Modern World History Mid-Term

Flashcard maker : Claire Scott
Otto von Bismarck
Chancellor of Prussia from 1862 until 1871, when he became chancellor of Germany. A conservative nationalist, he led Prussia to victory against Austria (1866) and France (1870) and was responsible for the creation of the German Empire
Giuseppe Garibaldi
military figure during the time of Italian unification, Italian patriot whose conquest of Sicily and Naples led to the formation of the Italian state (1807-1882)
Boer War
A conflict, lasting from 1899 to 1902, in which the Boers and the British fought for control of territory in South Africa.
White Man’s Burden
1899 A poem by Rudyard Kipling and a characterization of imperialism that justified the policy as a noble enterprise.,
Marxism
the theory that eventually all the struggles that the classes are facing today would lead to the historic event of a classless society: developed by Karl Marx
Karl Marx
developed socialism in response to the evils of Industrial Revolution
Opium Wars
1839 war between Great Britain and China, began as a conflict over the opium trade, ended with the Chinese treaty to the British- the opening of 5 chinese ports to foreign merchants, and the grant of other commercial and diplomatic privileges
Boxer Rebellion
1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the foreigners. The rebellion was ended by British troops
Sepoy Mutiny
an 1857 rebellion of Hindu and Muslim soldiers against the British in India
Nationalism
strong loyalty to one’s country or group.
Laissez-Faire
economic policy letting owners of industry and business set working conditions without government interference
Industrial Revolution
the change from an agricultural to an industrial society and from home manufacturing to factory production, especially the one that took place in England from about 1750 to about 1850.
Imperialism
When a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically.
Indirect Rule
a type of government that uses local officials to handle some tasks but reserves the highest power for the governing nation
Direct Rule
system of colonial government in which the imperialist power controlled all levels of government and appointed its own officials to govern the colony.
Klemens von Metternich
(1773-1859) Austrian Foreign Minister and leader of the Congress of Vienna, key player at Congress of Vienna who wanted a return to monarchy, tradition, and the limiting of France’s power
Congress of Vienna
a series of meetings in 1814-1815, during which the European leaders sought to establish long-lasting peace and security after the defeat of Napoleon
Storming of the Bastille
when a mob and some of the king’s soldiers attacked the Bastille which was a jail where the gun powder was kept, Paris-July 14, 1789~the medieval fortress and prison known as the Bastille contained only seven prisoners, its fall was the flashpoint of the French Revolution and it subsequently become an icon of the French Republic
National Assembly
a French congress established by representatives of the Third Estate on June 17, 1789, to enact laws and reforms in the name of the French people
Reign of Terror
(1793-94) during the French Revolution when thousands were executed
Napoleon
French general who became emperor of France, exiled twice., (1769-1821)
Louis XIV
This French king ruled for the longest time ever in Europe. He issued several economic policies and costly wars. He was the prime example of absolutism in France, king of France from 1643 to 1715
French Revolution
the rebellion of the French People, beginning in 1789, against the monarchy and the class structure of the old regime.
Third Estate
made up 97% of the population and consisted of farmers and peasants, they had few rights and little political power.
Second Estate
class that was made up of nobility that made up 2% of the population
First Estate
class made up of religious leaders in charge of the church, very wealthy
Estates General
France’s traditional national assembly with representatives of the three estates
Copernicus
invented the concept that the stars, earth and other planets revolved around the sun
Seperation of Powers
authority that is not only in one groups hands, but shared among the different groups fairly
Scientific Revolution
the era of scientific thought in europe during which careful observation of the natural world was made, and accepted beliefs were questioned
Philosophes
A group who focused on human reason and making critical changes in society; social critics
Montesquieu
French writer who wrote about political liberty
Heliocentric Theory
the idea that the earth and the other planets revolve around the sun.
Geocentric Theory
idea that the Earth is the center of the universe
Galileo Galilee
man who built his own telescope and discovered properties of moons.
Enlightenment
Intellectual movement centered in France during the 18th century; featured scientific advance, application of scientific methods to study of human society; belief that rational laws could describe social behavior.
Constitutional Monarchy
A King or Queen is the official head of state but power is limited by a constitution.
Divine Right
belief that a rulers authority comes directly from god.
Absolute Monarchy
king, queen, or tsar exercise supreme power of government; power usually inherited; ruler has complete and unlimited power to rule
Dharma
ultimate moral balance of all things
Karma
the force generated by a person’s actions that determines how the person will be reborn in the next life
Polytheism
the belief in many gods
Monotheism
the belief in one god
Caste System
the rigid system of classes
Nirvana
freedom from the cycle of rebirth

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