Mauryan and Gupta Empires – AP World History

Flashcard maker : Daniel Hardy
Mauryan Empire
-Classical Civilization in India
-Unified South Asia under 1 government
-Expanded under the rule of Chandragupta Maurya
-Emerged in the 4th century BC
-At it’s height during the 3rd century BC
-Capital: Pataliputra
Chandragupta Maurya
Conqueror who expanded the Mauryan empire
Provinces
Sections of the empire which had capital cities and princes who served as representatives to the emperor
Council of Ministers
Assisted the princes; another council advised the emperor
Districts
Sections of provinces that were governed by ministers who were in charge of the local bureaucrats
Role of the army
The army kept peace in the empire and an extensive spy system kept the government informed of any unrest that was brewing.
Ashoka Maurya (Ashoka the Great)
-Ruled 268 – 232 BC
-Expanded the empire
-Converted to Buddhism after attacking Kalinga
-Sent missionaries to Ceylon and Bactria
-Established effective tax-colllecting system, built roads, and outlawed slavery
-Rock and Pillar Edicts
Ceylon
Now known as Sri Lanka
Bactria
A kingdom west of the Ganges River established by Alexander the Great’s Greek descendants
Rock and Pillar Edicts
Ashoka’s policies and philosophies were inscribed on rocks and pillars to keep the public informed of the law
Reasons for the Fall of the Mauryan Empire
-Later leaders did not share Ashoka’s talent for governance
-Unable to maintain a highly centalized bureaucracy
-Ineffective military
Effect of Mauryan Empire
-India became a powerful trading crossroads between China and Europe
-Indian Ocean Sea Lanes connected India to East Africa, Indonesia, and Rome
-United South Asia under one government
Gupta Empire
-Similar to the Mauryan empire
-Trading crossroads
-Provinces controlled by princes
-Pataliputra became the intellectual and cultural center of the empire
-Improved health care
-Developed the 0-9 numeral system (known as Arabic Numerals)
Gupta Empire health care improvements
-Setting broken bones
-Skin grafts
-Innoculations
Gupta Religion
Particularly noticeable in education, art, and literature
Hinduism
-Children from upper castes studied the Vedas and other literature in school
Entire universities were devoted to studying particular subjects, such as government, astronomy, math, art, painting, and architecture.
Nalanda
One of the oldest universities in the world
Sarnath
Buddhists established a university for Buddhist teachings
Religious Freedom
Allowed by both Mauryan and Gupta empires
Buddhism
-Spread to China along the Silk Road
-Monasticism spread through South Asia
-Gained more followers in East and Southeast Asia than South Asia
Fall of the Gupta Empire
-Ethnic diversity and a large number of languages divided the empire
-Unable to organize a highly centralized bureaucracy
-Nomads called the White Huns invaded

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