Maslow, ch 9

Abraham Maslow was associated with ____ psychology
Maslow believed that psychologists should study
the strengths and virtues where human natures is at its best
Maslow insisted on psychology that emphasized
human strengths, free-will, and the fulfillment of human potential
Maslow’s approach to personality is based on the idea that
people are capable of displaying better behavior than prejudice, hatred, and aggression
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs are considered instinctoid, which are based on
needs for safety, belongingness, and love
According to Maslow, hungry people are not preoccupied with the need of self-actualization until they _____needs
The key idea in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is that
lower needs have to be satisfied before higher needs become influential
A fully functioning person feels a(n)
ability to live richly and creatively in the moment
Belongingness and esteem needs arise in
Higher needs are
All of the answers
-weaker than lower
-active late in life
-less necessary
Maslow called the higher (meta) needs
growth or being needs
Lower needs are
All of the answers
All of the following are physiological needs except
the need for relationships
The need for safety is most important in
infants and neurotic adults
People whose safety needs are unsatisfied prefer
stability and structure
Maslow believed that the belongingness and love needs
involves the need bot to give and receive love
By self-actualization, Maslow meant
fulfillment of our unique potential, talents, and abilities
A prerequisite for self-actualization is
All of the answers
-realistic knowledge
-freedom from constraints
-feeling of security
concerning cognitive needs, studies have been shown that emotionally healthy adults
are motivated to improve their knowledge about unexplained events
In Maslow’s view, human behavior is
determined by innate needs and situational variables
In metamotivation, a person
is said to be developing from within
According to Maslow, truly self-actualized people constitute for ___ of the population
less than 1%
Maslow called moments of intense ecstasy, power, and transcendence of the self
peak experiences
During a peak experience, the person
feels powerful, confident, and decisive
A peak experience occurs when
the self is transcended and a person feels supremely powerful
Self-actualizers can occasionally
All of the answers
-feel doubt
-be hurtful
-experience conflict
The tendency to self-actualize can be impeded by
our doubts about our own abilities
Maslow’s personality theory grew out of his research on the characteristics of
self-actualized persons
Maslow’s primary research method was the
Maslow did not use these traditional research techniques
Maslow has been criticized on the grounds that his research
is nnot scientifically rigorous
What was Maslow’s attitude tower subjective experiences?
it provides the experiential base for personality research
According to Maslow, what could one do to help another person grow and develop
enhance the attractions (benefits) of change
In order of their salience (ability to influence us), the needs in Maslow’s hierarchy are
physiological, safety, love, esteem, self-actualization
According to Maslow, once a need has been met
it may again become pre-potent, if no longer met in the future
A wish or desire qualifies as a basic need when one or more of the following conditions are met
All of the above
At the highest level of the need hierarchy, people are
no longer motivated by basic need deficiencies
Which of the following illustrates B-motivation?
beauty, truth, and justice
People who are self-actualized are most likely to laugh at
the human condition
The need for self-esteem is ____
a deficiency motivation
Basic needs are
All of the above
Carl Rogers and ____ viewed psychology as humanistic, psychoanalytic
Abraham Maslow
Rogers believed personality is influence primarily by
conscious perception of ourselves and our experiential world
According to Rogers, the best way to understand personality is through
a person’s subjective experiences
For Rogers, the ultimate goal is to become a
fully functioning person
Rogers childhood was characterized by
parents who loved him in subtle ways, but held strict religious views and emphasized moral behavior
According to Rogers, the way we see our environment is
dependent on our perception of it, which may not always coincide with reality
To rogers, the only valid way to study personality is through
examining each person’s subjective perceptions
Rogers’ terms for the acceptance we need from others is
positive regard
According to Rogers, unconditional positive regard
is nto dependent on the child’s behavior
Conditions of worth derive from
internalizing parents’ norms and standards
Once infants develop conditions of worth, they
must avoid certain behaviors that otherwise might be personally satisfying
Our level of psychological adjustment and emotional health is a function of the extent for which our
self is congruent with our environment
Carl Rogers’ fully functioning person would
All of the answers
All of the following are characteristics of a fully functioning person except
achievement of as much wealth and power as one’s potential allows
In Rogers’ theory of human nature
one aspect of personality… predispositional
Rogers believed that personality should be
Three long words
Rogers said it was difficult for a therapist to know a client’s experiential world completely, because
all of the answers
In Rogers’ approach to therapy, the therapist provides
unconditional positive regard
The only predetermined belief of the person-centered therapist is
the client’s inherent value and worth
With regard to experiemtnal research, Rogers
preferred to have a clearer view of a person’s experiential world
The technique in which a person arranges statements about the self-concept into categories is called
a Q-sort
Rogers believed that the essence of human nature is
an innate drive for actualization
Research using the Q sort provides
impressive evidence for the effectiveness of person-centered therapy
The self-reports, children whose parents used conditional regard
showed poor coping skills, fluctuating levels of self-esteem and low self worth
Parents who accepted their children unconditionally and displayed democratic child rearing practices
had children with higher self-esteem and greater emotional security
To say that Maslow and Rogers were existential is to recognize that they emphasized
choice making and responsibility
To say that Rogers took a phenomenological approach recognize that he emphasized
understanding the point of view of the client
Rogers regarded the fundamental motivation to be
the actualizing tendency
If a person is highly incongruent
the real self and ideal self are in conflict
To say that Maslow and Rogers were existential is to recognize that they emphasized
choice making and responsibility
Rogers’ term for acceptance we need from others is
positive regard
Our level of psychological adjustment is a function of the extent to which
self is contingent with environment
Differentiation of self ….
