Nutrition

A nurse is educating a client who is taking iron supplements about foods which aid in iron absorption. Which of the following food choices indicates an understanding of the teaching?
A. Baked Potato
B. Orange juice
C. Milk
D. Green beans
B. Vitamin C aids in the absorption of iron, and orange juice is a good source of vitamin C.
A nurse is discussing foods that are high in vitamin D with a client who is unable to be out in the sunlight. Which of the following should be included in the teaching?
A. Tacos and rice
B. Hamburgers and fried potatoes
C. Ham and Brussels sprouts
D. Eggs and fortified milk
D. Sunlight helps synthesize vitamin D, so clients need yolks and fortified milk, which are both good sources of vitamin D.
A nurse is caring for a client who is prescribed warfarin (Coumadin). Which of the following food choices should the nurse advise the client to limit?
A. Orange juice
B. Broccoli
C. Ice cream
D. Chicken
B. Broccoli is a green leafy vegetable and is a good source of vitamin K. The client should avoid excess vitamin K because it has a negative response to warfarin effects.
A nurse is conducting a nutritional class on minerals and electrolytes. Which of the following food sources should be included when discussing magnesium?
A. Nuts
B. Tomatoes
C. Canned soup
D. Yogurt
A. Nuts are a good source of magnesium and should be included in the teaching. Tomatoes are a good source of potassium. Canned soup contains sodium. Yogurt is a good source of calcium.
A nurse is discussing health problems associated with nutrient deficiencies. Which of the following conditions is associated with a deficiency of vitamin C?
A. Dysrhythmias
B. Scurvy
C. Pernicious anemia
D. Megaloblastic anemia
B. Scurvy is associated with a vitamin C deficiency. Dysrhythmias are associated with potassium deficiency. Pernicous anemia is associated a deficiency of vitamin B12. Megaloblastic anemia is associated with a deficiency of folate.
A nurse is caring for a client who has hypothyroidsim. Which of the following clinical findings are associated with this disorder?
A. Decreased metabolic demand
B. Weight loss
C. Increased heart rate
D. Diarrhea
A. Hypothyroidsm causes a decreased metabolic demand, weight gain, bradycardia, constipation.
A nurse is reviewing prescribed medications for a newly admitted client. Which of the following medications decreases the body’s rate of metabolism?
A. Prednisone (Deltasone)
B. Levothyroxine (Synthroid)
C. Amitriptyline (Elavil)
D. Somatropin (Genotropin)
C. Amitriptyline is a tricyclic antidepressant used for treating depression and decreases the body’s rate of metabolism. Prendisone is a glucocorticoid used for suppressing the immune system and inflammation; this medication increases the body’s rate of metabolism. Levothyroxine is used for the treatment of hypothyroidsim and increases the body’s rate of metabolism. Somatropin is used as a growth hormone and increases the body’s rate of metabolism.
A charge nurse is conducting a nutyritional class for a group of newly licensed nurses regarding basal metabolic rate (BMR). The charge nurse should inform the class that which of the following increases BMR? (Select all that apply).
A. Lactation
B. Prolonged stress
C. Malnutrition
D. Puberty
E. Exposure to extreme Cold
A, B, D, E. Lactation, Prolonged stress, Puberty and exposure to extreme cold increases BMR. Malnutrition decreases BMR.
A nurse is caring for a client who is immobilized because of bilateral femur and tibia fractures. Which of the following are clinical signs of negative nitrogen balance? (Select all that apply).
A. decreased muscle tissue
B. Impaired organ function
C. Increased susceptibility to infection
D. Increased metabolism
E. Decreased protein catabolism
A, B, C, D. Decreased muscle tissue, Impaired organ function, Increased susceptibility to infection, Increased metabolism are clinical signs of negative nitrogen balance. Protein catabolism increases during acute stress.
A nurse in a nutritional clinic is calculating body mass index (BMI) for several clients. Which of the following BMI represents an overweight client?
A. 24
B. 30
C. 27
D. 32
C. Overwight is defined as an increased body weight in relation to height, indicated by a BMI of 25 to 29.9. A Normal/healthy weight is indicated by a BMI of 18.5 to 24.9. A BMI greater than or equal to 30 indicates obesity which is an excess amount of body fat.
