Medical Terminology Chapter 9

-cele
Word suffix: hernia, tumor, swelling.
cyst/o
Word part: urinary bladder, cyst, sac of fluid.
dia-
Word prefix: through, between, apart, complete.
-ectasis
Word suffix: stretching, dilation, enlargement.
glomerul/o
Word part: glomerulus.
lith/o
Word part: stone, calculus.
-lysis
Word suffix: breakdown, separation, setting free, destruction, loosening.
nephr/o
Word part: kidney.
-pexy
Word suffix: surgical fixation.
pyel/o
Word part: renal pelvis, bowl of kidney.
-tripsy
Word suffix: to crush.
ur/o
Word part: urine, urinary tract.
ureter/o
Word part: ureter.
urethr/o
Word part: urethra.
-uria
Word suffix: urination, urine.
homeostasis
The process through which the body maintains a constant internal environment.
urea
The major waste product of protein metabolism.
urine
A typically sterile liquid by-product of the body secreted by the kidneys through a process called urination and excreted through the urethra.
urinary tract
Also referred to as the urinary system, consists of two kidneys, two ureters, one bladder, and a urethra.
kidneys
Structures of the urinary system which constantly filter the blood to remove waste products and excess water.
renal
Term which means pertaining to the kidneys.
retroperitoneal
Means pertaining to being located behind the peritoneum.
peritoneum
The membrane that lines the abdominal cavity.
renal cortex
The outer region of the kidney.
cortex
The outer portion of an organ.
medulla
The inner region of the kidney.
tubule
A small tube.
nephron
A functional unit of the kidney. These units form urine by the processes of filtration, reabsorption, and secretion.
reabsorption
The return to the blood of some of the substances that were removed during filtration.
glomerulus
Contained inside the nephron, a cluster of capillaries surrounded by a cup-shaped membrane called the Bowman’s capsule.
urochrome
The pigment that gives urine its normal yellow-amber or straw color.
renal pelvis
The funnel-shaped area within each kidney that is surrounded by renal cortex and medulla. This is where the newly formed urine collects before it flows into the ureters.
ureters
Two narrow tubes, each about 10-12 inches long, which transport urine from the kidney to the bladder.
peristalsis
A series of wave-like contractions, moves urine down each ureter to the bladder.
ureteral orifices
The opening of a ureter into the urinary bladder
urinary bladder
A hollow muscular organ that is a reservoir for urine before it is excreted from the body.
trigone
The smooth triangular area on the inner surface of the bladder located between the openings of the ureters and urethra.
urethra
The tube extending from the bladder to the outside of the body.
urinary sphincters
Located at either end of the urethra, control the flow of urine from the bladder into the urethra and out of the urethra through the urethral meatus.
sphincter
A ring-like muscle that closes a passageway.
urethral meatus
Also known as the urinary MEATUS, is the external opening of the urethra.
meatus
The external opening of a canal.
female urethra
Approximately 1.5 inches long, its urethral meatus is located between the clitoris and the opening of the vagina, and it conveys only urine.
male urethra
Approximately 8 inches long, its urethral meatus is located at the tip of the penis, and it transports both urine and semen.
prostate gland
Part of the male reproductive system which surrounds the urethra. The function is to secrete a slightly acidic fluid, milky in appearance, that usually constitutes 20-30% of the volume of the semen.
urination
Also known as voiding or micturition, is the normal process of excreting urine.
nephrologist
A physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the kidneys.
urologist
A physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the urinary system of females and the genitourinary system of males.
genitourinary
Refers to both the genital and urinary organs.
renal failure
Also known as kidney failure, is the inability of one or both of the kidneys to perform their functions.
uremia
Also known as uremic poisoning, is a toxic condition resulting from renal failure in which kidney function is compromised and urea is retained in the blood.
acute renal failure
(ARF) Pathology of the urinary system which has sudden onset and is characterized by uremia.
