Microbiology Exam #2 Review

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cytoplasm
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Glycolysis takes place in the _______
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Glycolysis
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Glucose is broken into two pyruvates through an oxidation-reduction reaction during which glucose is oxidized and NAD is reduced to form NADH.
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2 pyruvates
2 ATP
2 NADH
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Glycolysis produces:
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Phosphorylation
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ATP is formed through ________ of ADP.
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Fermentation
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The conversion of pyruvate to alcohols and acids
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Pasteurization
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Heating food to between 55-60C to get rid of bacteria and then cover it up.
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Matrix of the mitochondria
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The Krebs cycle occurs in the _________.
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Acetate
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Two carbons formed from the decarboxylation of the three carbon pyruvate in the Krebs cycle.
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Acetyl CoA
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Transfers electrons to organize acids in the Krebs cycle
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2 ATP
6 NADH
2 FADH
2 CO2
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The Krebs cycle produces:
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cristae
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The electron transport chain takes place in the _________.
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Electron transport chain
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2 FADH and 8 NADH attach to the cristae in order to detach energy from their electrons
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32 ATP
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The electron transport chain produces:
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36 ATP
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one molecule of glucose produces:
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oxygen
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_______ is the final receptor of electrons
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culture
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Growth of organism outside the body is called _______.
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Lag phase
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intense activity preparing for population growth, but no increase in population.
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Log phase
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Logarithmic or exponential increase in population.
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Stationary phase
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Period of equilibrium where microbial deaths balance the production of new cells.
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Death phase
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Population is decreasing at a logarithmic rate.
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J-curve
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Lag phase and Log phase is called the ______.
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S-curve
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Stationary and death phase is called the ______.
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Microbial growth
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Growth in number not size microbes.
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Broth
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liquid media
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Discrete colony
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result of microbial growth; an aggregation of cells arising from a single parent cell
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Chemically defined media
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Growth of chemoautotrophs and photoautotrophs; microbiological assays (used in research).
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Complex media
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Growth of most chemo-heterotrophic organisms; can be formed by food.
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Reducing media
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Growth of obligate anaerobes; (sodium thioglycolate)
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Selective media
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Suppression of unwanted microbes; encouraging desired microbes.
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Differential media
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Differentiation of colonies of desired microbes from others.
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Enrichment media
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Similar to selective media but designed to increase the number of desired microbes to detectable levels.
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Autotrophs
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organisms that use inorganic carbon sources to create energy containing organic molecules; plants are a prime example.
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Heterotrophs
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Organisms that catabolize food sources from organic molecules; animals
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Photoautotrophs
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Plants, algae, and cyanobacteria that use H20 to reduce CO2, producing O2 as a byproduct.
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Photoheterotrophs
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Green non-sulfur and purple non-sulfur bacteria; rare.
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Chemoautotrophs
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Hydrogen, sulfur, and nitrifying bacteria.
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most animals, fungi, protozoa, and many bacteria
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What organisms undergo aerobic respiration?
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some animals and bacteria
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What organisms undergo anaerobic respiration?
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Chemoheterotrophs
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The most common organisms that undergo aerobic or anaerobic respiration
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Facultative anaerobes
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can maintain life via fermentation or anaerobic respiration or by aerobic respiration; (commonly infect humans).
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Aerotolerant anaerobes
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Does not use aerobic metabolism but contains some enzymes that detoxify oxygen’s poisonous forms
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Microaerophiles
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microbes that require oxygen within levels of 2-10%
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Nitrogen fixation
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The reduction of nitrogen gas to ammonia; essential to life on earth.
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760mmHg
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Atmospheric pressure
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Psychrophiles
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organisms that grow optimally at around 10C
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Mesophiles
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Microorganisms that grow optimally at 35-40C; can grow in human bodies.
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Thermophiles
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microorganisms that grow optimally at 65-70C
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Hyperthermophiles
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microorganisms that grow optimally at 95-100C
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DNA
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A-T-C-G
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RNA
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A-U-C-G
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36
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Respiration produces _______ ATP from one molecule of glucose.
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water and CO2
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The two waste products of respiration are ________ and _______.
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Genome
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the entire genetic complement of an organism; nucleotides and genes.
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Prokaryotic genome
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DNA not in nucleus, nucleoid that is found in cytoplasm, 1 DNA, circular DNA, and contained in two structures; chromosome and plasmid.
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Eukaryotic genome
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DNA in nucleus, 2 or more DNA, linear DNA.
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Homologues and autosomes (similar)
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Chromosomes 1-22 in a human karyotype are ________
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non-homologous or heterologous
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Chromosome 23 in a male human karyotype is ________
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Chromosome 23 in human male
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XY
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Chromosome 23 in human females
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XX
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semi-conservative
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DNA replication is __________
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Interphase
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DNA replication occurs during the ________ of mitosis
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Prophase
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The cell loses the nuclear membrane during the _________ in mitosis.
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Metaphase
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Chromosomes align in the middle during the ________ of mitosis
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Anaphase
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The distribution of chromosomes in the upper and lower portion of the cell occurs during the ______ in mitosis.
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Telophase
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Two new nuclear membranes are formed and cytokinesis begins to take place by invagination of cell membrane; this occurs in the _______ of mitosis.
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Barophile
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bacteria that lives in certain pressures such as hydrostatic pressure
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colony forming unit
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CFU
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Lungs
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Sputum comes from the _______.
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Spermatogonia
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Immature male sex cells
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Oogonia
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immature female sex cell
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Spermatozoa
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mature haploid male sex cell with tails
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Egg
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Mature haploid female sex cell.
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Independent assortment
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DNA is exchanged with random homologous chromosomes; you never know where each chromosome is going to end up.
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Transfer RNA (tRNA)
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picks up all of the amino acids needed to form the proteins and goes into the rough ER.
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Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
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Prepares the ribosome which is where the cell prepares proteins.
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Messenger RNA (mRNA)
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Initiates protein synthesis.
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mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA
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Transcription produces ______
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proteins
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Translation produces ______.
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Embryo
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Formed when a spermatozoa enters the egg and fertilizes creating a diploid cell.

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