Middle Ages Review

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Lord
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Followed the kings directions and kept the manor going. He promised the king his support and he housed and fed the knights.
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Fief
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A plot of land given by a lord.
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Vassal
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A noble who usually was given a fief by his lord in exchange for loyalty. (Person receiving the fief.)
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Serf
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Peasant and farmers. They farmed the land and took care of the livestock on the manor.
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Manor
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A large plot of land where there was a castle for the lord, place for the knights, to live and the huts where the serfs or peasants would live.
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Self-sufficient
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Everything you need is in the manor and you don’t have to rely on trading.
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Feudalism
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Strict social and political system, king at the top, lords follow, knights below lords, and serfs or peasants at the bottom.
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Manorialism
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System of peasants, serfs, and lords in medieval Europe where peasants lived in manors in a peasant-lord relationship.
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Clergy
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Person such as a priest given authority to conduct religious services. Anyone who works in the church.
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Chivalry
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Complex set of ideals, demanded that a knight fight bravely in defense of 3 masters. It is the code for knights to follow. (It is like the code for samurai to follow which is Bushido).
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Cathedral
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A church made so you would be closer to god. The higher the church, the closer to god you were.
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Crusade
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A.K.A. Holy war. Between the 11th and 13th centuries, European Christians, called crusaders, fought wars with Muslims in the holy land (Jerusalem)
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Guild
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Groups of merchants, artists, bankers and other professional groups. They were responsible for setting the price of goods, fixing the quality of goods and making sure workers were paid fairly.
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Bubonic Plague
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Also known as black death. Disease brought by Italian merchants from Asia in 1347. Spread throughout Europe and Asia by flea found on rats. Population declined, 1/3 of Europes population is wiped out
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Vernacular
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The spoken language of the Middle Ages
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Long Bow
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Powerful weapon used during the 100 Years War, used by the English
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Heresy
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The crime of holding belief that holds against established doctrine
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Justinian
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527 A.D. Justinian is crowned emperor. Biggest creations: Justinian Code, Hagia Sophia.
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Justinian’s Code
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Also known as Corpus Juris Civils, issued from 529 to 534, the laws stated the following: “The precepts of the law are: to live honestly, to injure no one, and to give every man his due”.
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Hagia Sophia
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The church of wisdom, a great domed church- first of its land
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Charlemagne
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Name means “Charles the Great”, Lived from 768-814, united most of Western Europe, made Christianity the official religion of his kingdom, controlled all of France and part of Germany, valued education; opened schools in his kingdom.
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Franks
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The Franks are a Germanic people that came from the area that is today France, the most important leaders included: Clovis, Charles Martel, and Charlemagne. Franks were the strongest of the Barbarian tribes – they were united. They each ruled through dynasties.
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Treaty of Verdun
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In 843 A.D. the 3 brothers signed this treaty to divide the empire into 3 kingdoms.
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Power of the Church
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The pope the leader of the church, led cardinals, bishops and priests in teaching about Christianity. People listened because if you followed the Ten Commandments and the bible your soul would go to heaven.
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Pope Urban II
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Was Pope from 12 March 1088 to his death in 1099. He is best known for initiating the First Crusade.
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Saladin
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– 1137/1138-1193 – He was a Muslim military and political leader who a sultan led Islamic forces during the crusades. He followed chivalry.
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Muslims vs. Christians in the Crusades
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Christians won the first Crusade and the Muslims won the rest. A cause was Reynold de Chatillon invaded Muslim caravans and he invaded one with Saladins sister and he killed her which led to war.
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Purpose of the Crusades-results/effects
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The Christians wanted back Jerusalem the holy land from the Muslims. The Christians wanted it because that’s where Jesus was crucified and spent most of his life. The Muslims wanted it because their founder Mohammed lived there and there was a big dome built where Mohammed once sat.
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Rise of towns in the Middle Ages
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As town developed trade increased and as trade increased so did literacy (learning), cultural diffusion and disease.
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Commercial Revolution
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The increase in towns and trade.
