Med Term Chapter 5

Valvulitis
an inflammation of a heart valve
Valvular prolapse
abnormal protrusion of a heart valve that results in the inability of the valve to close completely
Bradycardia
abnormally slow resting heart rate (less than 60 beats/minute)
Tachycardia
abnormally rapid resting heartbeat (over 100 beats per minute)
Raynaud’s disease
Peripheral arterial occlusive disease in which intermittent attacks are triggered by cold or stress. Symptoms include constricted circulation, paleness, cyanosis (blueness) and redness of the fingers and toes
Phlebitis
inflammation of a vein
Blood dyscrasia
Any pathologic condition of the cellular elements of the blood.
Leukopenia
a decrease in the number of disease fighting white blood cells circulating in the blood.
Thrombocytopenia
a blood disease characterized by an abnormally small number of platelets in the blood
Thrombosis
the abnormal condition of having a thrombus (blood clot)
Thrombus
a stationary blood clot attached to the interior wall of an artery or vein
Coronary thrombosis
damage to the heart muscle caused by a thrombus blocking a coronary artery
Embolism
the sudden blockage of a blood vessel by an embolus
Hyperlipidemia
the general term used to describe elevated levels of cholesterol and other fatty substances in the blood
Anemia
term meaning lower-than-normal number of erythrocytes (red blood cells) in the blood
Aplastic anemia
disease characterized by an absence of all formed blood elements caused by the failure of blood cell production in the bone marrow
Hemolytic anemia
a condition of an inadequate number of circulating red blood cells due to the premature destruction of red blood cells by the spleen
Angiography
radiography of a blood vessel after injection of a contrast medium
Arteriectomy
the surgical removal of part of an artery
Carotid endarterectomy
the surgical removal of the lining of a portion of a clogged carotid artery leading to the brain
Hemostasis
means to stop or control bleeding
Atherosclerosis
hardening of the arteries. any group of disease characterized by thickening and the loss of elasticity of arterial walls
Atheroma
a fatty deposit in the intima (inner lining) of an artery
Cardiomegaly
abnormal enlargement of the heart
Endocarditis
inflammation of the inner lining of the heart
Pericarditis
inflammation of the pericardium (membranous sac surrounding the heart)
Cardiomyopathy
the term used to describe all diseases of the heart muscle
Thrombolytic
type of medication designed to dissolve a clot and clear a blocked blood vessel.(clot-busting drug)
Angina
a condition in which severe episodes of chest pain occur due to an inadequate blood flow to the myocardium. (angina pectoris)
Myocardial infarction
commonly known as a heart attack. Is the occlusion (blockage) of one or more coronary arteries caused by plaque buildup.
Heart murmur
an abnormal blowing or clicking sound heard when listening to the heart or neighboring large blood vessels
Valvular stenosis
a condition in which there is narrowing, stiffening, thickening, or blockage of one or more valves of the heart
Embolus
A clot that breaks lose and travels through the bloodstream.
Septicemia
a systemic disease caused by the infection of microorganisms and their toxins in the circulating blood
Myelodysplastic syndrome
a group of bone marrow disorders that are characterized by the insufficient production of one or more types of blood cells due to dysfunction of the bone marrow.
Leukemia
a type of cancer characterized by a progressive increase in the number of abnormal leukocytes found in blood forming tissues, other organs, and in the circulating blood
Pernicious anemia
a type of anemia caused by a lack of the protein intrinsic factor that helps the body absorb vitamin B12 from the gastrointestinal tract
Megaloblastic anemia
a blood disorder characterized by anemia in which the red blood cells are larger than normal
Sickle cell anemia
a genetic disorder that causes abnormal hemoglobin, resulting in some red blood cells assuming an abnormal sickle shape
ACE inhibitor
blocks the action of the enzyme that causes the blood vessels to contract, resulting in hypertension
Beta-blocker
reduces the workload of the heart by slowing the rate of the heart beat
Calcium channel blocker
drug that causes the heart and blood vessels to relax by decreasing the movement of calcium into the cells of these structures.
Coumadin
an anticoagulant used to prevent blood clots from forming or growing larger. (brand name warfarin)
Digitalis
medication that strengthens the contraction of the heart muscle, slows the heart rate, and helps eliminate fluid from body tissues
Nitroglycerin
a vasodilator that is prescribed to prevent or relieve the pain of angina by dilating the blood vessels to the heart
Angioplasty
the technique of mechanically widening a narrowed or obstructed blood vessel
Ventricular tachycardia
A rapid heart rhythm in which the electrical impulse begins in the ventricle (instead of the atrium), which may result in inadequate blood flow and eventually deteriorate into cardiac arrest
Orthostatic hypotension
low blood pressure that occurs upon standing up
Aneurysm
a localized weak spot or balloon-like enlargement of the wall of an artery.
Arteriosclerosis
the abnormal narrowing of an artery or arteries
Varicose veins
abnormally swollen veins, usually occurring in the superficial veins of the legs
Hemochromatosis
a genetic disorder in which the intestines absorb too much iron.
Polycythemia
an abnormal increase in the number of red cells in the blood due to excess production of these cells by the bone marrow
Thrombocytosis
an abnormal increase in the number of platelets in the circulating blood
Angiitis
inflammation of a blood vessel
Angiostenosis
the abnormal narrowing of a blood vessel
Hypoperfusion
a deficiency of blood passing through an organ or body part
Polyarteritis
Inflammation of many arteries
Thalassemia
an inherited blood disorder that causes mild or severe anemia due to reduced hemoglobin and fewer red blood cells than normal
Phlebography
technique of preparing an x-ray image of veins injected with a contrast medium material
Restenosis
describes the condition when an artery that has been opened by angioplasty closes again
Aneurysmectomy
surgical removal of an aneurysm
Aneurysmorrhaphy
suture of an aneurysm
Valvoplasty
the surgical repair or replacement of a heart valve
Electrocardiology
the study of the heart’s electrical activity
Electrocardiogram
Record of the electrical activity of the myocardium
Stress test
performed to assess cardiovascular health and function during and after stress
Diuretic
administered to stimulate the kidneys to increase the secretion of urine to rid the body of excess sodium and water
Vasodilator
a drug that causes dilation of the blood vessels (to expand)
Vasoconstrictor
a drug that causes narrowing of the blood vessels (constricting)
Plasmapharesis
the removal of blood from the body and separation of the blood’s cellular elements. (Plasma exchange)
Hematologist
a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating abnormalities, diseases, and disorders of the blood and blood-forming tissues
Ischemia
a condition in which there is an insufficient supply of oxygen in the tissues due to a restricted blood flow to a part of the body
Myocarditis
Inflammation of the heart muscle
angi/o
blood or lymph vessel (word part)
aort/o
aorta (word part)
arteri/o
artery (word part)
ather/o
plaque, fatty substance (word part)
brady-
slow (prefix)
cardi/o
heart (word part)
-crasia
a mixture or blending (suffix)
-emia
blood, blood condition (suffix)
erythr/o
red (word part)
hem/o (hemat/o)
blood, relating to the blood (word part)
leuk/o
white (word part)
phleb/o
vein (word part)
tachy-
fast, rapid (prefix)
thromb/o
clot (word part)
ven/o
vein (word part)

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