily or permanently*, even when that refusal has potential to result in ______ outcomes. F. Refrain from threatening, coercing, or deceiving clients to promote _______ with occupational therapy _______
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refuse; poor; compliance; recommendations
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G. Respect a research participant’s right to ______ from a research study without _______ H. Maintain the _______ of all verbal, written, electronic, augmentative, and nonverbal communications, in compliance with applicable laws, including all aspects of privacy laws and exceptions thereto *(e.g., Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act).*
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withdraw; penalty; confidentiality
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I. Display responsible conduct and discretion when engaging in *social networking*, including but not limited to refraining from posting _____ _____ _____. J. Facilitate ______ and address _______ to communication (e.g., aphasia; differences in language, literacy, culture) with the recipient of service (or responsible party), student, or research participant. –Last of autonomy–
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PHI (protected health information); comprehension; barriers
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_________ *Principle ____.* Occupational therapy personnel shall promote _______ and ______ in the provision of occupational therapy services.
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Justice; 4; fairness; objectivity
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The Principle of _____ relates to the______, ________, and appropriate treatment of persons. Occupational therapy personnel should relate in a respectful, fair, and impartial manner to individuals and groups with whom they interact.
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Justice; fair; equitable;
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They should also respect the applicable laws and standards related to their area of practice. Justice requires the impartial consideration and consistent following of rules to generate _______ decisions and promote ________. As occupational therapy personnel, we work to uphold a society in which all individuals have an equitable opportunity to achieve occupational ________ as an essential component of their life.
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unbiased; fairness; engagement
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*Related Standards of Conduct Occupational therapy personnel shall* A. Respond to _______ for occupational therapy services (e.g., a referral) in a timely manner as determined by law, regulation, or policy. B. Assist those in need of occupational therapy services to secure ________ through available means.
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requests; access
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C. Address _______ in access to occupational therapy services by offering or referring clients to ______ ______, _____ ______ , or *pro bono* services within the parameters of organizational policies. D. _______ for changes to systems and policies that are *discriminatory or unfairly limit or prevent* access to occupational therapy services.
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barriers; financial aid; charity care; Advocate;
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E. Maintain *awareness* of current *laws* and _____ _____ and ____ _____ that apply to the profession of occupational therapy. F. Inform *employers, employees, colleagues, students, and researchers* of applicable _______, ________, and *Official Documents.*
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AOTA policies; Official Documents; policies; laws
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G. Hold *requisite credentials* for the occupational therapy services they provide in academic, ______, _______, ______ work settings. H. Provide appropriate _______ in accordance with AOTA Official Documents and relevant *laws, regulations, policies, procedures, standards, and guidelines.* I. Obtain all necessary ______ prior to initiating *research activities.*
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research; physical; or virtual; supervision; approvals
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J. Refrain from accepting _______ that would unduly influence the *therapeutic relationship* or have the potential to *blur professional boundaries*, and adhere to employer policies when offered gifts. K. Report to appropriate authorities any acts in practice, education, and research that are _______ or _______
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gifts; unethical; illegal
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L. *Collaborate with employers* to formulate policies and procedures in compliance with legal, regulatory, and ethical standards and work to resolve any _______ or inconsistencies. M. ______ and _____ fees legally and justly in a manner that is fair, reasonable, and commensurate with services delivered. N. Ensure compliance with relevant laws and promote transparency when participating in a business arrangement as owner, stockholder, partner, or employee.
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conflicts; Bill; collect;
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O. Ensure that documentation for ______ purposes is done in accordance with *applicable laws, guidelines, and regulations.* P. Refrain from participating in any action resulting in unauthorized access to educational ____ OR ______ *(including but not limited to sharing test questions, unauthorized use of or access to content or codes, or selling access or authorization codes).* –last of Justice–
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reimbursement; content; exams
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_______ *Principle _____* Occupational therapy personnel shall provide _____, ______, and *objective* information when representing the profession.
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Veracity; 5; comprehensive; accurate
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_______ is based on the virtues of _______, candor, and _______. The Principle refers to *comprehensive, accurate, and objective* transmission of information and includes fostering understanding of such information Veracity is based on respect owed to others, including but not limited to recipients of *service, colleagues, students, researchers, and research participants.*
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Veracity; truthfulness; honesty
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In communicating with others, occupational therapy personnel implicitly promise to be ______ and not deceptive. When entering into a therapeutic or research relationship, the recipient of service or research participant has a right to _____ information. In addition, transmission of information is *incomplete* without also ensuring that the recipient or participant _____ the information provided.
