Music Appreciation Pt 4

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One of the most revolutionary periods in music history was the
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early baroque period
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The early baroque was characterized by
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homophonic texture
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The middle baroque was characterized by
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diffusion of the style into every corner of Europe
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A popular keyboard instrument in which sound was produced by means of brass blades
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clavichord
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Affections in baroque usage refers to
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emotional states or moods of music
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The most characteristic feature of baroque music is the
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basso continuo
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Terraced dynamics refers to
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a sudden change between loud and soft
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In the baroque period, the ordinary citizen’s opportunities for hearing music usually came from the
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church
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In Italy, music schools were often connected with
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orphanages
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The music director of a court in the baroque period
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supervised and directed the musical performances, composed much of the music required for performances, and was responsible for the upkeep of the instruments and music library
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An important form of orchestral music in the late Baroque period was the
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concerto grosso
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An alternation between tutti and solo sections, known as ritornello form, provides
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fresh melodic ideas
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A unique feature of Bach’s Brandenburg Concerto No, 5 is that this was the first time
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that the harpsichord has been used as a solo instrument in a concerto grosso
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The main theme of a fugue is called a
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subject
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When another voice presents the main theme of the fugue in the dominant key, this is called
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the answer
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When the main theme of a fugue is presented backward, it is called
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retrograde
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Opera began in Italy around
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1600
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In an opera, characters and plot are revealed through
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song, rather than speech
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The text of an opera is called the
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libretto
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An operatic female role that demands grace and charm would most likely be sung by a
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lyric soprano
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The main attraction for many opera fans is a song for solo voice, known as the
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aria
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The orchestral prelude that opens the opera is also called the
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overture
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Most early baroque operas were based on Greek mythology and
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ancient history
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Members of the Camerata wanted to create a new vocal style based on the
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music of the ancient Greek tragedies
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A typical baroque operatic form was the da capo aria in ABA form in which the singer
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was expected to embellish the returning melody with ornamental tones
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The first opera house in Europe to offer entry to anyone with the price of admission opened in 1637 in
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Venice
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The members of the Camerata wanted the vocal line of their music to follow
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the rhythms and pitch fluctuations of speech
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Speech like melody accompanied only by a basso continuo is called
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secco recitative
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Monteverdi spent the greater part of his career in the most important church post in Italy, that of
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St. Mark’s, Venice
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To achieve intensity of expression, Monteverdi used ____ with unprecedented freedom and daring.
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dissonance
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In Monteverdi’s opera, Orfeo, Orpheus goes to Hades in the hope of bringing _____ back to life.
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Eurydice
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True or False? All twelve of Monteverdi’s operas are regularly performed in Europe and America.
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False?
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To evoke angry or warlike feelings in some of his texts, Monteverdi introduced new orchestral effects, including pizzicato and
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tremolo
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Monteverdi’s vocal music was ordinarily supported by a ____ and other instruments
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basso continuo
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A common variation form in the baroque is the
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ground bass or basso ostinato
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Dido and Aeneas, which many people consider the finest opera ever written to an English text, was inspired by
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Virgil’s epic poem the Aeneid
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Some indication of the acclaim and respect given Purcell by his contemporaries in England can be seen from the fact that he is buried in
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Westminster Abbey
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Baroque trio sonatas usually involve _____ performers.
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four
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The sonata in the baroque period was a composition in several movements for
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one to eight instruments
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Which Baroque sonata was intended for performance in church?
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sonata da chiesa
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Corelli’s Trio Sonata in A Minor, Op. 3, No. 10, is scored for
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two violins and basso continuo
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Characteristics of baroque trio sonatas, the second movement of Corelli’s Trio Sonata in A Minor, Op. 3, No. 10, is
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fuguelike
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Corelli was unique among Italian Baroque composers in that he wrote
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only instrumental music
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Vivaldi is closely identified with the musical life of
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Venice
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Vivaldi wrote approximately ______ concertos.
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450
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Vivaldi wrote concertos
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for a great variety of instruments
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Vivaldi was famous and influential as a virtuoso
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violinist
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Vivaldi’s La Primavera mmusically depicts
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spring
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Bach achieves unity of mood in his compositions by using
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an insistent rhythmic drive
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Of Bach’s twenty children, ______ went on to become well-known composers.
