Medical Terminology, Chapter 6 Terms, The Lymphatic and Immune Systems

acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
the most advanced, and fatal, stage of an HIV infection

adenocarcinoma
any one of a large group of carcinomas derived from glandular tissue

adenoids
located in the nasopharynx

adjuvant therapy
used after the primary treatments have been completed to decrease the chance that a cancer will recur

allergen
a substance that produces an allergic reaction in an individual

allergic reaction
occurs when the body’s immune system reacts to a harmless allergen such as pollen, food, or animal dander as if it were a dangerous invader

allergist
specializes in diagnosing and treating conditions of altered immunologic reactivity, such as allergic reactions

allergy
an overreaction by the body to a particular antigen

anaphylaxis
a severe response to an allergen in which the symptoms develop quickly, and without help, the patient can die within a few minutes.

angiogenesis
the process through which the tumor supports its growth by creating its own blood supply

antiangiogenesis
a form of treatment that disrupts this blood supply to the tumor

antibiotic resistant bacteria
develop when an antibiotic fails to kill all of the bacteria it targets

antibiotic
medications that are capable of inhibiting growth, or killing pathogenic bacterial microorganisms

antibody
a disease-fighting protein created by the immune system in response to the presence of a specific antigen

antifungal
an agent that destroys or inhibits the growth of fungi

antigen
any substance that the body regards as being foreign, and includes viruses, bacteria, toxins, and transplanted tissues

antigen-antibody reaction
a reaction that labels a potentially dangerous antigen so that it can be recognized, and destroyed, by other cells of the immune system

antihistamines
medications administered to relieve or prevent the symptoms of hay fever and other types of allergies

antineoplastic
medication that blocks the development, growth, or proliferation of malignant cells

antiviral drug
used to treat viral infections or to provide temporary immunity

autoimmune disorder
any of a large group of diseases characterized by a condition in which the immune system produces antibodies against its own tissues

axillary lymph nodes
located under the arms in the armpits

B cells
specialized lymphocytes that produce and secrete antibodies

bacilli
rod-shaped spore-forming bacteria

bacteria
one-celled microscopic organisms, some of which are pathogenic

benign tumor
a noncancerous growth

brachytherapy
the use of radioactive materials in contact with, or implanted into, the tissues to be treated

breast cancer
a carcinoma that develops from the cells of the breast and can spread to adjacent lymph nodes and other body sites

breast self-examination
an essential self-care procedure for the early detection of breast cancer

cancer
a class of diseases characterized by the uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these cells to invade other tissues, either by invasion through direct growth into adjacent tissue or by spreading into distant sites by metastasizing

candidiasis
infections occurring on the skin or mucous membranes in the warm, moist areas such as the vagina or the mouth

carcinoma
a malignant tumor that occurs in epithelial tissue

carcinoma in situ
describes a malignant tumor in its original position that has not yet disturbed or invaded the surrounding tissues

cervical lymph nodes
located along the sides of the neck

chemoprevention
the use of natural or synthetic substances such as drugs or vitamins to reduce the risk of developing cancer, or to reduce the chance that cancer will recur

chemotheraphy
the use of chemical agents and drugs in combinations selected to destroy malignant cells and tissues

complement
a group of proteins that normally circulate in the blood in an inactive form and are activated by contact with nonspecific antigens such as foreign blood cells or bacteria

corticosteroid drug
a hormone-like preparation administered primarily as a anti-inflammatory and as an immunosuppressant

cytomegalovirus
a member of the herpesvirus family that cause a variety of diseases

cytotoxic drug
a medication that kills or damages cells

dendritic cells
specialized white blood cells that patrol the body searching for antigens that produce infections

ductal carcinoma in situ
breast cancer at its earliest stage before the cancer has broken through the wall of the milk duct

ELISA
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, a blood test used to screen for the presence of HIV antibodies

fungus
a simple parasitic organism

hemolytic
destroying worn-out red blood cells and releasing their hemoglobin for reuse

herpes zoster
an acute viral infection characterized by painful skin eruptions that follow the underlying route of an inflamed nerve

