NXLEX-RN Exam Cram (.pdf sheet included!)

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Sodium
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135-145
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Potassium
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3.5-5.0
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Calcium
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8.5-10.9
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Chloride
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95-105
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Magnesium
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1.5-2.5
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Phosphorus
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2.5-4.5
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RBC
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4.5-5.0 million
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WBC
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5,000-10,000
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Platelets
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150,000-400,000
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Hgb Female
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12-16
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Hgb Male
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14-18
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HCO3
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22-26
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PCO2
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35-45
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PaO2
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80-100%
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SaO2
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>95%
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Glucose
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70-110
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Specific Gravity
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1.010-1.030 (remember “high is dry”)
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BUN
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7-22
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serum creatinine
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0.6-1.35 (<2 in older adults is OK)
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LDH
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100-190
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CPK
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21-232
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Uric Acid
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3.5-7.5
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Triglycerides
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40-50
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total cholesterol
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130-200
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bilirubin
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<1
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Protein
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6.2-8.1
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Albumin
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3.4-5.0
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digoxin (used w/ diuretic and an ACE most of the time. never admin if apical pulse <60)
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0.5-2.0
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lithium (bipolar)
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0.8-1.5
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phenytoin (anticonvulsant)
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10-20
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theophylline (used in tx of COPD/Asthma)
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10-20
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heart rate (adult)
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80-100
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resp rate (adult)
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12-20
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BP (adult)
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110/60-120/90
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Temp (F)
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98.6
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Celsius to Fahrenheit
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multiply by 1.8 then add 32
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Fahrenheit to Celsius
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subtract 32 then divide by 1.8
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Heart Rate on EKG Monitor
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(x = all the small boxes between two R waves) 1500 divided by x = HR (OR count all R waves present on a 6 second strip)
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Fetal Heart Rate
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120-160 (variability = 6-10 BPM)
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Contractions
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normal frequency 2-5 minutes apart; normal duration <90 sec; intensity <100 mm/hg
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amniotic fluid
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500-1200 ml (nitrozine urine-litmus paper green; amniotic fluid-litmus paper blue)
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APGAR scoring
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A= appearance, P= pulses, G= grimace, A= activity, R= reflexes (Done at 1 and 5min with a score of 0 for absent, 1 for decreased, and 2 for strongly positive)
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AVA
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umbilical cord has two arteries and one vein (arteries carry deoxygenated blood and veins carry oxygenated blood)
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Folic Acid
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Folic Acid = Vitamin B9 (hint = B stands for Brain as it decreases the incidence of neural tube defects; the client should be taking B9 three months prior to getting pregnant)
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Decelerations
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abnormal findings on the fetal monitoring strip
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Early Decelerations
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*safe* Begin prior to peak of the contraction and end by the end of it. they are caused by head compression. no need for intervention if variability is within normal range (6-10) and the FHR is within normal range.
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Variable Decelerations
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noted as V-shaped on strip. Caused by cord compresion. Intervention is to change mother’s position; if pitocin is infusing, stop infusion, apply oxygen, and increase rate of IV fluids. Contact MD is problem persists.
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Late Decels
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Uteroplacental Insufficiency *emergent* Intervention is to position mother on left side, stop pitocin infusion, apply oxygen, increase IV fluids, and contact MD if problem persists.
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TORCHS syndrome in the neonate
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combination of diseases including toxoplasmosis, rubella (german measles), cytomegalovirus, herpes, and syphyllis. Pregnant RNs should not be assigned to care for clients with toxoplasmosis or cytomegalovirus.