chronic renal failure
The progressive loss of RENAL function, sometimes leading to uremia, which is caused by a variety of conditions such as kidney disease, diabetes mellitus, or hypertension.
end-stage renal disease
(ESRD) Refers to the late stages of chronic renal failure in which there is irreversible loss of the function of both kidneys.
hemolytic uremic syndrome
A condition in which HEMOLYTIC anemia and thrombocytopenia cause acute renal failure and possibly death.
nephrotic syndrome
A condition in which very high levels of protein are lost in the urine and abnormally low levels of protein are present in the blood. This is the result of damage to the kidney’s glomeruli.
nephrosis
Any degenerative kidney disease causing nephrotic syndrome without inflammation.
anuria
The absence of urine formation by the kidneys.
edema
Excessive fluid in the body tissues.
hyperproteinuria
The presence of abnormally high concentrations of protein in the urine.
hypoproteinemia
The presence of abnormally low concentrations of protein in the blood.
nephropathy
Means any disease of the kidney.
diabetic nephropathy
A kidney disease characterized by hyperproteinuria, which is the result of thickening and hardening of the glomeruli caused by long-term diabetes mellitus.
hydronephrosis
The dilation (swelling) of one or both kidneys.
stricture
An abnormal band of tissue that narrows or completely blocks a body passage.
nephrectasis
The distention of the pelvis of the kidney.
distention
Means enlarged or stretched.
nephritis
An inflammation of the kidney or kidneys.
glomerulonephritis
Also known as Bright’s disease, is a type of kidney disease caused by inflammation of the glomeruli that causes red blood cells and proteins to leak into the urine.
nephroptosis
Also known as a floating kidney, is the prolapse of a kidney.
prolapse
Means slipping or falling out of place.
nephropyosis
Also known as pyonephrosis, is suppuration of the kidney.
suppuration
Means the formation or discharge of pus.
polycystic kidney disease
A genetic disorder characterized by the growth of numerous fluid-filled cysts in the kidneys.
renal colic
An acute pain in the kidney area that is caused by blockage during the passage of a kidney stone.
colic
Means spasmodic pains in the abdomen.
Wilms tumor
A malignant tumor of the kidney that occurs in young children.
stone
Also known as calculus, is an abnormal mineral deposit that has formed within the body.
nephrolithiasis
The presence of stones in the kidney.
nephrolith
Also known as renal calculus or a kidney stone, is a stone in the kidney.
ureterolith
A stone located anywhere along the ureter.
cystolith
A stone located within the urinary bladder.
hydroureter
The distention of the ureter with urine that cannot flow because the ureter is blocked.
ureterectasis
The distention of a ureter.
ureterorrhagia
The discharge of blood from the ureter.
urinary tract infection
(UTI) A bacterial INFECTION that affects part of the URINARY TRACT.
urethritis
An inflammation of the urethra.
cystitis
An inflammation of the bladder.
pyelitis
An inflammation of the renal pelvis.
pyelonephritis
An inflammation of both the renal pelvis and of the kidney.
cystalgia
Also known as cystodynia, means pain in the urinary bladder.
cystocele
Also known as a fallen bladder, is a hernia of the bladder through the vaginal wall.
interstitial cystitis
A chronic inflammation within the walls of the bladder.
interstitial
Means relating to spaces witin a tissue
trigonitis
An inflammation of the urinary bladder that is localized in the region of the trigone.
vesicovaginal fistula
An abnormal opening between the bladder and vagina that allows the constant flow of urine from the bladder into the vagina.
fistula
An abnormal passage between two internal organs.
neurogenic bladder
A urinary problem caused by interference with the normal nerve pathways associated with urination.
incontinence
The inability to control the voiding of urine.
neuropathy
A peripheral nervous system disorder affecting nerves anywhere except the brain or the spinal cord.
urethrorrhagia
Bleeding from the urethra.
urethrorrhea
An abnormal discharge from the urethra.
