music final quiz

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expressionism
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an artistic movement in germany, get to inner world of psychology, beginning thread of \”modernism\” that emerged before WWI
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neo-nationalist
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digging deeper into the roots of national identity to the point of abstraction
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jazz and blues
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combination of african and european influences to create distinctly american music; derived from slave songs like work songs, ring shouts, spirituals
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blue notes
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technique of bending pitch in an expressive way
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chord changes
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standard harmonic progression with blues
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mestizo realism
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modern nationalist movement that drew from traditional cultural elements of mexico
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neoclassicism
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detached, objective, less emotional, absolute music, revival of older forms
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modern nationalism
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scientific approach to folk music
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ethnomusicology
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this period saw development of new discipline that sought to study music in its cultural and global context
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postmodernism
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no single stream or trend, can consist of a rejection or an expansion of modernist tendencies; multiple perspectives occur simultaneously; break-down of traditional norms; skepticism toward culture, literature, art, politics
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prepared piano
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various foreign substances are inserted at crucial points in strings of piano
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chance/aleotoric music
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musical compositions that allow for a great range of compositional freedom within set of parameters
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serialism
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ordering 12 chromatic tones in western music in a particular order, matrix of possible permutations of that order
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total serialism
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Rhythms, dynamics, and other musical parameters could be manipulated in a way similar to pitch; Composers (particularly in the American Avant-Garde) began to experiment in the ordering of music beyond just pitch
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nonretrogradable rhythms
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rhythmic patterns that can be played the same forwards and backwards
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birdsong
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recorded and transcribed birdcalls of my different species and incorporated them into his works
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synesthesia
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disorder that confuses senses that are normally separate (color and sound)
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additive rhythm
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the practice of disrupting metric community by adding extra individual beats
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holy minimalism
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simplicity as an aesthetic principle for spiritual expression; music that is clear, straightforward, and repetitive became a reaction against the complexity of other 20th century composers; music is frequently modal, slow, subtly dissonant
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Arnold Schoenberg
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involved in artistic scene of vienna; composed highly chromatic works; made atonal music;
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sprechstimme
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combo of speaking and singing tone
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klangfarbenmelodie
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each note of a melody is played by a different instrument
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alban berg
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studied w schoenberg; influenced by mahler; wrote complex/symbolic music
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igor stravinsky
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russian; initial success in paris; leader of musical modernism; firebird was his first major success;
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octatonicism
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little of the music resembles traditional chords or functions (extreme dissonance)
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primitivism
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a new level of musical violence
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billie holiday
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\”lady day,\” born in philly, sang in clubs in brooklyn, gets real famous fast, prostitute??!
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duke ellington
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born in wash dc, great composer/performer/band leader; blurred line between poular,jazz, and classical
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george gershwin
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NYC; songwriter w classical ambitions, collaborated w brother Ira; cultivated jazz
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william grant still
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little rock; studied w avant-garde modernist edgard varese; broke many social barriers; sought to incorporate musical elements of the african american experience into a classical medium
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charles ives
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connecticut; father band leader in civil war; composition at yale; sold insurance; highly experimental composer; combined familiar american tunes w modernist perspectives; combined musical sounds
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polytonality
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ives frequently combines music in two different keys together
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polyrhythm
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this also applies to rhythm where ives would allow a complex overlaying of different meters simultaneously
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quarter tones
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he was also interested in out-of-tune sounds; small distance between 2 half-steps
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aaron copland
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NYC; jewish; studied w nadia boulanger in paris; quintessential \”american sound\”; jazz-influenced pieces in a vein similar to gershwin; then wrote more avant-grade and dissonant music; then developed a musical style that would make him an american icon; folk songs; \”open sounds\” 4/5ths; less violent approach than stravinsky but similar rhythm
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silvestre revueltas
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durango; conservatorio nacional de musica in mexico city; spain to participate in spanish civil war; works written after return to mexico; mestizo realismm; extensive use of folk sources; polyrhtyms and ostinatos; chromatic harmonies/harsh dissonance; more romantic in emotion
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bela bartok
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hungary; ethnomusicologist/composer; collected folk material from remote locations using phonograph; exiled to NYC in WWII; rhythmically adventurous; complex polyphony; influenced by music he collected: ancient modes/unusual scales/non-symmetrical rhythms
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john cage
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los angeles; non-western scales; increasing disorganization; prepared piano; interest in japanese gamelan; releasing the composer’s control over the composition; chance/aleotoric music
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george crumb
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born in west virginia; composition teacher/composer; wrote music w complexity/density;
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olivier messiaen
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france, composing at 7; paris conservatory at 11; majority of life as church organist in paris; devout catholic; medical orderly in WWII; composition teacher at paris conservatory; modes of limited transposition; non-retrogradable rhythm; birdsong; synesthesia; additive rhythm
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henryk gorecki
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polish; began writing music in the avant-garde school of serialism;
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john tavener
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london; greek orthodox liturgy; orthodox chant traditions and repetitions of ritual

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