A nurse is caring for a client on an orthopedic unit who sustained trauma in a motor-vehicle crash. Which of the following laboratory values indicates moderate protein deficiency?
A. Serum albumin 3.5 g/dL
B. Serum prealbumin 5 mg/dL
C. Serum albumin 4.5 g/dL
D. Serum preablumin 10 mg/dL
B. A serum prealbumin level of 5 mg/dL is indicative of a moderate depletion of protein. The serum prealbumin test, also known as thyroxin-binding protein, is the most sensitive to acute changes in protein nutrition. Serum albumin levels reflect slow changes in serum protein levels, not acute serum protein change; a serum albumin of 3.5 g/dL or 4.5 g/dL is within normal range. A serum prealbumin of 10 mg/dL is indicative of a mild depletion of protein.
A nurse is performing a nutritional assessment on a client. Which of the following clinical findings are suggestive of malnutrition? (Select all that apply.)
A. Poor wound healing
B. Dry hair
C. Blood pressure 130/80 mm Hg
D. Weak hand grips
E. Impaired coordination
A, B, D, E. Poor wound healing, dry hair, weak hand grips, impaired coordination describe changes reflective of malnutrition.
A nurse is teaching a nutritional class to a group of women. Which of the following should the nurse include as risk factors for developing osteoporosis? (Select all that apply.)
A. Inactivity
B. Familiar history
C. Obesity
D. Hyperlipidemia
E. Cigarette Smoking
A, B, E. There is as an increased risk for osteoporosis due to inactivity; weight bearing exercises should be discussed as primary prevention measures. Osteoporosis runs in families. Cigarette smoking may increase the incidence of osteoporosis. Weight loss can cause a decreased intake of dietary calcium and vitamin D, leading to the development of osteoporosis. Hyperlipidemia is not a risk factor for the development of osteoporosis in women.
A nurse is teaching a client measures for health bones. Which of the following statements by the client requires additional teaching?
A. I will eat foods high in calcium
B. I will increase my fluid intake
C. I should participate in weight bearing exercises
D. I should get my vitamin D from the sunlight.
B. Increasing fluid intact does not promote healthy bones; additional client teaching is indicated. Calcium is necessary for healthy bone formation. Weight bearing physical activity is essential to decrease the risk of osteoporosis. Vitamin D is necessary for calcium absorption and health bone formation.
A nurse is conducting a nutritional class to a group of newly licensed nurses. Which of the following should be included in the teaching?
A. Limit saturated fat to 10% of total caloric intake
B. Good bowel function requires 35 g/day of fiber for women
C. Limit cholesterol consumption to 400 mg/day
D. Normal functioning cardiac systems depends on B-complex vitamins.
A. Saturated fat should be limited to 10% of total caloric intake. Good bowel function requires 25 g/day of fiber for women and 38 g/day for men. Cholesterol consumption should be limited to 300 mg/day. Normal functioning nervous system depends on B-complex vitamins
A nurse is discussing essential nutrients for normal functioning of the nervous system. Which of the following should be included in the teaching? (Select all that apply)
A. Calcium
B. Thiamin
C. Vitamin B6
D. Sodium
E. Phosphorus
A, B, C, D, Calcium is an important regulator of nerve responses. Normal functioning of the nervous system depends on adequate levels of the B-complex vitamins, especially thiamin, niacin, and vitamins B6 and B12. Sodium is an important regulator of nerve responses. Phosphorus is not important for normal functioning of the nervous system.
A school nurse is teaching a group of students how to read food labels. Which of the following should be included in the teaching? (Select all that apply.)
A. Total carbohydreates
B. Total Fat
C. Calories
D. Magnesium
E. Dietary fiber
A, B, C, E. The FDA requires certain information be included with packaged foods and beverages; total carbohydrates are included on food labels. Food labels must include single serving size, number of servings in the package, percent of daily values, and the amount of each nutrient in one serving; Total fat is included on food labels. Calories are included on food labels. Dietary fiber is included on food labels. Magnesium is not included on food labels.
A nurse is providing teaching for a client who has a new prescription for warfarin (Coumadin). Which of the following foods should the nurse instruct the client to avoid?
A. Spinach
B. Grapefruit
C. Peanuts
D. Milk
A. Spinach is a green leafy vegetable that is high in vitamin K and decreases the anticoagulant effects of warfarin. Grapefruit does not contain vitamin K but is high in vitamin C, which boosts the immune system. Peanuts do not contain vitamin K but are high in protein, which boots the immune system. Milk does not contain vitamin K but is high in calcium, which promotes bone formation.
