module 13 and 14

assimilation
interpreting new information with the context of existing schemas

accommodation
adjusting or changing one’s schema’s to account for new information

object permanence
awareness that things continue to exist even though they are not perceived; develops at 6-8 months of age

sensorimotor
in Piaget’s theory, the stage (from birth to 2) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their impressions and motor activities

preoperational
in Piaget’s theory, the stage (from about 2 to 6/7) during which a child learns to communicate using symbols (language) but does not demonstrate mental operations of concrete logic.

egocentrism
the inability of preoperational children to take the perspective of another

social development theory
Vygotsky’s theory of cognitive development which emphasized the importance of other people (more knowledge others) in our mental growth

stranger anxiety
fear of people other than those with whom the infant is familiar; appears around 8 months and peaks at 13 months

attachment
an emotional tie with another person; shown in infants by their seeking closeness with caregivers and displaying distress upon separation

critical period
time frame during which exposure to a particular stimulus must take place in order for proper development to occur

imprinting
rigid, inflexible attachments demonstrated by some animal species (e.g. ducks, sheep)

secure attachment
demonstrated when infants seem to view their caregiver as a “secure base” for exploration, seeking closeness to him/her and being upset at separation.

strange situation
test developed by Mary Ainsworth to assess attachment style in infants

anxious attachment
demonstrated by babies who seem constantly afraid of potential separation from the caregiver; they cling to caregivers in strange settings and display intense distress upon separation

avoidant attachment
demonstrated by babies who seem to avoid contact and closeness with caregivers

basic trust
in Erikson’s model, this attitude develops as a result of secure attachment; babies come to view the world as safe & predictable and believe that others will reliably meet their needs

authoritarian
parenting style (in Baumrind’s model)characterized by high levels of demandingness and low warmth; they impose rules and expect obedience

authoritative
parenting style (in Baumrind’s model) characterized by high demandingness and high warmth; these parents explain reasons for rules and are open to negotiation (with older children)

permissive
parenting style (in Baumrind’s model) characterized by low demandingness and high warmth; they submit to their children’s desires, make few rules, and use little punishment

Maturation
Biological based changes that follow an orderly sequence, each step setting the stage for the next step according to an age related timetable

Nature
genetically programmed maturation

Nurture
maturation between learning and experience

Critical periods
Periods in time that are critical to specific types of learning that then modify future development

Sensitive periods
Particularly important time frames for given forms of development

Stages
Relatively discrete steps through which everyone progresses in the same sequence

Attachment
A desire for proximity to an attachment figure (parent). Includes a sense of security from the person’s presence. Feelings of distress when person is absent

schemas
An organized, repeatedly exercised pattern of thought or behavior
ex: police officer in uniform

assimilation
Interpreting actions or events in terms of one’s present schema
ex: police officer controls the scene

accommodation
Modification of schemas to fit reality

Sensorimotor stage
Infants who think with their eyes and hands

Preoperational stage
Emergence of symbolic thought and thus imagine solutions to problems

Concrete operational stage
Ability to manipulate representations of concrete objects in ways that are reversible

Formal operational stage
Ability to manipulate abstract and concrete representations & able to reason about formal propositions

Intermodal processing
ability to form relationships between sights and sounds

Continuity
researchers who see development as a function of experience tend to see development as continuous and gradual. Nurture is continuous

Stages
Research who focus on biological maturation see spurts of growth and other changes that make one stage of development very different from another. Nature has stages

Conception
Sperm and egg unite to bring genetic material together and from one organism.

Zygote Stage
first 10 to 14 days. Cells begin to differentiate into specialized locations and structures

Implantation/embryo stage
2-8 weeks. stage begins w/multicellular cluster that implants in the uterine wall. Differentiated cells develop into organs and bones

Fetus
9 wks hands and face have developed. by four months many other features have developed and at 6 mo it might be able to survive outside of the womb. Can respond to sounds, and learn to recognize and adapt to sounds that they had previously only heard in the womb.

Teratogens
“monster makers” substances such as viruses and chemicals that can damage the developing embryo/fetus

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
refers to cognitive, behavioral, and body/brain structure abnormalties cause by exposure to alcohol in the fetal stage.

Reflexes
responses that are inborn and do not have to be learned. Newborns have reflexes to ensure that they will be fed, such as crying when hungry to motivate parents to end noise

Rooting reflex
when something touches a newborn’s cheek, infant turns toward that side w/an open mouth

Sucking Reflex
can be triggered by a fingertip, will suck on anything you put in their mouth

Stability and Change
temperament seems stable, and personality seems to stabilize with age. Traits can vary, especially attitudes, coping strategies, work habits, and styles of socializing. Stability helps us form identity, while the potential for change gives us control over our lives

The conclusion of many researchers regarding the “_____ vs. change” developmental issue is that both are important.
stability

Dr. Cole’s major research interest is the long-term effects of child-rearing practices on the psychological adjustment of offspring. It is most likely that Dr. Cole is a _____ psychologist.
developmental

Biological maturation is best reflected in which of the following?
stages

When an infant gazes more intently at a new stimulus, researchers conclude that the infant recognizes that stimulus as different. It follows that the infant has:
remembered the original stimulus, making the new stimulus seem different.