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STOP
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treatment for maternal hypotension after epidural anesthesia 1. Stop pitocin (if infusing) 2. turn client on left side 3. admin O2 4. if hypovolemia present, push IV fluids
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KVO
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(keep vein open rate) 20ml/hr
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coumadin (sodium warfarin) PT
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10-12 sec (control)
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warfarin antidote
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vitamin k
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heparin PTT
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30-45 sec (control)
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heparin antidote
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protamine sulfate
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therapeutic bleeding time
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1.5-2 times the control
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Early Decels
Early Decels
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Variable Decels
Variable Decels
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Late Decelerations
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heart sounds (mnemonic = “All Physicians Earn Too Muchmoney” OR APes Eat Tribal Men”
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TB… PPD is positive if area of induration is: >5 mm in an immunocompromised patient >10 mm in a normal patient >15 mm in a patient who lives in an area where TB is very rare.
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TB test
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ROME
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respiratory opposite metabolic equal
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pH down, CO2 up, HCO3 up =
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respiratory acidosis
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pH down, CO2 down, and HCO3 down =
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metabolic acidosis (diarrhea *metabolic ASSidosis*)
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pH up, CO2 down, and HCO3 down =
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respiratory alkalosis
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pH up, CO2 up, HCO3 up =
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metabolic alkalosis (vomiting) (also…alKaLOsis = K is low)
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Addison’s
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Everything is LOW but K is high (Increase sodium intake to tx hyponatremia; lifelong corticoid therapy will be needed)
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Cushing’s
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Everything is HIGH but K is low (tx = restriction of sodium; observe for signs of infection)
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Treatment for spider bites/bleeding
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RICE (rest, ice, compression, elevation of extremity)
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Treatment for Sickle Cell Crisis
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HHOP (heat, hydration, oxygen, pain meds)
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Five Ps of fractures and compartment syndrome
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Pain, Pallor, Pulselessness, Parasthesia, Polar (cold)
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Hip Fractures
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Hip Fractures commonly hemorrhage while femur fractures are at risk for fat emboli
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Profile of gallbladder disease
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fair, fat, forty, five pregnancies, flatulent
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Angiotensin Converting Agents
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-pril drugs
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Beta Blockers
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-olol drugs
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anti-infectives
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-micin, -mycin
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benzos
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-azine
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glucocorticoids
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-one
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antivirals
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-vir
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lipid lowering drugs
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-statin
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ARBs
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-artan
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Cox2 enxyme blockers
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-coxib
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histamine 2 antagonist drugs
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-ine (ex = cimetidine) (block release of histamine)
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proton pump inhibitors
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-azole
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anticoagulants
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-in sodium (ex= heparin sodium) (prevent clot formation)
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miotics
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constrict pupils
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mydriatics
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dilate pupils
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naegele’s rule
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add 7 days to first day of LMP, subtract 3 months, and add 1 year
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Fetal Heart Tones
Fetal Heart Tones
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Renal Diet
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high calorie, high carb, low protein, low potassium, low sodium, and fluid restriction to intake = output +500ml
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Gout Diet
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low purine; omit poultry (medications for acute episodes = colchinine; maintenence med = zyloprim)
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Heart Healthy Diet
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low fat (less than 30% of calories should be from fat)
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airborne precautions
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MTV (measles, TB, varicella)
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ventilator alarms
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HOLD (High pressure alarm = Obstruction; increased secretions, kink in tubing, pt coughing/gagging/biting) (Low Pressure alarm = Disconnection; or leak in airway cuff)
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Hyperglycemia
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hot and dry = sugar is high
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Hypoglycemia
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cold and clammy need some candy
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Jewish diet
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no dairy and meat together; no shellfish, kosher diet
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1 oz =
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30ml
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1 cup =
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8oz
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1 gram=
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1000mg
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1 kg=
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2.2 lbs
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1lb=
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16oz
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drawing up insulin
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Nicole Richie RN (air into NPH, air into Regular, draw up Regular, Draw up NPH)
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MAOIs
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-ar- (PANAMA = parnate, nardil, marplan) (foods with tyramin contraindicated)
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salt substitutues
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contain potassium and are contraindicated with use of many medications such as ACE drugs
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Are you going to pass the nclex-rn?
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OBV.

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