All of the above
Rogers term for understanding others as they see themselves is
At an intrapsychic level, differentiation refers to the ability to distinguish between
intellect and emotion
Highly differentiated individuals are thought to
demonstrate better psychological adjustment
Highly differentiated individuals are thought to
remain in satisfying contact with families of origin
People who are highly differentiated tend to also be
emotionally regulated
Those who have “satisfaction with life” tend to
All of the above
A peak experience occurs when
the self is transcend and a person feels supremely able and at peace
Maslow’s influences from childhood
Father—determined but aloof father; hitchhiked across Western Europe; was a drinker and philanderer – periodically abandoned family
Mother– superstitious;cruel;hated- killed kittens; rejected Maslow for younger siblings
Inferiority complex- Felt inferior because of physique, nose, and differences from others
Compensation- Did not do well athletically, so turned to scholarship
Maslow’s influences from later experiences
-Developed an interest in behaviorism;Worked with primates
-Interest turned to humanism
-Worked to overcome ailments
-Experiences of having a child and feeling helpless, viewing a parade, and influences of Gestalt psychologist and American anthropologist kindled interest in self-actualization
Hierarchy of needs
activate and direct human behavior
1. physiological
2. safety
3. belongingness and love
4. Esteem
5. self-actualization
The way Maslow desribed the five needs in his hiearchy; needs are innate or have a heriditory component.
However, these needs can be affected/overridden by learning, social expectations, and fear of disapproval. Although we come equipped with these needs at birth, the behaviors we use to satisfy them are learned and therefore subject to variation from one person to another;Overlain with environmental influences and learned behaviors
In Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs, one need is ___________ at any time
Can the order change in the hierarchy of needs?
Four needs are ________, and four needs are __________
deficit; growth (being)
Deficiency needs
-failure to satisfy produces a deficiency in body
-basic requirements for physical and psychological well-being
-4 lower level needs that must be satisfied first
Growth (being) needs
The 4 higher needs; although growth needs are less necessary than deficit needs for survival, they involve the realization and fulfillment of human potential.
Which are more important: lower level needs or higher level needs?
lower level needs
Lower needs
higher potency/priority
Higher needs
-later in life
-gratification can be postponed and requires better circumstances/opportinities
-satisfaction leads to psychological benifits
physiological needs
*basic physical or biological needs required by every human to sustain life
*Rarely in need of satisfaction in affluent, industrialized cultures
Safety needs
*Necessary for freedom from fear
-Physical safety
-Health and well-being
-Economic safety
-Emotional safety
-Insurance against future threats
*Most prevalent in children and neurotic and insecure adults
Belongingness and love needs
*Necessary for acceptance
*Arises in adolescence
Esteem needs
*Necessary for confidence, competence, and productivity
-Esteem and respect from others
-Feeling of self-worth and esteem from selves
*Arises in adolescence
need for Self-actualization
the need to fulfill one’s potention; highest need in Maslow’s motivational hierarchy; Peak of potential and fullest personality development
4 necessary conditions of self-actualization
-Free of constraints imposed by society and selves
-Free of distraction by lower-order needs
-Security in self image and relationships with others
-Realistic knowledge of strengths and weaknesses
the motivation of self-actualizers, which involves maximizing personal potential rather than striving for a particular goal object
When self-actualized people use metamotivation, they are
-Seeking knowledge and understanding of environment
-Seeking personal enrichment
-State of “being” (spontaneously, naturally, and joyfully expressing full humanity)
-Evolving to meet metaneeds
*failure results in metapathology
States of growth or being toward which self-actualizers evolve; Secondary concerns, such as spirituality, creativity, curiosity, beauty, philosophy, and justice, that can be addressed only after the basic needs are met.
*the result when metaneeds are not met;
-A thwarting of self-development related to failure to satisfy the metaneeds.