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four
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Bach created masterpieces in every baroque form except the
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opera
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Bach’s personal music style was drawn from
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Italian concertos, French dance pieces, and German church music
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Bach was recognized as the most eminent _____ of his day
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organist
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At the end of his compositions, Bach wrote these initials—S.D.G.—which translate as:
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“to God alone the glory”
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The Well-Tempered Clavier features preludes and fugues
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written in all 24 major and minor keys
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Bach probably wrote his B minor mass for what reason?
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to show what he could do with this form
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Baroque suites frequently begin with a
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French overture
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Although all movements of a baroque suite are written in the same key, they differ in
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meter, national origin, and tempo
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Which of the following is not a part of the baroque suite?
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waltz
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The various dances of the baroque suite are usually
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in AABB form
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The French overture has
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two sections: slow-fast
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The ____ is an instrumental composition based on a chorale.
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chorale prelude
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In Bach’s day, the Lutheran church service lasted about ___ hour(s).
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four
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The ____ is a Lutheran congregational hymn tune.
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chorale
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In their use of aria, duet, and recitative, Bach’s cantatas closely resembled the ___ of the time.
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operas
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A sung piece, or choral work with or without vocal soloists, usually with orchestral accompaniment, is the
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cantata
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Oratorios first appeared in
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Italy
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The first oratorios were based on
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stories from the Bible
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Oratorio differs from opera in that it has no
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acting, scenery, or costumes
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In oratorio, the story is carried forward by the
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narrator’s recitatives
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An element of the oratorio that is especially important and serves to comment on participate in the drama is the
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chorus
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George Frideric Handel was born in 1685, the same year as
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Johann Sebastian Bach
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Although Handel wrote a great deal of instrumental music, the core of his huge output consists of English oratorios and Italian
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operas
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Handel’s oratorios are usually based on
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the Old Testament
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In addition to being a composer and opera impresario, Handel was a virtuoso
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organist
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Handel’s Messiah is an example of
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an oratorio
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Handel spent the major portion of his life in
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England
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Which of the following oratorios is not by Handel?
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Elijah
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The focus of a Handel oratorio is usually the
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chorus
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Emotional states like joy, grief, and agitation represented in baroque music through specific musical languages.
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affections
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Abrupt alternation between loud and soft dynamic levels; characteristic of baroque music
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terraced dynamics
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Baroque keyboard instrument in which sound is produced by means of brass blades striking strings, capable of making gradual dynamic changes, but within a narrow volume range
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clavichord
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Baroque accompaniment made up of a bass part usually played by two instruments: a keyboard plus a low melodic instrument
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basso continuo
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Bass part of a baroque accompaniment with figures (numbers) above it indicating the chords to be played
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figured bass
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Piece that sounds fairly complete and independent but is part of a larger composition
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movement
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In Italian, all; the full orchestra, or a large group of musicians contrasted with a smaller group; often heard in baroque music
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tutti
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Compositional form usually employed in the baroque concerto grosso, in which the tutti plays a ritor- nello, or refrain, alternating with one or more soloists playing new material
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ritornello form
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In Italian, refrain; a repeated section of music usually played by the full orchestra, or tutti, in baroque compositions
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ritornello
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Theme of a fugue
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subject
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Second presentation of the subject in a fugue, usually in the dominant scale
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answer
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In a fugue, a melodic idea that accompanies the subject fairly constantly
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countersubject
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Transitional section in a fugue between presentations of the subject, which offers either new material or fragments of the subject or countersubject
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episode
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Compositional procedure used in fugues, in which a subject is imitated before it is completed; one voice tries to catch the other
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stretto
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Single tone, usually in the bass, which is held while the other voices produce a series of changing harmonies against it; often found in figures
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pedal point (organ point)
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Variation of a fugue subject in which each interval of the subject is reversed in direction
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inversion
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Variation of a fugue subject in which the subject is presented by beginning with its last note and proceeding backward to the first
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retrograde
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Variation of a fugue subject in which the original time values of the subject are lengthened
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augmentation
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Variation of a fugue subject in which the original time values of the subject are shortened
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diminution
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(1) Short piece usually serving to introduce a fugue or another composition; a short piece for piano.