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Development of England and France
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In 3337 the king of France died without a son and the English king claimed he was next in line for the French throne. Between 1337-1453 the English and French fought over the throne of France. The war was fought on French soil and it was called the Hundred Years’ war. (Lasted for 116 years and thousands were killed) England had better weapons but France had larger armies. English soldiers fought with the Longbow and the English won many battles but the French won the war.
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Magna Carta
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Protected the rights of the citizens and limited the kings power.
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Hundred Years’ War
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Was fought on French soil and lasted 116 years and thousands were killed. Between the French and English. England had better weapons but France had larger armies. English soldiers fought with the Longbow and the English won many battles but the French won the war.
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Joan of Arc
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One of the most famous people in the Hundred Years’ war. Many believed she was part of the reason France won the war against England. She was accused of heresy and was burned at the stake.
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The Black Death-causes/effects
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Also known as black death. Disease brought by Italian merchants from Asia in 1347. Spread throughout Europe and Asia by flea found on rats. Population declined, 1/3 of Europe’s population is wiped out.
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After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, how was Western Europe organized?
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A self-sufficient feudalism government with kings, lords, lesser lords, knights, merchants/artisans, and serfs. (A social system).
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Which barbarian group was the strongest?
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The Franks were the strongest Barbarian group because of Charlemagne.
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After the Treaty of Verdun which system emerged to create order?
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The Feudal System and the Manor economy emerged.
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How did the Magna Carta impact the role of the monarch on England?
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The Magna Carta protected the citizens and limited the power of the king.
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Which two European countries were the “superpowers” of the Middle Ages?
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England and France were the two superpowers of the Middle ages.
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What was the Commercial Revolution?
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The Commercial Revolution was the increase in towns and trade.
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What were the three main crises of the Middle Ages? What was their impact?
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The Crusades, Black Death, and The Hundred Years’ War.
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How do we explain the crusades as being “history’s most successful failure”?
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The failure was that the goal of capturing Jerusalem is not achieved but the success was that trade increases and cultural diffusion and new ideas come to Europe. The Crusades did not achieve their original goals, but they brought about many desirable changes in Europe.
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Which character in the “Kingdom of Heaven” behaved the most chivalrously?
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Saladin behaved the most chivalrously.
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“Western Europe owed a debt of gratitude to the Empire that for almost a thousand years ensured the survival of Christianity during a time when Europe was too weak to accomplish the task.” Which Empire is referred to in this quotation? 1. Hellenistic 2. Mongol 3. Byzantine 4. Ottoman
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3. Byzantine
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In Europe during the Middle Ages, increases in trade and commerce resulted in 1. lower living standards for industrial workers 2. decreased economic rivalry between kings 3. increased political power for the clergy 4. development of towns and cities
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4. development of towns and cities
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During the Middle Ages, Europeans did not eat potatoes or corn because these vegetables 1. were forbidden by the Catholic Church for religious reasons 2. had not yet been introduced to Europe from the New World 3. were believed to be poisonous 4. were too expensive to import from China
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2. had not yet been introduced to Europe from the New World
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An influence that spread from the Byzantine Empire to Early Russia was the 1. Orthodox Christian religion 2. use of the Latin alphabet 3. beginning of democracy 4. factory system
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1. Orthodox Christian religion
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Which empire introduced the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Cyrillic alphabet to Russia? 1. Mongol 2. Byzantine 3. British 4. Gupta
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2. Byzantine
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“All things were under its domain…its power was such that no one could hope to escape its scrutiny.” Which European institution during the Middle Ages is best described by this statement? 1. the Guild 2. Knighthood 3. the Church 4. the nation-state
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3. the Church
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The Middle Ages in Western Europe was characterized by 1. the manor system and the importance of land ownership 2. absolute monarchies and strong central governments 3. decreased emphasis on religion in daily life 4. extensive trade with Asia and the Middle East
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1. the manor system and the importance of land ownership