urethrostenosis
Narrowing of the urethra.
epispadias
A congenital abnormality of the urethral opening. In the male, the urethral opening is located on the upper surface of the penis. In the female, the urethral opening is in the region of the clitoris.
hypospadias
A congenital abnormality of the urethral opening. In the male, the urethral opening is on the under surface of the penis. In the female, the urethral opening is into the vagina.
paraspadias
A congenital abnormality in males in which the urethral opening is on the side of the penis.
benign prostatic hypertrophy
Also known as an BENIGN PROSTATIC hyperplasia, enlarged prostate, or prostatomegaly, is an abnormal enlargement of the prostate gland that occurs most often in men over age 50.
hypertrophy
The general increase in bulk of a body part or organ that is not due to tumor formation.
prostatism
The condition of having symptoms resulting from compression or obstruction of the urethra due to benign prostatic hypertrophy.
prostate cancer
Cancer that starts in the prostate gland.
prostatitis
An inflammation of the prostate gland.
diuresis
The increased output of urine.
dysuria
Difficult or painful urination.
enuresis
The involuntary discharge of urine.
nocturnal enuresis
Urinary incontinence during sleep, also known as bed-wetting.
nocturnal
Means pertaining to night.
nocturia
Excessive urination during the night.
oliguria
Means scanty urination.
polyuria
Means excessive urination.
urinary hesitancy
Difficulty in starting a urinary stream.
bashful bladder syndrome
The inability to urinate when another person is present.
urinary retention
The inability to empty the bladder.
incontinence
The inability to control the excretion of urine and feces.
urinary incontinence
The inability to control the voiding of urine.
stress incontinence
The inability to control the voiding of urine under physical stress such as running, sneezing, laughing, or coughing.
overactive bladder
(OAB) Also known as urge incontinence, occurs when the detrusor muscle in the wall of the bladder is too active.
urinalysis
The examination of urine to determine the presence of abnormal elements.
bladder ultrasound
The use of a handheld ULTRASOUND transducer to measure the amount of urine remaining in the BLADDER after urination.
catheterization
The insertion of a tube into the bladder in order to procure a sterile specimen for diagnostic purposes.
cystography
A radiographic examination of the bladder after instillation of a contrast medium via a urethral catheter.
cystogram
The resulting film of a cystography.
cystoscopy
The visual examination of the urinary bladder using a cystoscope.
intravenous pyelogram
Also known as excretory urography, is a radiographic study of the kidneys and ureters using a contrast medium administered INTRAVENOUSly to clearly define these structures in the resulting image.
computed tomography
Also known as a CAT scan, is more commonly used as a primary tool for evaluation of the urinary system because it can be rapidly performed and provides additional imaging the abdomen, which may reveal other potential sources for the patient’s symptoms.
KUB
(Kidneys, Ureters, Bladder) Also known as a flat-plate of the abdomen, is a radiographic study of these structures without the use of a contrast medium.
retrograde urography
A radiograph of the urinary system taken after dye has been placed in the urethra through a sterile catheter and caused to flow upward (backward) through the urinary tract.
voiding cystourethrography
A diagnostic procedure in which a fluoroscope is used to examine the flow of urine from the bladder and through the urethra.
digital rectal examination
Diagnostic procedure of the prostate gland performed on men with a gloved finger placed in the rectum to palpate the prostate gland to screen for prostate enlargement, infection, and indications of prostate cancer.
digital
Means performed with a gloved finger placed in the rectum to palpate the prostate gland.
palpate
Means the use of the hands to examine a body part.
prostate-specific antigen blood test
BLOOD TEST used to screen for prostate cancer commonly referred to as the PSA test, it measure the amount of PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN that is present in a blood specimen.
prostate-specific antigen
A protein produced by the cells of the prostate gland.
diuretics
Medications administered to increase urine secretion in order to rid the body of excess water and salt.
dialysis
A procedure to remove waste products from the blood of a patient whose kidneys no longer function.