-Psychological disorder that results when a being motive is not allowed proper expression.
12 characteristics of a Self-Actualized individual
-Efficient perception of reality
-Acceptance of self, others, and nature
-Spontaneity, simplicity, and naturalness
-Dedication to a cause
-sense of detachment and need for privacy
-Freshness of appreciation
-Peak experiences
-Social interest
-Deep interpersonal relationships
-Tolerance and acceptance of others
-Creativeness and originality
-Resistance to social pressures/inculturation
Efficient perception of reality
Self-actualizers perceive their world, including other people, clearly and objectively, unbiased by prejudgments or preconceptions
Acceptance of self, others, and nature
Self-actualizers accept their strengths and weaknesses. They do not try to distort or falsify their self-image and they do not feel guilty about their failings. They also accept the weaknesses of other people and of society in general.
Spontaneity, simplicity, and naturalness
The behavior of self-actualizers is open, direct, and natural. They rarely hide their feelings or emotions or play a role to satisfy society, although they may do so to avoid hurting other people; individualistic in their ideas and ideals but not necessarily unconventional in their behavior; feel secure enough to be themselves without being overly assertive.
Dedication to a cause; focus on problems outside themselves
Self-actualizers have a sense of mission, a commitment, to which they devote their energy. This dedication to a
cause or vocation is a requirement for self-actualization; find pleasure and excitement in their hard work; Through intense dedication, able to satisfy the metaneeds; do not undertake their tasks for money, fame, or power but rather to satisfy the metaneeds. Their commitment challenges and develops their abilities and helps define their sense of self.
sense of detachment and need for privacy
Self-actualizers can experience isolation without harmful effects and seem to need solitude more than persons who are not self-actualizing; depend on themselves, not on others, for their satisfactions; independence may make them seem aloof or unfriendly, but that is not their intent; more autonomous than most; and dont crave social support
freshness of appreciation
Self-actualizers have the ability to perceive and experience their environment with freshness, wonder, and awe. An experience may grow stale for someone who is not self-actualizing, but self-actualizers will enjoy each recurrence as though it was the first. Whether it is a sunset, a painting, or a symphony, a baseball game or a birthday gift—all of these experiences can be viewed with delight. Self-actualizers appreciate what they have and take little for granted.
peak experiences
Self-actualizers know moments of intense ecstasy, not unlike deep religious experiences, that can occur with virtually any activity. Maslow called these events peak experiences, during which the self is transcended and the person feels supremely powerful, confident, an decisive.
social interest
Maslow adopted Alfred Adler’s concept of social interest to indicate the sympathy and empathy self-actualizing persons have for all humanity; Although often irritated by the behavior of other people, self-actualizers feel a kinship with and an understanding of others as well as a desire to help them.
Deep interpersonal relationships
Although their circle of friends is not large, self-actualizers have deep, lasting friendships; tend to select as friends those with personal qualities similar to their own, just as we all choose as friends the people we find compatible; often attract admirers or disciples; relationships are usually one-sided; the admirer asks more of the self-actualizer than the self-actualizer is able or willing to give.
Tolerance and acceptance of others; democratic character structure
Self-actualizers are tolerant and accepting of the personality and behavior of others; display no racial, religious, or social prejudice; willing to listen to and learn from anyone capable of teaching them and are rarely condescending
Creativeness and originality
Self-actualizing people are highly creative and exhibit inventiveness and originality in their work and other facets of life; flexible, spontaneous, and willing to make mistakes and learn from them; open and humble, in the way children are before society teaches them to be embarrassed or shy about possibly doing something foolish.
Resistance to social pressures/inculturation
Self-actualizers are autonomous, independent,and self-sufficient; feel free to resist social and cultural pressures to think or behave in a certain way;do not openly rebel against cultural norms or social codes, but they are governed by their own nature rather than the structures of society.
Failure to self actualize
-Hostile and rejecting parents
-Poor economic/environmental conditions
-Inadequate education
-Restriction from exploring
-Too much freedom
-Self-doubt (Jonah complex)
Jonah Complex
The fear that maximizing our potential will lead to a situation with which we will be unable to cope.
What is necessary to be able to be self-actualized?
-Sufficient childhood love
-satisfaction of physiological and safety needs in first two years of life
Cognitive needs
1. need to know-strongest and highest priority
2. need to understand-comes later
*Appear in late infancy and early childhood
*Overlap the other five needs
*Required for self-actualization
Maslow’s views on human nature
Optimistic – focus on psychological health and potential
Free will- we choose how to satisfy our needs and maximize potential
Nature and nurture – needs are innate but behaviors are learned
Uniqueness and universality – needs are universal but how we respond and behave are unique
Growth – we try to achieve self-actualization and our maximum potential