MIS Chapter 1

Information Technology
relates to any computer-based tool that people use to work with information and to support the information and information processing needs of an organization
Information system
collects, processes, stores, analyzes, and disseminates information for a specific purpose
informed user
a person knowledge about information systems and information technology
reasons why you should be informed:
1. you will benefit more from your organizations it apps because you will understand what is behind your screen.
2. you will be in a position to enhance the quality of your organizations it apps with your inputs
3. you will be in a position to recommend it applications
4. being an informed user will keep you abreast of both new info tech and rapid developments in existing technologies.
5. you will understand how using it can improve your organization’s performance and teamwork as well as your own productivity.
Chief Information Officer (CIO)
highest ranking IS manager; is responsible for all strategic planning in the organization
works with the CEO and CFO, often become CEO’s.
IS Director
manages all systems throughout the organization and the day-to-day operations of the entire IS organization
Information Center Manager
manages IS services such as help desk, hot lines, training, and consulting
Applications development manager
coordinates and manages new systems development projects
Projects manager
manages a particular new systems development project
systems manager
manages a particular existing system
operations manager
supervises the day to day operations of the data and/or computer center
programing manager
coordinates all application programming efforts
systems analyst
interfaces between users and programers; determines information requirements and technical specifications for new applications
– has a problem domain and solves problems and saves company money
business analyst
focuses on designing solutions for business problems; interfaces closely with users to demonstrates how IT can be used innovatively
systems programmer
creates the computer code for developing new systems software or maintaining existing system software
applications programmer
creates the computer code for developing new applications or maintaining existing applications
emerging technologies manager
forecasts technology trends; evaluates and experiments with new technologies
network manager
coordinates and manages the organization’s voice and data networks
database administrator
manages the organizations databases and oversees the use of database management software
auditing or computer security manager
oversees the ethical and legal use of information systems
webmaster
manages the organizations world wide website
web designer
creates world wide websites and pages
digital nomad
uses IT to work remotely
Data
an elementary description of things, events, activities, and transactions that are recorded, classified, and stored but are not organized to convey any specific meaning. (3, 22, 2.96, 7.8, 99)
information
data that has been organized so that they have meaning and value to the recipient
knowledge
consists of date and or info that has been organized and processed to convey understanding, experience, accumulated learning, and expertise as they apply to a current business problem
Computer-based information systems (CBIS)
an information system that uses computer technology to perform some or all of its intended tasks. although not all info systems are computerized, most are.
information technology components
first four basic components of a computer based information system (hardware, software, database, network)
hardware
consists of devices such as the processor, monitor, keyboard, and printer. together, these devices accept, process, and display data and info
software
a program or collection of programs that enable the hardware to process data
database
a collection of related files or tables containing data
network
a connecting system (wire line or wireless) that permits different computers to share resources
procedures
the set of instructions for combing hardware, software, database, and network components in order to process info and generate the desired output
information technology infrastructure
the IT components (hardware, software, database, network) and the IT services
Information services
IT personnel use IT components to develop information systems, oversee secure and risk, and manage data.
app
a computer program designed to support specific task or business processes
departmental information system
the collection of application programs in a single department (also known as function area information system) for example HRIS
functional area information systems (FAISs)
ISs that support a particular functional area within the organization
in sales and marketing, managers use information technology to perform the following functions:
product analysis: developing new goods and services
Site analysis: determining the best location for production and distribution facilities
promotion analysis: identifying the best advertising channels
price analysis: setting product prices to obtain the highest total revenue
Enterprise resource planning systems
Information systems designed to correct a lack of communication among the functional areas ISs by tightly integrating the functional area Iss via a common database
Transaction Processing System
supports the monitoring, collection, storage, and processing of data from the organization’s basic business transactions, each of which generates data.
(a transaction is anything that changes the firm’s database) processes transaction data from business events.
inter-organizational information systems
information systems that connect two or more organizations. supports supply chain
supply chain
the flow of materials, information, money, and services from suppliers of raw materials through factories and warehouses to the end customers.
Electronic Commerce Systems
another type of inter organizational information systems. enables organizations to conduct transactions, B2B (business to business) or B2C (business to consumer)
knowledge workers
professional employees such as financial and marketing analysts, engineers, lawyers, and accountants. they create info and knowledge, which they integrate into business. advise middle managers and executives
office automation systems (OASs)
typically support the clerical staff, lower and middle managers, and knowledge workers. these employees use OASs to develop documents, schedule resources, and communicate.
Business Intelligence Systems
provide computer based support for complex, non routine decisions, primarily for middle managers and knowledge workers.
Expert Systems (ES)
attempt to duplicate the work of human experts by applying reasoning capabilities, knowledge, and expertise within a specific domain.
Dashboards
a special form of IS that support all managers of the organization. they provide rapid access to timely info and direct access to structured info in the form of reports
Functional Area IS
supports the activities within a specific functional area. (aka developed for something specific)
office automation system
supports daily work activities of individuals and groups
management information system
produces reports summarized from transaction data, usually in one functional area
decision support system
provides access to data and analysis tools
expert system
mimics human expert in a particular area and makes decisions
executive dashboard
presents structures, summarized information about aspects of business important to executives
supply chain management system
manages flows of products, services, and information among organizations
electronic commerce system
enables transactions between organizations and organizations and customers
ergonomics
the science of adapting machines and work environments to people; designing machines and work settings that minimize injury and illness. focuses on creating an environment that is safe, well lit, and comfortable
information technology platform
formed by the IT components of hardware, software, networks, and databases
information technology services
IT personnel use IT components to perform these IT services: develop information systems, oversee security and risk, and manage data
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