NEU GenChem 9/21-9/24 Toher

Define significant figures (aka sig figs)

Sig figs are used to determine which numbers in a measurement or calculation using measurement “count” or need to be reported for accuracy.

How many rules for sig figs are there and what are they?

There are 5 rules regarding sig figs. They are: 1: All non-zero digits are sig. 2: Zeros between non-zeros are significant. 3: Zeros which preceed non-zero digits are not significant. 4: Zeros at the end of a number with a decimal place anywhere in the number are significant. 5: Zeros at the end of of a number not specifically mentioned in scientific notation are not significant.

Are there any exceptions to the rules of sig figs and if so, what are they?

There is one exception which applies to rule #5. The base of the exception states that if there is a decimal place (such as 10.0) then both zeros are significant since the 0 typically would denote a rounded number.

What are the rules for addition/subtraction of significant figures?
Sum/difference is reported to the number of decimal places as the measurement with the fewest decimal places. In the case of 15.8 – 14.73 3 sig figs would be used.
What is the rule for reporting sig figs in regards to multiplication/division?

Like the addition/subtraction rule you simply take the least number of decimal places reported. Again, with a number of 3 sig figs and another of 4 the reported answer would have 3 sig figs.

Define accuracy

Accuracy is defined as how close to the actual value a measurement is.

Define precision

Precision is defined as how close together a set of measurements is.

Define an atomic bond

An atomic bond is defined as the “glue” which is the attraction force which holds atoms together.

Define a covalent bond

A covalent bond is defined as a bond in which electrons are shared between atoms (always a non-metal to another non-metal).

Define an ionic bond
An ionic bond is defined as oppositely charged particles Coulombically attracted which is always between a metal and a non-metal (that is, always between a cation and an anion).
What are columns of the periodic table called?

They’re called groups or families.

What do metals tend to form?
Metals tend to form cations by electron loss (oxidation).
What to non-metals typically form?
Non-metals tend to form anions by electron gain (reduction).
In nomenclature, what does the prefix “per” denote?
It means that the highest amount of oxygen possible is present.
What does the prefix “hypo-” denote?
It indicates that the lowest amount of oxygen possible is present.
What is so special about CrAsPS?

There is no per-ates and not hypo-ites. For example, PO4-3 becomes simply phosphate and PO3-3 becomes phosphite.

If a compound ends in “-ide”, what will its acidic name become?
It will become hydro-ic acid (ex: hydrochloric acid).
Hydrogen
H+
Lithium
Li+
Sodium
Na+
Potassium
K+
Ammonium
NH4+
Silver
Ag+
Copper(I)
Cu+
Mercury(I)
Hg2+2
Magnesium
Mg+2
Calcium
Ca+2
Strontium
Sr+2
Barium
Ba+2
Zinc
Zn+2
Cadmium
Cd+2
Copper(II)
Cu+2
Mercury(II)
Hg+2
Chromium(II)
Cr+2
Manganese(II)
Mn+2
Iron(II)
Fe+2
Cobalt(II)
Co+2
Nickel(II)
Ni+2
Tin(II)
Sn+2
Lead
Pb+2
Aluminum
Al+3
Chromium
Cr+3
Manganese
Mn+3
Iron(III)
Fe+3
Cobalt(III)
Co+3
Nickel(III)
Ni+3
Tin(IV)
Sn+4
Lead(IV)
Pb+4
Peroxide
O2-2
Hydride
H-
Fluoride
F-
Chloride
Cl-
Bromide
Br-
Iodide
I-
Hydroxide
OH-
Hydrogen carbonate
HCO3
Hydrogen sulfate
HSO4
Hydrogen sulfite
HSO3
Thiocyanate
SCN-
Cyanide
CN-
Acetate
CH3COO- or C2H3O2
Nitrate
NO3
Nitrite
NO2
Permanganate
MnO4
Perchlorate
ClO4
Chlorate
ClO3
Chlorite
ClO2
Hypochlorite
ClO-
Oxide
O-2
Sulfide
S-2
Selenide
Se-2
Telluride
Te-2
Carbonate
CO3-2
Sulfate
SO4-2
Thiosulfate
S2O3-2
Oxalate
C2O4-2
Chromate
CrO4-2
Dichromate
Cr2O7-2
Nitride
N-3
Phosphide
P-3
Arsenide
As-3
Carbide
C-4
Phosphate
PO4-3
Phosphite
PO3-3
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