A nurse is providing teachign to a client who has a new prescription for digoxin (Lanoxin). Which of the following food choices should be limited while taking this medication? (Select all that apply.)
A. Bananas
B. Celery
C. Baked potatoes
D. Tuna
E. Apples
A, C Bananas and baked potatoes are high in potassium; digoxin lowers serum potassium levels and foods containing potassium should be encouraged. Celery does not contain potassium and does not need to be limited while taking digoxin. Tuna and apples are low in potassium and do not need to be limited while taking digoxin.
A nurse is caring for a client who has a prescription for levodopa (Sinemet). Which of the following should the client lmiit in her diet.
D. Vitamin B6 should be limited while taking levodopa; vitamin B6 increases the metabolism of levodopa, which decreases the the therapeutic effects of this medication. Tyramine should be limited for a client who is taking a monoamine oxidase inhibitor, which increase blood pressure. Vitamin C should be limited for a client taking proton pump inhibitors, which can affect the efficacy of this medication. Calcium should not be limited unless the client is allergic to foods containing calcium.
A nurse is providing teaching to a client about increasing calcium in the diet. Which of the following is an ethnocentric approach to selecting food choices on the client’s menu to meet this need?
A. Asking the client what he likes to eat
B. Notifying the dietician to complete the menu
C. Recommending one’s own favorite foods
D. Asking the cleint’s family to fill out the menu.
C. Recommending one’s own favorite foods is an example of ethnocentrism, which is the belief that one’s own cultural practices are the only correct behaviors/beliefs. All the other options are not an example of an ethnocentric approach
A nurse is caring for an Asian client who has hypertension. Which of the traditional Asian dietary patterns places the client at risk for this condtion?
A. Incorporation of plant based foods in the diet
B. Consumption of raw fruits
C. Preparation of foods using sodium
D. A focus on shellfish in the diet
C. The preparation of foods using sodium places the client at risk for hypertension; many spices in the asian diet contain sodium or it is used as a preservative; sodium consumption should be in moderation. Plant based foods are a good source of nutrition and should be encouraged. The consumption of raw fruits is a good nutritional consideration related to increased vitamin intake and should be encouraged. Consumption of shellfish is a good source of protein and vitamins and should be encouraged.
A nurse educator is teaching a class on culture and food to a group of newly hired nurses. Which of the following statements by the nurse indicates a need for clarification?
A. Clients who practice Roman Catholicism do not drink caffeinated beverages.
B. By working closely with nutrition services, nurses can meet the client’s prescribed diet while promoting their religious practices.
C. Clients who follow the teachings of Islam eat only the protein of animals that are slaughtered under strict guidelines.
D. Because not all individuals in one country practice the same religion, a nurse should not consider ethnicity alone in planning for client care.
A. This is not a practice of Roman Catholics. Caffeinated beverages are not consumed by Mormons and Muslims because caffeine is a stimulant; this statemet requires clarification. All other statements are appropriate.
A nurse is completing an assessment of a client who is a first generation immigrant to the U.S. Which of the following questions should the nurse consider asking to understand the client’s culture-based nutrition habits?
A. What type of afternoon snacks do you consume
B. What type of meal do you prepare for a holiday
C. What time of day do you eat breakfast
D. What cooking utensils are used in food preparation
B. Traditional meals are often consumed as part of the client’s dinner or at symbolic events, such as holidays and weddings; this question helps the nurse understand culture-based nutrition habits. Asking what type of afternoon snacks do you consume considers acculturation patterns, not the client’s cultural habits. The other two options do not incorporate culture based dietary habits.
A community nurse is providing education to a group of adult clients regarding exercise. Which of the following statements by a client indicates a need for additional teaching?
A. Regular exercise will improve my bone density
B. Regular exercise can improve my cardiovascular health
C. Regular exercise will regulate my menstrual cycle.
D. Regular exercise can relieve my depression.
C Regular exercise does not regulate the menstrual cycle; this statement requires additional teaching. All the other statements are appropriate.
A nurse is an assisted living facility is caring for an older adult client. The nurse should recognize that older adults have decreased absorption of which of the following? (Select all that apply.)