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Feudal societies are generally characterized by 1. an emphasis on social order 2. a representative government 3. many economic opportunities 4. the protection of political rights
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1. an emphasis on social order
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In Europe, a long-term effect of the Crusades was 1. the strengthening of the feudal system 2. the adoption of Islamic religious practices 3. an increased demand for goods from the East 4. increased European isolation
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3. an increased demand for goods from the East
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The art, music, and philosophy of the medieval period in Europe generally dealt with 1. human scientific achievements 2. religious themes 3. materialism 4. classic Greek and Roman subjects
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2. religious themes
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Which statement best describes the result of the Crusades? 1. Europeans maintained a lasting control over much of the Middle East 2. Islamic influence dominated Europe 3. Europeans developed tolerance of Non-Christian religions 4. trade between Europe and the Middle East was expanded
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4. trade between Europe and the Middle East was expanded
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What were two indirect results of the Crusades? 1. trade and commerce increased and the feudal system was strengthened 2. trade and commerce declined and the feudal system was strengthened 3. trade and commerce increased and the feudal system was weakened 4. trade and commerce declined and the feudal system was weakened
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3. trade and commerce increased and the feudal system was weakened
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In Europe during the Middle Ages, the force that provided unification and stability was the 1. central government in Rome 2. military alliance between France and Germany 3. federation of the craft guilds 4. Roman Catholic Church
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4. Roman Catholic Church
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Feudalism in Western Europe was similar to feudalism in Japan in that 1. power was based on class relationships 2. equality among the social classes 3. direct democracy 4. monotheism
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1. power was based on class relationships
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Which is a characteristic of a feudal society? 1. rapid social change 2. high literacy rate 3. industrial-based economy 4. rigid class structure
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4. rigid class structure
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In Europe, the Crusades resulted in 1. greater isolation of the region from the world 2. an increased demand for goods from the Middle East and Asia 3. the adoption of Islam as the official religion of many European nations 4. the strengthening of the feudal system
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2. an increased demand for goods from the Middle East and Asia
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One important effect of the Crusades on Western Europe was that they 1. led to a decline in the importance of the church in Western Europe 2. furthered cultural diffusion throughout Western Europe 3. introduced the Industrial Revolution to Western Europe 4. ended the western European quest for an overseas empire
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2. furthered cultural diffusion throughout Western Europe
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In European feudal society, an individual’s social status was generally determined by 1. birth 2. education and training 3. individual abilities 4. marriage
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1. birth
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Which economic system existed in Europe during the early Middle Ages? 1. free market 2. socialism 3. manorialism 4. command
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3. manorialism
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One major result of the Crusades was the 1. permanent occupation of the Holy Land by the Europeans 2. long-term decrease in European trade 3. conversion of most Muslims to Christianity 4. spread of Middle Eastern culture and technology to Europe
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4. spread of Middle Eastern culture and technology to Europe
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The growth of feudalism in Europe during the Middle Ages was primarily caused by the 1. rivalry between the colonial empires 2. suppression of internationalism 3. decline of the Roman Catholic Church 4. collapse of a strong central government
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4. collapse of a strong central government
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The Crusades have been called “history’s most successful failures.” Which statement best explains this expression? 1. The Crusades did not achieve their original goals, but they brought about many desirable changes in Europe. 2. Although the Crusaders captured the Holy Land, they were unable to bring about democratic reforms. 3. The Crusades helped bring about the fall of the Roman Empire 4. The Crusaders prevented the Turks from capturing Constantinople for many centuries
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1. The Crusades did not achieve their original goals, but they brought about many desirable changes in Europe.
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The Roman Catholic Church during the Middle Ages in Europe can best be described as a church that 1. favored separation from secular governments 2. avoided involvement in social and educational matters 3. was a strong force that divided many people 4. was a stabilizing influence during a period of weak central governments
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4. was a stabilizing influence during a period of weak central governments
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A major goal of the Christian Church during the Crusades (1096-1291) was to 1. establish Christianity in western Europe 2. capture the Holy Land from Islamic rulers 3. unite warring Arab peoples 4. strengthen English dominance in the Arab world
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2. capture the Holy Land from Islamic rulers

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