# NEU GenChem 9/21-9/24 Toher

question

 Define significant figures (aka sig figs)

 Sig figs are used to determine which numbers in a measurement or calculation using measurement “count” or need to be reported for accuracy.
question

 How many rules for sig figs are there and what are they?

 There are 5 rules regarding sig figs. They are: 1: All non-zero digits are sig. 2: Zeros between non-zeros are significant. 3: Zeros which preceed non-zero digits are not significant. 4: Zeros at the end of a number with a decimal place anywhere in the number are significant. 5: Zeros at the end of of a number not specifically mentioned in scientific notation are not significant.
question

 Are there any exceptions to the rules of sig figs and if so, what are they?

 There is one exception which applies to rule #5. The base of the exception states that if there is a decimal place (such as 10.0) then both zeros are significant since the 0 typically would denote a rounded number.
question

 What are the rules for addition/subtraction of significant figures?

 Sum/difference is reported to the number of decimal places as the measurement with the fewest decimal places. In the case of 15.8 – 14.73 3 sig figs would be used.
question

 What is the rule for reporting sig figs in regards to multiplication/division?

 Like the addition/subtraction rule you simply take the least number of decimal places reported. Again, with a number of 3 sig figs and another of 4 the reported answer would have 3 sig figs.
question

 Define accuracy

 Accuracy is defined as how close to the actual value a measurement is.
question

 Define precision

 Precision is defined as how close together a set of measurements is.
question

 Define an atomic bond

 An atomic bond is defined as the “glue” which is the attraction force which holds atoms together.
question

 Define a covalent bond

 A covalent bond is defined as a bond in which electrons are shared between atoms (always a non-metal to another non-metal).
question

 Define an ionic bond

 An ionic bond is defined as oppositely charged particles Coulombically attracted which is always between a metal and a non-metal (that is, always between a cation and an anion).
question

 What are columns of the periodic table called?

 They’re called groups or families.
question

 What do metals tend to form?

 Metals tend to form cations by electron loss (oxidation).
question

 What to non-metals typically form?

 Non-metals tend to form anions by electron gain (reduction).
question

 In nomenclature, what does the prefix “per” denote?

 It means that the highest amount of oxygen possible is present.
question

 What does the prefix “hypo-” denote?

 It indicates that the lowest amount of oxygen possible is present.
question

 What is so special about CrAsPS?

 There is no per-ates and not hypo-ites. For example, PO4-3 becomes simply phosphate and PO3-3 becomes phosphite.
question

 If a compound ends in “-ide”, what will its acidic name become?

 It will become hydro-ic acid (ex: hydrochloric acid).
question

 Hydrogen

 H+
question

 Lithium

 Li+
question

 Sodium

 Na+
question

 Potassium

 K+
question

 Ammonium

 NH4+
question

 Silver

 Ag+
question

 Copper(I)

 Cu+
question

 Mercury(I)

 Hg2+2
question

 Magnesium

 Mg+2
question

 Calcium

 Ca+2
question

 Strontium

 Sr+2
question

 Barium

 Ba+2
question

 Zinc

 Zn+2
question

 Cd+2
question

 Copper(II)

 Cu+2
question

 Mercury(II)

 Hg+2
question

 Chromium(II)

 Cr+2
question

 Manganese(II)

 Mn+2
question

 Iron(II)

 Fe+2
question

 Cobalt(II)

 Co+2
question

 Nickel(II)

 Ni+2
question

 Tin(II)

 Sn+2
question

 Pb+2
question

 Aluminum

 Al+3
question

 Chromium

 Cr+3
question

 Manganese

 Mn+3
question

 Iron(III)

 Fe+3
question

 Cobalt(III)

 Co+3
question

 Nickel(III)

 Ni+3
question

 Tin(IV)

 Sn+4
question

 Pb+4
question

 Peroxide

 O2-2
question

 Hydride

 H-
question

 Fluoride

 F-
question

 Chloride

 Cl-
question

 Bromide

 Br-
question

 Iodide

 I-
question

 Hydroxide

 OH-
question

 Hydrogen carbonate

 HCO3–
question

 Hydrogen sulfate

 HSO4–
question

 Hydrogen sulfite

 HSO3–
question

 Thiocyanate

 SCN-
question

 Cyanide

 CN-
question

 Acetate

 CH3COO- or C2H3O2–
question

 Nitrate

 NO3–
question

 Nitrite

 NO2–
question

 Permanganate

 MnO4–
question

 Perchlorate

 ClO4–
question

 Chlorate

 ClO3–
question

 Chlorite

 ClO2–
question

 Hypochlorite

 ClO-
question

 Oxide

 O-2
question

 Sulfide

 S-2
question

 Selenide

 Se-2
question

 Telluride

 Te-2
question

 Carbonate

 CO3-2
question

 Sulfate

 SO4-2
question

 Thiosulfate

 S2O3-2
question

 Oxalate

 C2O4-2
question

 Chromate

 CrO4-2
question

 Dichromate

 Cr2O7-2
question

 Nitride

 N-3
question

 Phosphide

 P-3
question

 Arsenide

 As-3
question

 Carbide

 C-4
question

 Phosphate