A. Calcium
B. Chloride
C. Folic Acid
D. Magnesium
E. Phosphorus
A, C. Older adults have decreased cellular function and reduced body reserves, leading to decreased absorption of B12, folic acid and calcium. Older adults do not have decreased absorption of chloride, magnesium or phosphorus.
A nurse is an antepartum clinic is discussing with a newly licensed nurse poor nutrition and risk for pregnant adolescent clients. Which of the following statements by the newly licensed nurse requires additional teaching?
A. Pregnant adolescents are at risk for having a placenta previa
B. Pregnant adolescents are at risk for developing gestational diabetes
C. Pregnant adolescents are at risk for having a low birth weight baby.
D. Pregnant adolescents are at risk for developing pregnancy induced hypertension
A. Poor nutritional status does not place the adolescent client at risk for having a placenta previa; this statement requires additional teaching. Inconsistent eating and poor food choices place the adolescent at risk for anemia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, gestational diabetes, premature labor, spontaneous abortion and delivery of a newborn of low birth weight.
A nurse is discussing clinical findings of dehydration in an infant with a newly licensed nurse. Which of the following statements by the newly licensed nurse requires additional teaching?
A. The infant may appear listless
B. The infant will have decreased urinary output
C. The infant will have bulging fontanels
D. The infant will have dry mucous membranes
C. Bulging fontanels are a clinical finding associated with increased intracranial pressure; this statement by the newly licensed nurse requires additional teaching. Listlessness, decreased urinary output, decreased tears, and dry mucous membranes are clinical findings associated with dehydration.
A nurse is assessing a 6 month old infant who has a lactose intolerance. Which of the following clinical findings are associated with this diagnosis? (Select all that apply).
A. Abdominal distention
B. Flatus
C. Hypoactive bowel sounds
D. Occasional diarrhea
E. Visible peristalsis
A, B, D. Abdominal distention, Flatus, and occasional diarrhea are clinical finding associated with a lactose intolerance. Hypoactive bowel sounds or visible peristalsis is not associated with a lactose intolerance.
A nurse is providing nutritional education to the parents of a toddler. Which of the following statements by the parents requires additional teaching?
A. I should give my child finger foods
B. I should limit juice to 8 ounces daily
C. My child’s serving size should be 1 tablespoon for each year of age.
D. My child should gain about 5 pounds this year.
B. Juice should be limited to 4 to 6 oz/day; this statement by the parents requires additional teaching. Toddlers prefer finger foods because their increasing autonomy. Food serving size is 1 tbsp for each year of age. Toddlers generally grow 2 to 3 inches in height and gain approximately 5 lb annually.
A nurse is teaching the parents of a toddler about appropriate snack foods. Which of the following should be included in the teaching? (Select all that apply).
A. Graham crackers
B. Apple slices
C. Peeled raisins
D. Jelly beans
E. Cheese cubes
A, B, E. Graham crackers, apple slices and cheese cubes are appropriate snack foods for toddlers. The others are choking hazards.
A nurse is teaching a nutritional class for a group of pregnant clients. Which of the following should be included in the teaching regarding iron-rich foods? (Select all that apply.
A. Beans
B. Fish
C. Diary products
D. Lean red meats
E. Apples
A, B, C, D. Beans, Fish, Diary products, Lean red meats are iron-rich food sources.
A school nurse is conducting a nutrition course to a group of teens. Which of the following should be included as healthy snack choices? (Select all that apply.)
A. Carrot sticks with low fat dip
B. Cheese and crackers
C. Unbuttered popcorn
D. Frozen low fat yogurt
E. Hot dog
A, B, C, D. Only hot dogs are not a healthy choice because they are high in sodium and fat.
A nurse is reviewing prescribed medications for an older adult client. Which of the following medications could result in sodium and potassium loss?
A. Hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDIURIL)
B. Catopril (Capoten)
C. Guaifenesin (Anti-Tuss)
D. Cephalexing (Keflex)
A. Hydrochlorothiazide is a diuretic and can cause sodium and potassium loss. Captopril is an antihypertensive and does not cause decreased sodium and potassium levels. Guaifenesin is an expectorant and does not cause decreased sodium and potassium levels. Cephalexin is a first generation cephalosporin and does not cause decrease sodium or potassium levels.
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