Medical Terminology Chapter 9 Part 3

Urinalysis
the examination of urine to determine the presence of abnormal elements

Bladder Ultrasound
use of handheld ultrasound transducer to measure the amount of urine remaining in the bladder after urination. A normal bladder holds between 300 and 400 ccs of urine. When more than this amount is still present after urination, the bladder is described as being distended

Catheterization
the insertion of a tube into the bladder in order to procure a sterile specimen for diagnostic purposes. It is also used to remove urine from the bladder when the patient is unable to urinate for other reasons. Another use is to place medication into the bladder.

Cystography
a radiographic examination of the bladder after instillation of a contrast medium via a urethral catheter

Cystoscopy
visual examination of the urinary bladder using a cystoscope

Cystoscope
also for treatment procedures such as the removal of tumors or the reduction of an enlarged prostate gland

Intravenous pyelogram
also known as excretory urography, is a radiographic study of the kidneys and ureters. A contrast medium is administered intravenously to clearly define these structures in the resulting image. This examination is used to diagnose changes in the urinary tract resulting from kidney stones, infections, enlarged prostate, tumors, and internal injuries after an abdominal trauma

Computed Tomography
also known as CAT scan, is more commonly used as a primary tool for evaluation of the urinary system because it can be rapidly performed and provides additional imaging of the abdomen, which may reveal other potential sources for the patient’s symptoms

KUB
a radiographic study of these structures without the use of a contrast medium. This is referred to as a flat-plate of the abdomen

Retrograde urography
a radiograph of the urinary system taken after dye has been placed in the urethra through a sterile catheter and caused to flow upward through the urinary tract

Voiding Cystourethrography
diagnostic procedure in which a fluoroscope is used to examine the flow of urine from the bladder and through the urethra. This is performed often after cystography

Digital Rectal Examination
performed on men to screen for prostate enlargement, infection, indications of prostate cancer.

Digital
performed with a gloved finger placed in the rectum to palpate the prostate gland

Palpate
the used of the hands to examine a body part

Prostate-Specific antigen
blood test is used to screen for prostate cancer. Also known as PSA test, it measures the amount of prostate-specific antigen that is present in a blood specimen

Prostate-Specific antigen
is a protein produced by the cells of the prostate gland. The higher a man’s PSA level, the more likely it is that cancer is present

Diuretics
are medications administered to increase urine secretion in order to rid the body of excess water and salt

Dialysis
a procedure to remove waste products from the blood of a patient whose kidneys no longer function. The two types of this in common use are hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis

Hemodialysis
the process by which waste products are filtered directly from the patient’s blood. Treatment is performed on a hemodialysis unit which is commonly referred to as an artificial kidney

Shunt
an artificial passage that allows the blood to flow between the body and the hemodialysis unit

Dialysate
the filter contains this which is a solution made up of water and electolytes. This solution cleanses the blood by removing waste products and excess fluids

Electrolytes
are the salts that conduct electricity and are found in the body fluid, tissue, and blood

Peritoneal dialysis
the lining of the peritoneal cavity acts as the filter to remove waste from the blood. The dialysate solution flows into the peritoneal cavity and the fluid is exchanged through a catheter implanted in the abdominal wall. This type of dialysis is used for renal failure and certain types of posioning

Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis
provides ongoing dialysis as the patient goes about his or her daily activities. In this procedure, a dialysate solution is instilled from a plastic container worn under the patient’s clothing. About every 4 hours, the used solution is drained into this bad and the bag is discarded. The procedure continues after replacing a new bag

Continuous Cycling Peritoneal Dialysis
uses a machine to cycle the dialysate fluid during the night while the patient sleeps

Nephrolysis
is the freeing of a kidney from adhesions.

Adhesion
a band of fibers that holds structures together abnormally

Nephropexy
also known as nephrorrhaphy, the surgical fixation of a floating kidney

Nephrostomy
the establishment of an opening from the pelvis of the kidney to the exterior of the body. In a kidney affected by hydronephrosis, this allows bypassing of the ureter because the urine from the kidney is drained directly through the back

Pyeloplasty
the surgical repair of the renal pelvis

Pyelotomy
a surgical incision into the renal pelvis. This procedure is performed to correct an obstruction of the junction between the renal pelvis and the ureter

Renal Transplantation
also known as kidney transplant, is the grafting of a donor kidney into the body to replace the recipient’s failed kidneys. A single transplanted kidney, from either a living or nonliving donor, is capable of adequately performing all kidney functions

Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy
the destruction of stones with the use of high-energy ultrasonic waves traveling through water or gel. The fragments of these stones are then excreted in the urine

Extracorporeal
situated or occurring outside the body

Lithotripsy
to crush a stone

Nephrolithotomy
surgical removal of a nephrolith through an incision in the kidney

Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy
performed by making a small incision in the back and inserting a nephroscope to crush and remove a kidney stone.

Percutaneous
performed through the skin.

Nephroscope
a specialized endoscope used in the treatment of the kidneys

Ureterectomy
surgical removal of a ureter

Ureteroplasty
is the surgical repair of a ureter

Ureterorrhaphy
surgical suturing of a ureter

Cystectomy
surgical removal of all or part of the urinary bladder

Cystopexy
surgical fixation of the bladder to the abdominal wall

Cystorrhaphy
surgical suturing of the bladder

Lithotomy
surgical incision for the removal of a stone from the bladder. Also used to describe a physical examination position

Catheterization
performed to withdraw urine for diagnostic purposes, to control incontinence, or to place fluid, such as a chemotherapy solution int the bladder

Urethral Catheterization
performed by inserting a tube along the urethra and into the bladder

Indwelling Catheter
is one that remains inside the body for a prolonged time

Suprapubic Catheterization
placement of a catheter into the bladder through a small incision made through the abdominal wall just above the pubic bone

Meatotomy
surgical incision made in the urinary meatus to enlarge the opening

Urethropexy
surgical fixation of the urethra. This procedure is usually performed to correct urinary stress incontinence

Urethrostomy
surgical creation of a permanent opening between the urethra and the skin

Urethrotomy
surgical incision into the urethra for relief of a stricture

Ablation
describe some types of treatment of prostate cancer, describes the removal of a body part or the destruction of its function by surgery, hormones, drugs, heat, chemicals, electrocautery, or other methods

Prostatectomy
surgical removal of all or part of the prostate gland. This procedure is performed to treat prostate cancer or to reduce an enlarged prostate gland

Radical Prostatectomy
which is performed through the abdomen, is the surgical removal of the entire prostate gland, the seminal vesicles, and some surrounding tissues

Transurethral Prostatectomy
also known as TURP, the removal of an overgrowth of tissue from the prostate gland through a resectoscope

Resectoscope
a specialized endoscopic instrument that resembles a cystoscope

Radiation Therapy and Hormone Therapy
are additional treatments used to control prostate cancer

Kegel Exercises
were named for Dr. Arnold Kegel, are a series of pelvic muscle exercises used to strengthen the muscles of the pelvic floor to control urinary stress incontinence in women

Bladder retraining
a program of urinating on a schedule with increasingly longer time intervals between scheduled urination. The goal is to reestablish voluntary bladder control and to break the cycle of frequency, urgency, and urge incontinence

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