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prelude
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Text of an opera
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libretto
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Dramatist who writes the libretto, or text, of an opera
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librettist
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Voice ranges which include coloratura soprano, lyric soprano, dramatic soprano, lyric tenor, dramatic tenor, basso buffo, and basso profundo, among others
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voice categories of opera
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Song for solo voice with orchestral accompaniment, usually expressing an emotional state through its outpouring of melody; found in operas, oratorios, and cantatas
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aria
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Vocal line in an opera, oratorio, or cantata that imitates the rhythms and pitch fluctuations of speech, often serving to lead into an aria
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recitative
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In opera, a piece performed by three or more solo singers
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ensemble
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(1) A group of singers performing together, generally with more than one to a part. (2) In jazz, a statement of the basic harmonic pattern or melody
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chorus
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Person who gives cues and reminds singers of their words pitches during an opera performance. The prompter is located in a box just over the edge of center stage, which conceals him or her from the audience
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prompter
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Short musical composition, purely orchestral, which opens an opera and sets the overall dramatic mood
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overture (prelude)
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Orchestral introductions to later acts of an opera are called
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prelude
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In Italian, fellowship or society; a group of nobles, poets, and composers who began to meet regularly in Florence around 1575 and whose musical discussions prepared the way for the beginning of opera
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camerata
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Male singer castrated before puberty to retain a high voice range; the most important category of vocal soloists in opera during the baroque period
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castrato
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Speechlike melody that is sung by a solo voice accompanied only by a basso continuo
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secco recitative
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Speechlike melody that is sung by a solo voice accompanied by the orchestra
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accompanied recitative
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Aria in A B A form; after the B section, the term da capo is written; this means from the beginning and indicates a repetition of the opening A section
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da capo aria
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From the beginning; an indication usually meaning that the opening section of a piece is to be repeated after the middle section
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da capo
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Variation form in which musical idea in the bass is repeated over and over while the melodies above it continually change common in baroque music
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ground bass (basso ostinato)
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Musical ornament consisting of the rapid alternation of two tones that are a whole or half step apart
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trill
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In baroque music, a set of dance-inspired movements all written in the same key but differing in tempo, meter, and character
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suite
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Common opening piece in baroque suites, oratorios, and operas; usually in two parts: the first slow, with characteristic dotted rhythms, full of dignity and grandeur; the second quick and lighter in mood, often starting like a fugue
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French overture
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Hymn tune sung to a German religious text
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chorale
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Short composition for organ, based on a hymn tune and often used to remind the congregation of the melody before the hymn is sung
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choral prelude
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Vocal solo more lyrical than a recitative and less elaborate than aria
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arioso
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The difference between an english opera and an italian opera was
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special affects
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Who’s in the orchestra ~ Purcell
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strings & continuo
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Sonata da chiesa =
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church
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Sonata da camera =
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chamber
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Corelli =
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trio sonata
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Recitative =
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story
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Aria =
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emotion
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Dido’s Lamont =
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ground bass
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Vivaldi was known for his hair color in which they called him
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“the red priest”
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This piece contained a solor and 2 choruses = ritornello
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Primavera
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Name the two wives of Bach
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Maria & Anna
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How many kids altogether did Bach have?
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20
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Tone the piano equally out of tune so you can play in any key signature
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well tempo
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Monteverdi played performers/choir on opposite sides of the church. This was called
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antiphonal
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The common variation form in Baroque period was
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ground bass/basso continuo
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Abbreviation: OP, stands for ____ which means ____
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Opus, work
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The ____ is a lutheran hymn tune
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chorale
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Handle’s writing seems to be ____ than Bachs
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less complex
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What was the total number of dead people in the river?
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6
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What was the voice type of the boatmen ?
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bass
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What was the color of the stage when Eurydice died?
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black/dark blue
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Oratorio comments on the drama
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chorus
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The instrument that doubles the violin parts is the
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oboe

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