Hodgkin’s lymphoma
distinguished from other lymphomas by the presence of large, cancerous lymphocytes known as Reed-Sternberg cells

human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
a bloodborne infection in which the virus damages or kills the cells of the immune system, causing it to progressively fail

immunity
the state of being resistant to a specific disease

immunodeficiency disorder
occurs when the immune response is compromised

immunoglobulin A
the class of antibodies produced predominantly against ingested antigens; found in body secretions such as saliva, sweat, or tears, and function to prevent the attachment of viruses and bacteria to the epithelial surfaces that line most organs

immunoglobulin D
the class of antibodies found only on the surface of B cells; important in B cell activation

immunoglobulin E
the class of antibodies produced in the lungs, skin, and mucous membranes; responsible for allergic reactions

immunoglobulin G
the most abundant class of antibodies; found in blood serum and lymph; active against bacteria, fungi, viruses, and foreign particles

immunoglobulin M
the class of antibodies that are found in circulating body fluids; the first antibodies to appear in response to an initial exposure to an antigen

immunoglobulins
bind with specific antigens in the antigen-antibody response

immunologist
specializes in diagnosing and treating disorders of the immune system

immunosuppressant
a substance that prevents or reduces the body’s normal immune response

immunosuppression
treatment to repress or interfere with the ability of the immune system to respond to stimulation by antigens

immunotherapy
a disease treatment that involves either stimulating or repressing the immune response

infectious mononucleosis
an infection caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) that is characterized by fever, a sore throat, and enlarged lymph nodes

infiltrating ductal carcinoma
starts in the milk duct, breaks through the wall of that duct, and invades the fatty breast tissue

infiltrating lobular carcinoma
cancer that starts in the milk glands, breaks through the wall of the gland, and invades the fatty tissue of the breast

inflammatory breast cancer
the most aggressive and least common form of breast cancer

inguinal lymph nodes
located in the inguinal (groin) area of the lower abdomen

intact skin
wraps the body in a physical barrier that prevents invading organisms from entering the body

interferon
a family of proteins produced by the T cells whose specialty is fighting viruses by slowing or stopping their multiplication

interstitial fluid
plasma from arterial blood that flows out of the capillaries and into the spaces between the cells

Kaposi’s sarcoma
a cancer that causes patches of abnormal tissue to grow under the skin, in the lining of the mouth, nose, and throat, or in other organs; frequently associated with HIV

lacteals
specialized structures of the lymphatic system

lingual tonsils
located at the base of the tongue

localized allergic response
includes redness, itching, and burning where the skin has come into contact with an allergen

lumpectomy
the surgical removal of only the cancerous tissue and a surrounding margin of normal tissue

Lyme disease
caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected deer tick

lymph
a clear, watery fluid that transports waste products and proteins out of the spaces between the cells of the body tissues; it also destroys bacteria or other pathogens that are present in the tissues

lymph node
contains specialized lymphocytes that are capable of destroying pathogens

lymph node dissection
a surgical procedure in which all of the lymph nodes in a major group are removed to determine or slow the spread of cancer

lymphadenitis
inflammation of the lymph nodes

lymphadenopathy
any disease process affecting a lymph node or nodes

lymphangioma
a benign tumor formed by an abnormal collection of lymphatic vessels due to a congenital malformation of the lymphatic system

lymphatic capillaries
microscopic, blind-ended tubes located near the surface of the body

lymphatic circulation
transports lymph from tissues throughout the body and eventually returns this fluid to the venous circulation

lymphatic vessels
lymph flows from the lymphatic capillaries into these progressively larger vessels, which are located deeper within the tissues

lymphedema
swelling due to an abnormal accumulation of lymph fluid within the tissues

lymphocytes
white blood cells that are formed in bone marrow as stem cells

lymphokines
direct the antigen-antibody response by signaling between the cells of the immune system

lymphoma
a general term applied to malignancies affecting lymphoid tissues

lymphoscintigraphy
a diagnostic test that is performed to detect damage or malformations of the lymphatic vessels

macrophage
a type of white blood cell that surrounds and kills invading cells

malaria
a disease caused by a parasite that lives in certain mosquitoes that is transferred to humans by the bite of an infected mosquito

male breast cancer
can occur in the small amount of breast tissue that is normally present in men

malignant tumor
harmful, capable of spreading to distant body sites including other body systems, can become progressively worse, and is progressively life-threatening

mammography
a radiographic examination of the breasts to detect the presence of tumors or precancerous cells

mastectomy
the surgical removal of the entire breast and nipple

measles
an acute, highly contagious infection caused by the rubeola virus and transmitted by respiratory droplets

measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination
prevents these three viral conditions

metastasis
a new cancer site that results from the spreading process

metastasize
the process by which cancer spreads from one place to another

methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
MRSA

modified radical mastectomy
the surgical removal of the entire breast and all of the axillary lymph nodes under the adjacent arm

monoclonal antibodies
any of a class of antibodies produced in the laboratory by identical offspring of a clone of specific cells

mumps
an acute viral disease characterized by the swelling of the parotid glands, which are the salivary glands located just in front of the ears

myoma
a benign tumor made up of muscle tissue

myosarcoma
a malignant tumor derived from muscle tissue

needle breast biopsy
a technique in which an x-ray guided needle is used to remove small samples of tissue from the breast

Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
the term used to describe all lymphomas other than Hodgkin’s lymphoma

oncologist
a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating malignant disorders such as tumors and cancer

oncology
the study of the prevention, causes, and treatment of tumors and cancer

opportunistic infection
caused by a pathogen that does not normally produce an illness in healthy humans

osteosarcoma
a malignant tumor usually involving the upper shaft of long bones, the pelvis, or knee

palatine tonsils
located on the left and right sides of the throat in the area that is visible through the mouth

parasite
a plant or animal that lives on, or within, another living organism at the expense of that organism

pathogen
a microorganism that causes a disease in humans

Peyer’s patches
located on the walls of the ileum; work with the immune system to protect against the entry of pathogens through the digestive system

phagocyte
a large white blood cell that can destroy substances such as cell debris, dust, pollen, and pathogens by the process of phagocytosis

plasma cells
specialized white blood cells that produce antibodies coded to destroy specific antigens

primary lymphedema
a heredity disorder due to malformation of the lymphatic system

professional palpation of the breast
performed to feel the texture, size, and consistency of the breast

rabies
an acute viral infection that is most commonly transmitted to humans by the bite or saliva of an infected animal

radiation therapy
used in the treatment of some cancers

radical mastectomy
the surgical removal of an entire breast and many of the surrounding tissues

rickettsia
a small bacterium that lives in lice, fleas, ticks, and mites

right lymphatic duct
collects lymph from the right side of the head and neck, the upper right quadrant of the body, and the right arm; empties into the right subclavian vein

Rocky Mountain spotted fever
caused by Rickettsis rickettsii and is transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected tick

rubella
a viral infection characterized by a low-grade fever, swollen glands, inflamed eyes, and a fine, pink rash

sarcoma
a malignant tumor that arises from connective tissues, including hard tissues, soft tissues, and liquid tissues

scratch test
a diagnostic test to identify commonly troublesome allergens such as tree pollen and ragweed

secondary lymphedema
caused by damage to the lymphatic system that most commonly produces swelling in the limb nearest to the damaged lymphatic vessels

septic shock
a serious condition that occurs when an overwhelming bacterial infection affects the body

spirochetes
spiral-shaped bacteria that have flexible walls and are capable of movement

spleen
a saclike mass of lymphoid tissue located in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen, just inferior to (below) the diaphragm and posterior to (behind) the stomach

splenomegaly
abnormal enlargement of the spleen

splenorrhagia
bleeding from the spleen

staging
the process of classifying tumors with respect to how far the disease has progressed, the potential for its responding to therapy, and the patient’s prognosis

staphylococci
a group of about 30 species of bacteria that form irregular groups or clusters resembling grapes

staphylococcus aureus
a form of staphylococci that commonly infects wounds and causes serious problems such as toxic shock syndrome or produces food poisoning

streptococci
bacteria that form a chain

surgical biopsy
the removal of a small piece of tissue for examination to confirm or establish a diagnosis

synovial sarcoma
a malignant tumor of the tissue surrounding a synovial joint

synthetic immunoglobulins
used as a postexposure preventive measure against certain viruses

synthetic interferon
used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis, hepatitis C, and some cancers

systemic reaction or anaphylaxis
a severe response to an allergen

T cells
small lymphocytes that mature in the thymus as a result of exposure to the hormone thymosin, which is secreted by the thymus

targeted therapy
a developing form of anti-cancer drug therapy that uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack specific cancer cells without harming normal cells

teletherapy
radiation therapy administered at a distance from the body

tetanus
caused by the bacillus Clostridium tetani and is transmitted through a cut or wound

thoracic duct
collects lymph from the left side of the head and neck, the upper left quadrant of the trunk, the left arm, and the entire lower portion of the trunk and both legs; empties into the left subclavian vein

thymus
located superior to (above) the heart

tinea pedis
a fungal infection that commonly develops between the toes and on the feet

tonsils
three masses of lymphoid tissue that form a protective ring around the back of the nose and the upper throat

toxoplasmosis
a parasite which is most commonly transmitted from animals to humans by contact with contaminated feces

tumor
a growth of tissue that forms an abnormal mass

varicella
a viral condition characterized by a fever and a rash consisting of hundreds of itchy, fluid-filled blisters that burst and form crusts

vermiform appendix
hangs from the lower portion of the cecum

viruses
very small infectious agents that live only by invading other cells

West Nile virus
spread to humans by the bite of an infected mosquito

Western blot test
a blood test that produces more accurate results than the ELISA test

yeast
a type of fungus