A developmental psychologist studies the responses of a newborn. She puts her finger in the baby’s fist. The baby grasps it. Then she strokes the baby’s palm and the baby puts his fist in his mouth and sucks. The psychologist is testing the baby’s _____ instincts
survival

Which of the following provides evidence IN FAVOR of the idea that our development is mostly continuous?
Adult life does not seem to progress through the fixed, predictable series of steps that Erik Erikson envisioned.

You just found out that your sister conceived about seven days ago. You rush to find a book on pregnancy so that you can learn more about it. What will the book say is happening around the seventh day of pregnancy?
The cells of the zygote are beginning to differentiate.

Mark thinks that language development over the life span requires a slow but steady shaping process. His belief is most directly relevant to the issue of:
continuity or stage development.

Twenty-five-year-old Jonah is wondering whether his rate of sperm cell production is within normal range. For a man his age, his doctor will likely tell him that the average rate of production is:
about 1,000 per second.

Concerning the stability and change developmental issue, our temperament is more predictable than our social _____.
growth

Which of the following provides evidence AGAINST the idea that our development is mostly continuous?
Our brain goes through growth spurts that correspond roughly with Jean Piaget’s stages.

embryo
2 weeks through 8 weeks, attaches to the mother’s uterine wall, organs being to form and function, heart begins to beat; liver begins to make red blood cells, head arms and legs are clearly noticeable

placenta
A structure in the pregnant uterus for nourishing a viviparous fetus with the mother’s blood supply; formed from the uterine lining and embryonic membranes.

umbilical cord
Connects the vasculature of the fetus to the placenta.

amnion
Inner sac in which the developing child rests

teratogens
Agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm, Agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm

sensitive periods
8-16 weeks , Biologically determined time periods when specific skills develop most easily

principle of dose-response
the more exposure you get the worse it affects the baby (ex. Smoking while pregnant)

sleeper effect
A delayed impact of a message that occurs when an initially discounted message becomes effective, as we remember the message but forget the reason for discounting it.

fetal alcohol syndrome
A developmental disorder that stems from heavy alcohol use by the mother during pregnancy

effects of radiation exposure
genetic damage

habituation
An organism’s decreasing response to a stimulus with repeated exposure to it

Developmental Psychology
explores the way humans develop and change over time

Maturation
Biological based changes that follow an orderly sequence, each step setting the stage for the next step according to an age related timetable

Nature
genetically programmed maturation

Nurture
maturation between learning and experience

Critical periods
Periods in time that are critical to specific types of learning that then modify future development

Sensitive periods
Particularly important time frames for given forms of development

Stages
Relatively discrete steps through which everyone progresses in the same sequence

Attachment
A desire for proximity to an attachment figure (parent). Includes a sense of security from the person’s presence. Feelings of distress when person is absent

schemas
An organized, repeatedly exercised pattern of thought or behavior
ex: police officer in uniform

assimilation
Interpreting actions or events in terms of one’s present schema
ex: police officer controls the scene

accommodation
Modification of schemas to fit reality

Sensorimotor stage
Infants who think with their eyes and hands

Preoperational stage
Emergence of symbolic thought and thus imagine solutions to problems

Concrete operational stage
Ability to manipulate representations of concrete objects in ways that are reversible

Formal operational stage
Ability to manipulate abstract and concrete representations & able to reason about formal propositions

Intermodal processing
ability to form relationships between sights and sounds

Continuity
researchers who see development as a function of experience tend to see development as continuous and gradual. Nurture is continuous

Stages
Research who focus on biological maturation see spurts of growth and other changes that make one stage of development very different from another. Nature has stages

Conception
Sperm and egg unite to bring genetic material together and from one organism.

Zygote Stage
first 10 to 14 days. Cells begin to differentiate into specialized locations and structures

Implantation/embryo stage
2-8 weeks. stage begins w/multicellular cluster that implants in the uterine wall. Differentiated cells develop into organs and bones

Fetus
9 wks hands and face have developed. by four months many other features have developed and at 6 mo it might be able to survive outside of the womb. Can respond to sounds, and learn to recognize and adapt to sounds that they had previously only heard in the womb.