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truthful; accurate; understands
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Concepts of veracity must be carefully balanced with other potentially competing ethical ______, cultural ______, and organizational _______ *Veracity ultimately is valued as a means to establish _____ and strengthen professional relationships.* Therefore, adherence to the Principle of Veracity also requires thoughtful analysis of how full _____ of information may affect *outcomes.*
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principles; beliefs; policies; trust; disclosures
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*Related Standards of Conduct Occupational therapy personnel shall* A. Represent *credentials, qualifications, education, experience, training, roles, duties, competence, contributions, and findings* accurately in all forms of ______ B. Refrain from using or participating in the use of any form of communication that contains false, fraudulent, deceptive, misleading, or unfair statements or claims.
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communication;
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C. _____ AND _____ in an accurate and timely manner and in accordance with applicable regulations all information related to professional or academic documentation and activities. D. Identify and fully disclose to all appropriate persons ______ OR ______ events that compromise the safety of service recipients.
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Record; report; error; adverse
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E. Ensure that all _____ and _____ are truthful, accurate, and carefully presented to avoid _______ recipients of service, research participants, or the public. F. Describe the _____ and ______ of occupational therapy services accurately in *professional contracts*, including the *duties and responsibilities* of all involved parties.
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marketing; advertising; misleading; type; duration;
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G. Be honest, fair, accurate, respectful, and timely in gathering and *reporting fact-based information* regarding _____ _____ performance and ____ performance. H. Give credit and ______ when using the ideas and work of others in *written, oral, or electronic media* (i.e., do not plagiarize).
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employee job; student; recognition
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I. Provide students with access to accurate information regarding educational ______ and academic _____ and _____ relative to the *occupational therapy program or educational institution.* J. Maintain *privacy and truthfulness* when utilizing _____ in delivery of occupational therapy services. –last of Veracity–
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requirements; policies; procedures; telecommunication
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_______ Principle ______ Occupational therapy personnel shall treat clients, colleagues, and other professionals with *respect, fairness, discretion, and* ______
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Fidelity; 6; integrity
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The Principle of _______ comes from the Latin root fidelis, meaning ______. Fidelity refers to the duty one has to keep a _____ once it is made. In the health professions, this commitment refers to ______ made between a provider and a client or patient based on an expectation of ______, staying with the patient in a time of need, and compliance with a code of ethics.
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Fidelity; loyal; commitment; promises; loyalty
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These promises can be _____ or ______. The duty to disclose information that is potentially meaningful in making decisions is one *obligation* of the ______ contract between provider and client or patient. *Whereas respecting Fidelity* requires occupational therapy personnel to meet the client’s *reasonable expectations*!!!, the Principle also addresses *maintaining respectful collegial and organizational relationships.* <—
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implied; explicit; moral;
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Professional relationships are greatly influenced by the complexity of the ______ in which occupational therapy personnel work. Practitioners, educators, and researchers alike must consistently balance their duties to service recipients, students, research participants, and other professionals as well as to organizations that may influence decision making and professional practice.
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environment;
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*Related Standards of Conduct Occupational therapy personnel shall* A. Preserve, respect, and safeguard ______ information about employees, colleagues, and students unless otherwise mandated or permitted by relevant laws. B. Address incompetent, disruptive, unethical, illegal, or impaired practice that jeopardizes the ______ or well-being of others and team effectiveness.
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private; safety;
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C. Avoid conflicts of ______ or conflicts of ______ in *employment, volunteer roles, or research.* D. *Avoid using one’s position* (employee or volunteer) or knowledge gained from that position in such a manner as to give rise to real or perceived _____ of ______ among the person, the employer, other AOTA members, or other organizations.
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interest; commitment; conflict of interest
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E. Be diligent stewards of human, financial, and material resources of their employers, and refrain from ______ these resources for *personal gain.* F. Refrain from *verbal, physical, emotional, or sexual harassment* of peers or colleagues. G. *Refrain from communication that is derogatory, intimidating, or disrespectful* and that unduly discourages others from *participating* in professional ________
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exploiting; dialogue
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H. Promote ______ actions and communication as a member of interprofessional teams to facilitate quality care and safety for clients. I. Respect the practices, competencies, roles, and responsibilities of their own and other professions to promote a collaborative environment reflective of interprofessional teams.
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collaborative;
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J. Use ____ ______ and internal and alternative dispute resolution resources as needed to resolve organizational and interpersonal conflicts, as well as perceived institutional ethics violations. K. Abide by policies, procedures, and protocols when serving or acting on behalf of a professional organization or employer to fully and accurately represent the organization’s official and authorized positions.
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conflict resolution;
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L. Refrain from actions that reduce the public’s trust in occupational therapy. M. Self-identify when _____, _____, OR _____ values preclude, or are anticipated to negatively affect, the professional relationship or provision of services, while adhering to organizational policies when requesting an exemption from service to an individual or group on the basis of conflict of conscience. –end of Fidelity–
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personal; cultural; or religious