Medical Terminology Unit 5: Muscles, Bones, and Joints

acromi/o
acromion process

arthr/o
joint

calcane/o
heel bone

carp/o
carpal bone

cervic/o
cervical, neck

chondr/o
cartilage

clavicul/o
clavicle

cleid/o
clavicle

coccyg/o
coccyx

condyl/o
condyle

cost/o
rib

crani/o
skull

dent/o
tooth

disk/o
disk

fibul/o
fibula

femor/o
femur

humer/o
humerus

ischi/o
ischium

kinesi/o
movement

kyph/o
humpback

lamin/o
lamina

lord/o
swayback

lumb/o
lumbar spine or region

malac/o
softening

metacarp/o
metacarpal bone

muscul/o
muscle

odont/o
teeth

orth/o
straight

oste/o
bone

pelv/i, pelv/o
pelvic

phalang/o
phalanges

por/o
porous

pub/o
pubis

radi/o
radium

rhemat/o
rheumatism

sacr/o
sacrum

scoli/o
crooked

skelet/o
skeleton

spondyl/o
spine

stern/o
sternum

ten/o, tendon/o, tendin/o
tendon

thorac/o
thorax

tibi/o
tibia

uln/o
ulna

xiph/o
xiphoid process

a-, an-
without

de-
down from, less than

dys-
difficulty or painful

epi-
upon

inter-
between

meta-
beyond

peri-
around, near

supra-
above or on the topside

-ar, al, ic
pertaining to

-centesis
surgical puncture to remove fluid

-ist
specialist

-oid
resembling

-plasia
development

-plasty
surgical repair

-plegia
paralysis

-taxia
condition of muscular coordination or muscular actions

osteopathy
disease of the bones

oseoitis
inflammation of bones

osteomalacia
softening of the bones; adult equivalent of rickets; caused by low intake of phosphorus and calcium

craniomalacia
softening of the skull

osteoma
hard outgrowth on a bone; a tumor

osteosarcoma
cancerous tumor of the bone

decalcification
process of removing calcium from the bone

osteoporosis
disease condition of the bone in which there is deterioration of the bone matrix

arthroscope
an instrument used to view a joint

osteoarthropathy
any disease involving bones and joints

arthroplasty
surgical repair of a joint

arthritis
inflammation of a joint

osteoarthritis
type of arthritis associated with bone degeneration

rheumatism
includes many different conditions that are characterized by inflammation, degeneration, and connective tissue changes, especially in the joints

rheumatologist
a physician specialist who treats arthritic disorders

rheumatology
the research and application for new treatments for arthritis

arthrotomy
incision into a joint

osteochondritis
inflammation of bone and cartilage

chondralgia
pain in or around cartilage

chondrodysplasia
defective development of cartilage

osteochondrodysplasia
defective formation of bone and cartilage

tenoplasty
surgical repair of tendons

tenalgia
tendon pain

tendonitis
inflammation of a tendon

chondrocostal
pertaining to cartilage and ribs

costectomy
excision of a rib

costal
pertaining to the ribs

intercostal
between the ribs; pertaining to the muscles between the ribs

interchondral
between cartilages

interdental
pertaining to between the teeth

dentalgia
pain in the teeth, toothache

dental hygienist
cleans and x-rays teeth

dentoid
resembling a tooth

dentifrice
used for cleaning teeth

orthodontist
a dentist who specializes in straightening abnormally positioned teeth

orthopedics
specialty pertaining to the correction of deformities in the musculoskeletal system

orthopedist
the physician who performs surgery on the skeletal system

periodontal disease
disease around or near the teeth

periodontist
dentist that treats disease of tissues around the teeth

endodontist
dentist that treats disorders of the dental pulp and root

lumbar
pertaining to the lower back

thoracolumbar
pertaining to the chest and lower back

thoracopathy
any chest disease

thoracotomy
incision of the chest

thoracocentesis
surgical tapping of the chest to remove fluid

pleurocentesis
a surgical puncture of the lung cavity to remove fluid

kyphosis
posterior curvature

scoliosis
an s-shaped lateral curve to the spine

lordosis
anterior curvature

supralumbar
above the lumbar region/ above the lower back

supracostal
above the ribs

supracranial
the surface of the head on top of the skull

pubis
a bone of the anterior pelvis

puborectal
pertaining to the pubis and the rectum

pelvimetry
measure one’s pelvis size

suprapelvic
above the pelvis

cephalometer
instrument used to measure the head

ischiorectal
pertaining to the ischium and rectum

ischiocele
herniation through the sciatic notch in the ischium

ischiopubic
pertaining to the ischium and pubis

cervical vertebrae
the vertebrae of the neck

sacroiliac joint
the joint between the sacrum and the ilium

sacrosciatic
pertaining to the sacrum and the sciatic nerve

coccygectomy
removal of the coccyx

diskectomy
removal of a herniated disk

laminectomy
removal of the lamina

spondylitis
inflammation of one or more vertebrae

spondylolistesis
when a vertebra slips forward or downward, the disk below it will be pinched and the vertebra below it will become displaced; a forward slippage of the lumbar vertebrae

spondylosis
a general condition of the spine

humerus
the bone of the upper arm

radioulnar
pertaining to the radium and the ulna

carpal
pertaining to the wrist or carpus

carpectomy
excision of part or all of the wrist

carpometalcarpal
pertaining to the wrist and metacarpals

metacarpals
the bones in the hand beyond the carpals

phalanges
bones of the finger

phalangectomy
excision of the phalanx

acromion
a projection of the scapula

acromiohumeral
pertaining to the acromion and humerus

acromioscapular
pertaining to the acromion and scapula

femorotibial
pertaining to the femur and tibia

tibiofibular
pertaining to the tibia and fibula

fibulocalcaneal
pertaining to the fibula and calcaneus

calcaneal
pertaining to the heel

sternum
the breast bone

sternopericardial
pertaining to the sternum and pericardium

sternocostal
pertaining to the sternum and ribs

sternalgia
pain in the sternum

xiphoid
swordlike; projection at the inferior end of the sternum

xiphocostal
pertaining to the xiphoid process and the ribs

condyle
a rounded process that occurs on many bones

condyloid
resembling a condyle

epicondyle
above a condyle

myocarditis
inflammation of the heart muscle

myocardium
heart muscle

myasthenia
condition of weakness and loss of muscle

myorrhexis
rupture of a muscle

myodynia/ myalgia
muscle pain

myofibroma/ lieomyoma
fibrous muscle tumor

myolipoma
muscle and fat tumor

myopathy
muscle disease

bradykinesia
slowness of movement

kinesialgia
pain on movement

kinesiology
study of how the body moves

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