Teratogens
“monster makers” substances such as viruses and chemicals that can damage the developing embryo/fetus

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
refers to cognitive, behavioral, and body/brain structure abnormalties cause by exposure to alcohol in the fetal stage.

Reflexes
responses that are inborn and do not have to be learned. Newborns have reflexes to ensure that they will be fed, such as crying when hungry to motivate parents to end noise

Rooting reflex
when something touches a newborn’s cheek, infant turns toward that side w/an open mouth

Sucking Reflex
can be triggered by a fingertip, will suck on anything you put in their mouth

Stability and Change
temperament seems stable, and personality seems to stabilize with age. Traits can vary, especially attitudes, coping strategies, work habits, and styles of socializing. Stability helps us form identity, while the potential for change gives us control over our lives

The conclusion of many researchers regarding the “_____ vs. change” developmental issue is that both are important.
stability

Dr. Cole’s major research interest is the long-term effects of child-rearing practices on the psychological adjustment of offspring. It is most likely that Dr. Cole is a _____ psychologist.
developmental

Biological maturation is best reflected in which of the following?
stages

When an infant gazes more intently at a new stimulus, researchers conclude that the infant recognizes that stimulus as different. It follows that the infant has:
remembered the original stimulus, making the new stimulus seem different.

A developmental psychologist studies the responses of a newborn. She puts her finger in the baby’s fist. The baby grasps it. Then she strokes the baby’s palm and the baby puts his fist in his mouth and sucks. The psychologist is testing the baby’s _____ instincts
survival

Which of the following provides evidence IN FAVOR of the idea that our development is mostly continuous?
Adult life does not seem to progress through the fixed, predictable series of steps that Erik Erikson envisioned.

You just found out that your sister conceived about seven days ago. You rush to find a book on pregnancy so that you can learn more about it. What will the book say is happening around the seventh day of pregnancy?
The cells of the zygote are beginning to differentiate.

Mark thinks that language development over the life span requires a slow but steady shaping process. His belief is most directly relevant to the issue of:
continuity or stage development.

Twenty-five-year-old Jonah is wondering whether his rate of sperm cell production is within normal range. For a man his age, his doctor will likely tell him that the average rate of production is:
about 1,000 per second.

Concerning the stability and change developmental issue, our temperament is more predictable than our social _____.
growth

Which of the following provides evidence AGAINST the idea that our development is mostly continuous?
Our brain goes through growth spurts that correspond roughly with Jean Piaget’s stages.

embryo
2 weeks through 8 weeks, attaches to the mother’s uterine wall, organs being to form and function, heart begins to beat; liver begins to make red blood cells, head arms and legs are clearly noticeable

placenta
A structure in the pregnant uterus for nourishing a viviparous fetus with the mother’s blood supply; formed from the uterine lining and embryonic membranes.

umbilical cord
Connects the vasculature of the fetus to the placenta.

amnion
Inner sac in which the developing child rests

teratogens
Agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm, Agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm

sensitive periods
8-16 weeks , Biologically determined time periods when specific skills develop most easily

principle of dose-response
the more exposure you get the worse it affects the baby (ex. Smoking while pregnant)

sleeper effect
A delayed impact of a message that occurs when an initially discounted message becomes effective, as we remember the message but forget the reason for discounting it.

fetal alcohol syndrome
A developmental disorder that stems from heavy alcohol use by the mother during pregnancy

effects of radiation exposure
genetic damage

habituation
An organism’s decreasing response to a stimulus with repeated exposure to it

implantation
(embryology) the organic process whereby a fertilized egg becomes implanted in the lining of the uterus of placental mammals

germinal period
2 weeks; zygote divides through mitosis and forms blastocyst (hollow ball of cells) that attaches to uterine wall; zygote contains 46 chromosomes

differences in sex development

fetal period
9 weeks to birth

epigeneties

infantile amnesia
Inability of adults to remember personal experiences that took place before an early age

Piaget’s Cognitive Development Stages
sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational

object permanence
The awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived

egocentrism
In Piaget’s theory, the preoperational child’s difficulty taking another’s point of view

conservation
Ability to recognize that objects can e transformed in some way, visually or phycially, yet still be the same in number, weight, substance, or volume

concrete operations
Piaget’s theory (stage) 7-11 years Everything is black or white, right or wrong. Loves rules, likes to follow rules. Has a Narrow focus, needs short, simple directions. Can understand cause & effect. By age 10 develops conscience, can feel guilt.

Theory of Mind
People’s ideas about their own and others’ mental states — about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behavior these might predict

autism
A disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others’ states of mind.

mind blindness
Deficits in understanding the concept of mind or the intentions beliefs and thoughts of others, alan leslie studied severely impaired autistic children. do fine with false photograph but poorly with beliefs – example of encapsulation because they don’t use reasoning skills that they possess

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