hemodialysis
One of the two types of dialysis, the process by which waste products are filtered directly from the patient’s blood.
artificial kidney
Hemodialysis unit on which treatment is performed.
dialysate
A solution made up of water and electrolytes. This solution cleanses the blood by removing waste products and excess fluids.
electrolytes
The salts that conduct electricity and are found in the body fluid, tissue, and blood.
peritoneal dialysis
One of the two types of dialysis where the lining of the peritoneal cavity acts as the filter to remove waste from the blood.
continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis
PERITONEAL DIALYSIS which provides ongoing dialysis as the patient goes about his or her daily activities.
continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis
PERITONEAL DIALYSIS which uses a machine to cycle the dialysate fluid during the night while the patient sleeps.
nephrolysis
The freeing of a kidney from adhesions.
adhesion
A band of fibers that holds structures together abnormally.
nephropexy
Also known as nephrorrhaphy, is the surgical fixation of a floating kidney.
nephrostomy
The establishment of an opening from the pelvis of the kidney to the exterior of the body.
pyeloplasty
The surgical repair of the renal pelvis.
pyelotomy
A surgical incision into the renal pelvis.
renal transplantation
Commonly known as a kidney transplant, is the grafting of a donor kidney into the body to replace the recipient’s failed kidney.
extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy
The destruction of stones with the use of high-energy ultrasonic waves traveling through water or gel.
extracorporeal
Means situated or occurring outside the body.
lithotripsy
Means to crush a stone.
nephrolithotomy
The surgical removal of a nephrolith (kidney stone) through an incision in the kidney.
percutaneous nephrolithotomy
Removal of kidney stones performed by making a small incision in the back and inserting a nephroscope to crush and remove a kidney stone.
percutaneous
Means performed through the skin.
nephroscope
A specialized endoscope used in the treatment of the kidneys.
ureterectomy
The surgical removal of a ureter.
ureteroplasty
The surgical repair of a ureter.
ureterorrhaphy
The surgical suturing of a ureter.
cystectomy
The surgical removal of all or part of the urinary bladder.
cystopexy
The surgical fixation of the bladder to the abdominal wall.
cystorrhaphy
The surgical suturing of the bladder.
lithotomy
A surgical incision for the removal of a stone from the bladder.
catheterization
Treatment procedure of the urinary system performed to withdraw urine for diagnostic purposes, to control incontinence, or to place fluid, such as chemotherapy solution, into the bladder.
urethral catheterization
CATHETERIZATION performed by inserting a tube along the urethra and into the bladder.
indwelling catheter
CATHETER that remains inside the body for a prolonged time.
suprapubic catheterization
The placement of a catheter into the bladder through a small incision made through the abdominal wall just above the pubic bone.
meatotomy
A surgical incision made in the urinary meatus to enlarge the opening.
urethropexy
The surgical fixation of the urethra.
urethrostomy
The surgical creation of a permanent opening between the urethra and the skin.
urethrotomy
A surgical incision into the urethra for relief of a stricture.
ablation
The term used to describe some types of treatment of prostate cancer, describes the removal of a body part or the destruction of its function by surgery, hormones, drugs, heat, chemicals, electrocautery, or other methods.
prostatectomy
The surgical removal of all or part of the prostate gland.
radical prostatectomy
PROSTATECTOMY performed through the abdomen, is the surgical removal of the entire prostate gland, the seminal vesicles, and some surrounding tissues.
transurethral prostatectomy
Also known as a TURP, is the removal of an overgrowth of tissue from the prostate gland through a resectoscope.
resectoscope
A specialized endoscopic instrument that resembles a cystoscope.
Kegel exercises
Named for Dr. Arnold Kegel, are a series of pelvic muscle exercises used to strengthen the muscles of the pelvic floor to control urinary stress incontinence in women.
bladder retraining
A program of urinating on a schedule with increasingly longer time intervals.