MGT 363 Chapter 4

question

It is best to include a combination of examples and practice, rather than all practice. T or F
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True
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Individuals with a learning orientation find that errors and mistakes cause anxiety. T or F
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False
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Behavior modification is a training method that is primarily based on _____. Goal setting theory Information processing theory Expectancy theory Reinforcement theory
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Reinforcement theory
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Which of the following statements is true of training? It is important to realize that for training to be effective, both learning and transfer of training are needed. Transfer of training is to be considered only after the completion of training. Transfer of training involves having employees who already have mastered the learning outcomes demonstrate them for trainees. Recognizing employees’ preferences regarding how they want to learn is not advisable.
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It is important to realize that for training to be effective, both learning and transfer of training are needed.
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Which of the following creates a learning orientation in trainees? Emphasizing trained task performance Allowing trainees to experiment with new knowledge and skills Emphasizing competition among trainees Ensuring trainees completely avoid errors and mistakes
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Allowing trainees to experiment with new knowledge and skills
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Instrumentality is similar to self-efficacy. T or F
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False
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Providing self-management training is an example of an internal learning condition. T or F
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False
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The learning cycle for a trainee begins with a(n) _____. Reflective observation Concrete experience Abstract conceptualization Active experimentation
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Concrete experience
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According to the _____, transfer will be maximized when the tasks, materials, equipment, and other characteristics of the learning environment are similar to those encountered in the work environment. Theory of identical elements Stimulus generalization approach Cognitive theory of transfer Information processing theory
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Theory of identical elements
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_____ is a person’s judgment about whether he or she can successfully learn new knowledge and skills.
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Self-efficacy
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The stimulus generalization approach is more appropriate for open skills than for closed skills. T or F
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True
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Which of the following is an example of the internal conditions necessary for learning? Providing trainees opportunities to practice new skills Recall of training content Strong messages provided to trainees from credible sources Verbal persuasion
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Recall of training content
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Which of the following examples best reflects an attitude as a learning outcome?
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Gain a greater appreciation for work-life balance
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Which of the following statements is true of organizing as a learning strategy? It focuses on memorization of training content. It focuses on learning through repetition of training content. It requires the learner to find similarities and themes in the training material. It requires the trainee to relate the training material to other, more familiar knowledge, skills, or behaviors.
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It requires the learner to find similarities and themes in the training material.
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In the context of expectancy theory, _____ relates to trainees’ beliefs that they perform the trained skill. Expectancy Instrumentality Self-efficacy Valance
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expectancy
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In the learning processes, semantic encoding typically involves _____. Informing learners of the lesson objective Providing learning guidance to individuals Providing learners cues that are used in recall Providing feedback about performance correctness
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providing learning guidance to individuals
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Identical elements are maximized when the learning environment matches the trainee as closely as possible. T or F
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False
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Closed skills are highly influenced by managers, peers, and the work environment. T or F
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False
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_____ refers to the learner’s involvement with the training material and assessing their progress toward learning. Automatization Self-regulation Elaboration Generalization
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Self-regulation
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_____ refers to individual control over one’s thinking. Modeling Instrumentality Valence Metacognition
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Metacognition
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Intellectual skill as a learning outcome primarily includes the capability to _____. State or describe previously stored information Apply generalizable concepts and rules to solve complex problems Execute a physical action with precision and timing Choose a personal course of action
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apply generalizable concepts and rules to solve complex problems
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In general, it is best to promote a performance orientation among trainees. T or F
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False
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Most educational theories historically have been developed exclusively to educate children. T or F
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True
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Developing a computer program that meets customer specifications is an example of an intellectual skills learning outcome. T or F
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True
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_____ is a learning process that involves identifying learned material in long-term memory and using it to influence performance. Generalizing Semantic encoding Retrieval Gratifying
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Retrieval
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_____ refers to practicing a task continuously without breaks.
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Massed practice
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Logical verification to increase self-efficacy typically involves _____. Perceiving a relationship between a new task and a task already mastered Trying out the observed behaviors to see if they result in the same reinforcement that a model received Motivating trainees by having employees who have mastered the learning outcomes demonstrate them Determining the degree of support for using newly acquired capabilities
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Perceiving a relationship between a new task and a task already mastered
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Behavior modeling is a training method that is primarily based on _____. Goal setting theory Social learning theory Expectancy theory Reinforcement theory
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Social learning theory
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The working storage and semantic encoding processes of learning both relate to short-term memory. T or F
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True
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Adult learning theory assumes that adults enter a learning experience with a subject-centered approach to learning. T or F
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False
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Which of the following statements is true of closed skills? They require the trainee to adapt the general principles to fit a wide range of circumstances. They refer to training objectives that are linked to general learning principles. They refer to skills that are to be identically produced by the trainee on the job. They are more difficult to train than open skills.
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They refer to skills that are to be identically produced by the trainee on the job.
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In the context of adult learning theory (andragogy), group discussions would likely be less appropriate than the traditional lecture method. T or F
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False
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For more complex tasks, relatively long rest periods appear to be beneficial for learning. T or F
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True
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The stimulus generalization approach emphasizes near transfer of training. T or F
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False
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Juan, an operations manager, has been assigned to train a group of older employees in the logistics department. He has to train them to use new computer software. He begins by reminding them that they were quick in learning the old software. Juan is trying to _____. Increase the employees’ self-efficacy Deter expectancies of employees Create motor reproduction Raise the valence of the behavior
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increase the employees’ self-efficacy
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Learner-learner interaction is most appropriate when learners have to _____. Master a task that is completed alone Maximize their critical thinking and analysis skills Acquire personal knowledge based on experience Enhance their self-awareness and self-assessment
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acquire personal knowledge based on experience
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Good decisiveness, practical application of ideas, and hypothetical deductive reasoning are characteristics of individuals with a(n) _____ learning style.
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converger
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_____ use concrete experience and reflective observation and are good at generating ideas and seeing a situation from multiple perspectives. Divergers Assimilators Convergers Accommodators
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Divergers
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In expectancy theory, the belief that performing a given behavior is associated with a particular outcome is called _____. Valence Instrumentality Maintenance Generalizing
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instrumentality
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Which of the following is a disadvantage of communities of practice (COPs)? Employees are reluctant to participate without an incentive and fear sharing their knowledge with others. COPs are not naturally occurring in companies; hence, they have to be forced. Social interaction is discouraged; hence, learning occurs off the job. COPs make it tedious for employees to share best practices, learn from one another, and improve business processes.
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Employees are reluctant to participate without an incentive and fear sharking their knowledge with others
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In error management training, trainees are instructed that errors hamper learning and should largely be avoided. T or F
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False
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Which learning outcomes relate to the ability to design and code a computer program that meets customer requirements? Cognitive strategies Attitudes Intellectual Skills Motor skills
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Intellectual Skills
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Identical elements are more appropriate for open skills as opposed to closed skills. T or F
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False
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_____ relates to the learner’s decision regarding what information to attend to, how to remember, and how to solve problems. Cognitive strategy Motor skill Attitude Verbal information
answer

Cognitive strategy

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