Modern World History Mid-term exam

Flashcard maker : August Dunbar
a system in which power is divided between the national and state governments
Leonardo da Vinci
Famous artist/painter in the 15th century. Created \”The Mona Lisa\” and \”The Last Supper\”
John Locke
This English philosopher argued that all men were born with natural rights (life, liberty and property) and that a government’s purpose was to protect these rights
Protestant Reformation
This was a movement that began when Martin Luther nailed the 95 theses to a castle church door in Germany. It split the Church in Europe
Emphasized human beings, their achievements, interests, and capabilities.
Council of Trent
A council created by Pope Paul III to direct the reform of the Catholic Church.
An age that marked a great change for renewed interest in classical learning.
English Reformation
Henry VIII wanted a divorce so he took control of the church and changed it.
Catholic Reformation
Changes that took place to fix the problems in the Catholic Church such as corruption among the clergy.
Missionary like people who were considered defenders and
Scientific Method
a hypothesis that is a possible explanation to be tested.
Women’s Roles during the Industrial Revolution
women were expected to work a full day and be expected to do the work at home called the \”double shift\”, Received half the pay of men, were preferred workers because of being obedient (doing what they are told)
Population Explosion between 1800-1900
caused by the increased medical advances.
Assembly Line
A production method in which a worker repeatedly performs one task in the manufacturing process.
Early Factory Workers
Women were the early factory workers during the industrial revolution because they could be paid less and they were more familiar with the work.
Urban apartment buildings that served as housing for poor factory workers. Often poorly constructed and overcrowded. (working class)
Putting-out system
Also known as the cottage industry was a process of producing cloth in individual homes
Steam Power
This power enabled the growth of railroads and factories.
James Watt
Known for improving the Steam Engine.
Karl Marx
believed that capitalism was a failed system where the workers would ultimately revolt because it would create prosperity for few and poverty for many.
idea that the goal of society should be to bring about the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people
The first developed goods from the first factories during the industrial revolution.
Cotton Gin
a machine that separates the seeds from raw cotton fibers
Battle of Waterloo
the battle on 18 June 1815 in which Napoleon met his final defeat
Continental System
blockade designed by Napoleon to hurt Britain economically by closing European ports to British goods; ultimately unsuccessful
Form of government which followed the directory -established by Napoleon-ended when Napoleon was crowned emperor.
Committee of Public Safety
Political body of the French Revolution that controlled France during the Reign of Terror.
March on Versailles
When women of Paris marched on the Palace of Versailles demanding the king and queen return to Paris.
Third Estate
the middle class, and the poor belonged to this estate in France during the late 1700’s
Tennis Court Oath
This is the oath that the representatives of the third estate took when they swore that they would never disband until they had proper representation
National Assembly
Created by the Third Estate in France during the Estates-General Meeting
Congress of Vienna
set up to restore a balance of power in Europe after Napoleon was defeated by placing hereditary (passed down from family to family) monarchies to the thrones.
Scorched Earth Policy
Burning live stock and crops to prevent the enemy from living off the land. The Russians did this to prevent Napoleon from defeating them.
Leader of the Reign of Terror
Declaration of Rights of Man
French document that is similar to the American Declaration of Independence.
First Estate
In France’s old order the clergy belonged to this class.
Separation of Powers
Montesquieu’s idea that in order to have a good government it must divide the government power among legislative, executive, and judicial branches
Slave Trade
allowed European merchants to obtain great wealth by trading slaves for raw material.
Thomas Hobbes
believed that government needed to be strong to control people whom he believed were inherently evil. The only government that could do this would be an absolute monarchy.
Articles of Confederation
in 1787, American leaders gathered in Philadelphia to revise but ended up creating a whole new Constitution.
Enlightened Despot
Absolute ruler who used his or her power to bring about political and social change
Joseph II
disguised himself as a peasant to learn their hardships, religious toleration, ended serfdom and censorship, sold Catholic property to build hospitals, treated people with kindness
Natural Law
Universal law that could be understood by applying reason; letting people govern themselves.
French Revolution
caused by a number of reasons one includes the excessive spending of King Louis XVI and his wife Marie Antoinette.
Phillip II
Defeated the Ottomans at Lepanto which increased Spanish power.
Social Contract
Jean-Jacques Rousseau is known for the social contract that is an agreement between the people and their government signifying their consent to be governed
Triangular Trade
A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s where Europeans first sailed to Africa to trade for slaves. Secondly, sailed to the America’s to sell slaves for raw materials and natural resources. Lastly, sail to Europe to use the raw materials to make refined goods to start over again.
a social class comprising those who do manual labor or work for wages

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