Milady’s Standard Cosmetology Chp. 6

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anatomy
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the study of the structures of the human body that can be seen with the naked eye, and what they are made up of. p 87
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physiology
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the study of the functions and activities performed by the body structures. p 87
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histology
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the study of the tiny structures found in living tissue, that is, microscopic anatomy. p 87
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cells
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the basic units of all living things. p 87
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protoplasm
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a colorless jelly-like substance in which food elements such as proteins, fats, carbohydrates, mineral salts, and water are present. p 88
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nucleus
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the dense, active protoplasm found in the center of the cell. p 88
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cytoplasm
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all the protoplasm of a cell that surrounds the nucleus. p 88
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cell membrane
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acts like a balloon to contain the protoplasm, and allows certain types of substances to pass through its walls. p 88
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mitosis
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cell reproduction process. p 88
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metabolism
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a chemcial process that takes place in living organisms, whereby the cells are nourished and carry out their activities. p 88
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anabolism
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constructive metabolsim; the process of building up larger molecules from smaller ones. p 88
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catabolism
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the phase of metabolism that involves breaking down of complex compounds within the cells into smaller ones. p 89
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tissue
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collection of similar cellls that perform a particular function. p 89
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connective tissue
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serves to support, protect and bind together other tissues of the body. p 89
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epithelial tissue
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protective covering on body surfaces. p 89
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liquid tissue
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such as blood and lymph; carries food, waste products and hormones through the body. p 89
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muscular tissue
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contracts and moves various parts of the body. p 89
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nerve tissue
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carries messages to and from the brain and controls and coordinates all bodily functions. p 89
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organs
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groups of tissue designed to perform specific functions. p 89
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body systems
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groups of bodily organs acting together to perform one or more functions. p 89
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skeletal system
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the physical foundation of the body. p 90
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osteology
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the study of anatomy, structure and function of the bones. p 90
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Os
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bone p 90
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joint
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the connection between two or more bones of the skeleton. p 91
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cranium
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makes up part of the skull; an oval bony case that protects the brain. p 91
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facial skeleton
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makes up part of the skull; made up of 14 bones. p 91
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occipital bone
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hindmost bone of the skull, below the parietal bones; forms the back of the skull above the nape. p 91
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parietal bones
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made up of two bones; forms the sides and crown of the cranium. p 91
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frontal bone
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forms the forehead. p 91
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temporal bones
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made up of two bones; forms the sides of the head in the ear region. p 91
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ethmopid bone
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light spongy bone between the eye sockets and forms part of the nasal cavities. p 91
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sphenoid bone
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joins all the bones of the cranium together. p 91
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nasal bones
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made up of two bones; form the bridge of the nose. p 92
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lacrimal bones
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made up of two bones; small thin bones located at the fron inner wall of the orbits (eye sockets). p 92
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zygomatic bones
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made up of two bones; also known as malar bones; form the prominence of the cheeks; cheekbones. p 92
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maxillae
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made up of two bones; bones of the upper jaw. p 92
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mandible
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lower jaw bone; largest and strongest bone of the face. p 92
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turbinal bones
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made up of two bones; also referred to as turbinate bones; thin layers of spongy bone on either of the outer walls of the nasal depression. p 92
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vomer bone
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flat thin bone that forms part of the nasal septum. p 92
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palatine bones
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made up of two bones; forms the floor an outer wall of the nose, roof of the mouth and floor of the orbits. p 92
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hyoid bone
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u-shaped bone at the base of the tounge that supports the tounge and its muscles. p 92
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cervical vertebrae
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the seven bones of the top part of the vertebral column located in the neck region. p 92
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thorax
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the chest; elastic, bony cage that serves as a protective framework for the heart, lungs and other internal organs. p 92
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ribs
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twelve pairs of bones forming the wall of the thorax. p 92
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scapula
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one of a pair of shoulder blades; a large, flat, triangular bone of the shoulder. p 92
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sternum
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breastbone; flat bone that forms the ventral support of the ribs. p 92
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clavicle
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collarbone. p 92
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humerus
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uppermost and largest bone of the arm; extends from elbow to shoulder. p 93
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ulna
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inner and larger bone of the forearm (lower arm); attached to wrist and located on the side of the little finger. p 93
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radius
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smaller bone in the forearm’ on the same side of the thumb. p 93
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carpus
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the wrist. p 93
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metacarpus
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bones of the palm of the hand. p 93
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phalanges
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bones in the fingers or digits (also the toes); consists of 14 bones. p 93
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femur
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heavy, long bone that forms the leg above the knee. p 93
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tibia
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the larger of two bones that form the leg below the knee. p 93

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