Modern World History Chapter 5

Flashcard maker : Martha Hill
Charles V
Split up his empire; gave Spain and the Netherlands to son Philip II
Philip II
Inherited Spain and Netherlands; very religious and trusted nobody; took control of Portugal in 1580; defended Catholicism; fought Muslim Ottoman empire; failed at attacking Protestant England
El Greco
Spanish painter emotional, distorted images of saints
Diego Velazquez
Court painter for Philip IV of Spain
Don Quixote (de la Mancha)
Novel by Cervantes about a man who believes he is a knight
Cervantes
Wrote Don Quixote de la Mancha
Rembrandt
Dutch artist; realistic pictures of wealthy and middle class; contrast of light and shadow
Jan Vermeer
Dutch artist; domestic pictures of women
Absolute Monarch
King/queen with all the power in a state
Divine Right
Belief that king is chosen by God and represents God on earth
Henry of Navarre
Huguenot prince who inherited the French throne; converted to Catholicism to avoid war; passed Edict of Nantes; killed by religious fanatic
Edict of Nantes
Law that states that Huguenots could worship freely
Louis XIII
Made Cardinal Richelieu his minister; son of Henry of Navarre
Cardinal Richelieu
Minister for Louis XIII; forbade protestant cities to have walls; made nobles take down castles
Skepticism
Belief that nothing is certain
Rene Descartes
Wrote Meditations on First Philosophy- challenged skeptics
Meditations on First Philosophy
Book that challenged skeptics written by Rene Descartes; foundation for scientific method
Louis XIV
Most powerful French king; became king at age 4; had Cardinal Mazarin rule until he was old enough; excluded nobles from his council and strengthened power of intendants
Cardinal Mazarin
Ruled in place of young Louis XIV; unpopular with nobles because of tax increases
Intendants
Tax collectors and justice officers whose power was strengthened by Louis XIV
Jean Baptiste Colbert
Minister of finance for Louis XIV; mercantilism and self-sufficiency; gave tax credit to local business and put high tariffs on imports; encourage people to move to New France
Louis XIV
King who lived in luxury and controlled nobles; built palace at Versailles; played lead in The Sun King; enjoyed Moliere’s comedies
Versailles
Huge palace built by Louis XIV that was like a small city
War of Spanish Succession
Conflict when Hapsburg king Charles named Louis’ grandson next king
Treaty of Utrecht
Agreement in which Louis’s grandson could rule Spain, but with separate thrones
Thirty Years War
Conflict over religion and territory among European ruling families from 1618-1648
Gustavus Adolphus
Swedish army leader who defeated the Hapsburgs in the Thirty Years War
Peace of Westphalia
Brought the Thirty Years War to an end; weakened Hapsburg Spain and Austria
Charles VI
Austrian Hapsburg; took over Hungary; centralized government and drove out Protestants
Maria Theresa
Inherited Austria from her dad Charles VI; led to war with Prussia
Hohenzollers
Family in Prussia who had power and a strong army
Frederick William
Became and absolute ruler in Prussia
Frederick the Great
Went to war with Austria after Maria Theresa took over for land; son of Frederick William
War of Austrian Succession
Conflict between Prussia and Austria
Treaty of Aix-al-Chapelle
Ended War of Austrian Succession; Frederick the Great gained land
The Seven Years War
Austria, France, and Russia vs Britain and Prussia; fought in India, Europe, and North America; Britain was the real winner
Ivan the Terrible
Russian king; named self czar; married Anastasia of the Romanovs; had a good and bad period; killed boyars and his oldest son
Anastasia
Romanov wife of Ivan the Terrible
Peter the Great
One of Russia’s best reformers; encouraged visits outside of Russia; wanted to make the ruler stronger; believed in education; built St. Petersburg
Westernization
Term used to describe Russia using Europe as a model for change
James I
Elizabeth’s Scottish cousin; struggled with parliament over money; allowed Puritans to make a new Bible
Charles I
Needed money for war with Spain and France; dissolved parliament but had to bring it back; signed Petition of Right; put on trial and publicly executed; son of James I
Petition of Right
Document signed by Charles; no imprisoning without cause; no taxes without permission, no housing of soldiers in homes; shows law was greater than king
Oliver Cromwell
Puritan general who led his army to victory over the Cavaliers; made a commonwealth; tried to make a constitution but instead became a military dictator; tolerated all Christians except Catholics
Roundhead
Puritan supporter of Parliament during the English civil war
Cavalier
Royalist supporter during the English civil war
Charles II
Restored as English king after Cromwell; guarenteed habeas corpus
James II
Catholic English king after Charles II
Whigs
Group that opposed James II as English king
Tories
Group that supported James II as English king
Restoration
Time period when Charles II became king after his dad was beheaded
Habeas Corpus
Law that one must have a warrant and tell charges to the prisoners; Charles II agreed to this
Glorious Revolution
Bloodless overthrow of James II; William and Mary became in charge to protect Protestantism
Constitutional Monarchy
English government during the time of Mary and William; laws limited ruler’s power
Bill of Rights
Said that king could not suspend laws, tax without permission, take freedom of speech, or penalize protesters
Cabinet
Group of ministers that acted for the king and represented parliament’s major party; lead by prime minister
Prime Minister
Real power in England during the reign of William and Mary; led the Cabinet

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