NEU GenChem 9/21-9/24 Toher

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Define significant figures (aka sig figs)
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Sig figs are used to determine which numbers in a measurement or calculation using measurement “count” or need to be reported for accuracy.

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How many rules for sig figs are there and what are they?
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There are 5 rules regarding sig figs. They are: 1: All non-zero digits are sig. 2: Zeros between non-zeros are significant. 3: Zeros which preceed non-zero digits are not significant. 4: Zeros at the end of a number with a decimal place anywhere in the number are significant. 5: Zeros at the end of of a number not specifically mentioned in scientific notation are not significant.

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Are there any exceptions to the rules of sig figs and if so, what are they?
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There is one exception which applies to rule #5. The base of the exception states that if there is a decimal place (such as 10.0) then both zeros are significant since the 0 typically would denote a rounded number.

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What are the rules for addition/subtraction of significant figures?
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Sum/difference is reported to the number of decimal places as the measurement with the fewest decimal places. In the case of 15.8 – 14.73 3 sig figs would be used.
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What is the rule for reporting sig figs in regards to multiplication/division?
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Like the addition/subtraction rule you simply take the least number of decimal places reported. Again, with a number of 3 sig figs and another of 4 the reported answer would have 3 sig figs.

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Define accuracy
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Accuracy is defined as how close to the actual value a measurement is.

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Define precision
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Precision is defined as how close together a set of measurements is.

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Define an atomic bond
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An atomic bond is defined as the “glue” which is the attraction force which holds atoms together.

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Define a covalent bond
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A covalent bond is defined as a bond in which electrons are shared between atoms (always a non-metal to another non-metal).

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Define an ionic bond
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An ionic bond is defined as oppositely charged particles Coulombically attracted which is always between a metal and a non-metal (that is, always between a cation and an anion).
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What are columns of the periodic table called?
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They’re called groups or families.

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What do metals tend to form?
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Metals tend to form cations by electron loss (oxidation).
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What to non-metals typically form?
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Non-metals tend to form anions by electron gain (reduction).
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In nomenclature, what does the prefix “per” denote?
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It means that the highest amount of oxygen possible is present.
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What does the prefix “hypo-” denote?
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It indicates that the lowest amount of oxygen possible is present.
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What is so special about CrAsPS?
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There is no per-ates and not hypo-ites. For example, PO4-3 becomes simply phosphate and PO3-3 becomes phosphite.

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If a compound ends in “-ide”, what will its acidic name become?
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It will become hydro-ic acid (ex: hydrochloric acid).
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Hydrogen
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H+
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Lithium
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Li+
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Sodium
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Na+
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Potassium
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K+
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Ammonium
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NH4+
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Silver
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Ag+
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Copper(I)
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Cu+
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Mercury(I)
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Hg2+2
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Magnesium
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Mg+2
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Calcium
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Ca+2
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Strontium
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Sr+2
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Barium
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Ba+2
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Zinc
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Zn+2
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Cadmium
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Cd+2
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Copper(II)
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Cu+2
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Mercury(II)
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Hg+2
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Chromium(II)
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Cr+2
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Manganese(II)
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Mn+2
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Iron(II)
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Fe+2
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Cobalt(II)
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Co+2
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Nickel(II)
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Ni+2
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Tin(II)
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Sn+2
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Lead
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Pb+2
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Aluminum
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Al+3
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Chromium
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Cr+3
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Manganese
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Mn+3
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Iron(III)
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Fe+3
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Cobalt(III)
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Co+3
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Nickel(III)
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Ni+3
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Tin(IV)
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Sn+4
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Lead(IV)
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Pb+4
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Peroxide
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O2-2
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Hydride
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H-
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Fluoride
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F-
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Chloride
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Cl-
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Bromide
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Br-
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Iodide
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I-
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Hydroxide
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OH-
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Hydrogen carbonate
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HCO3
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Hydrogen sulfate
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HSO4
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Hydrogen sulfite
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HSO3
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Thiocyanate
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SCN-
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Cyanide
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CN-
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Acetate
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CH3COO- or C2H3O2
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Nitrate
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NO3
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Nitrite
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NO2
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Permanganate
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MnO4
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Perchlorate
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ClO4
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Chlorate
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ClO3
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Chlorite
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ClO2
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Hypochlorite
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ClO-
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Oxide
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O-2
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Sulfide
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S-2
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Selenide
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Se-2
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Telluride
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Te-2
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Carbonate
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CO3-2
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Sulfate
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SO4-2
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Thiosulfate
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S2O3-2
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Oxalate
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C2O4-2
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Chromate
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CrO4-2
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Dichromate
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Cr2O7-2
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Nitride
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N-3
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Phosphide
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P-3
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Arsenide
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As-3
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Carbide
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C-4
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Phosphate
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PO4-3
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Phosphite
answer

PO3-3

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