Marriage & Family Chp. 4-6

Flashcard maker : August Dunbar
The social process of determining who does what work and for what reward is called
A. job placement.
B. division of labor.
C. social inequality.
D. education.
The process of families deciding who will do various chores and duties is an example of
A. division of labor. C. gender roles.
B. family meeting. D. parenting.
The existence of social inequality indicates that it serves some beneficial purpose for society, according to what point of view?
A. conflict theory
B. exchange theory
C. symbolic interactionism
D. functionalism
The process by which labor produces wealth that is not controlled by the laborers but by others, is called
A. employment. C. Marxism.
B. exploitation. D. economics.
Employees of a retail restaurant chain work to generate profit for the corporation, and that wealth is controlled by executives. Conflict theorists call this
A. unjust. C. proletariat.
B. social class. D. exploitation.
Max Weber originated the concept of life chances, which refers to
A. a person’s chance of living to old age.
B. the statistical likelihood of becoming wealthy.
C. the practical opportunity to achieve material success.
D. the randomness of being born into one social class or another.
A young adult whose parents can provide funds for college, reliable health care, and emotional support stands a better chance of achieving her material goals in life. This is an example of
A. life chances. C. social mobility.
B. social class. D. education.
Being a member of a family or other exclusive group gives individual members access to all of the resources of that group. Sociologists call these resources
A. social capital. C. connections.
B. wealth. D. life chances.
A young adult who can provide letters of recommendation from respected community leaders who are friends with his parents is often more likely to get a desired position or admission. This is an example of
A. social capital. C. inequality.
B. wealth. D. class distinction.
Members of the upper class often marry each other, maintaining the deep pool of social capital available to them. This mate selection practice is called
A. in-group. C. endogamy.
B. class identity. D. class distinction.
For members of a social class, the everyday interactions, shared economic circumstances, distinctive ways of life, and an awareness of those patterns is known as
A. class identity. C. culture.
B. class consciousness. D. ethnocentrism.
Which of the following is NOT true about class identity?
A. It is based on more than statistical groupings based on income.
B. It is stronger in societies with more social mobility.
C. It persists for years, if not generations.
D. It is associated with social capital, which persists even as income changes.
Which of the following is true about the study of social class?
A. The working class was most severely hit by the recession of the late 2000s.
B. More people identify as “lower class” than the actual rates of poverty would suggest.
C. Almost half of U.S. society identifies as working class.
D. Most sociologists have given up on precisely defining social classes.
The disparity in economic status and security between upper and lower classes is called
A. capitalism. C. inequality.
B. class identity. D. the Gini index.
Income inequality has increased continuously since the 1960s, for all of the following reasons EXCEPT:
A. changes in public policy.
B. changes from manufacturing to service economy.
C. decrease in personal responsibility and work ethic.
D. deregulation of finance industry.
The Gini index is
A. a measure of wealth.
B. a measure of inequality.
C. a tool for understanding poverty.
D. a measure of social mobility.
Which of the following describes the change in the Gini index scores for the United States in the past 60 years?
A. It has increased steadily since 1950.
B. It has decreased steadily since 1950.
C. It has fluctuated erratically since the mid-1980s.
D. It has steadily increased since 1970.
Which of the following is NOT true about the poverty line?
A. It is the level of income below which sociologists define a family or individual as poor.
B. It was created in the 1960s, based on a formula that hinges on food expenses.
C. Its intention is to identify families who cannot meet their basic needs.
D. It is a flawed measure of poverty.
Which of the following is NOT a problem with the poverty line as a measure of poverty?
A. The price of food has increased more slowly than other costs.
B. The calculation does not include government benefits such as tax credits.
C. It does not account for differences in the cost of living by region.
D. It is not updated frequently enough.
The practice of setting tax rates so that wealth is redistributed toward the poor is called
A. income tax. C. progressive taxation.
B. earned tax credit. D. communism.
Poverty increased dramatically during the 2000s because of all of the following, EXCEPT
A. severe economic inequality. C. high unemployment.
B. recession. D. poor work ethic.
Which of the following is NOT a trend in poverty in the United States?
A. Homelessness has increased.
B. There are more poor married-couple families than single-parent families.
C. The rate of poverty is higher among single-parent families.
D. It is common for families to move in and out of poverty over time.
The difference between one’s class origin and class destination is known as
A. life chances. C. “rags to riches.”
B. social mobility. D. social capital.
Which of the following facts is true about social mobility?
A. The United States has about the same amount of social mobility as other wealthy countries.
B. Until recent decades, social class persistence was mitigated somewhat by estate taxes.
C. Most people do rise above the social class into which they were born.
D. Members of the middle class tend to have more social mobility than those at the ends of the spectrum.
The tendency of people to be in the same social class throughout their lives is called
A. social mobility. C. class persistence.
B. consistency. D. class consciousness.
In the text’s discussion of poverty in single-parent households, which of the following is NOT one of the types of scarcity mentioned?
A. money C. social capital
B. time D. education
Many children of single parents have a smaller extended family network on which to rely. This causes a reduction in
A. social capital. C. language skill.
B. emotional intelligence. D. wealth.
Parents who work in jobs that require creativity and divergent thinking are more likely to raise their children to value
A. obedience and promptness. C. creativity and divergent thinking.
B. art and music. D. education.
Which of the following is true about social class and parenting?
A. Parents usually guide their children into values that will improve their chances of social mobility.
B. Parents usually guide their children to value the traits that will prepare them to stay at the same social class level.
C. Children of working-class and poor parents tend to be more assertive.
D. Social class does not affect parenting practices very much.
Annette Lareau followed a handful of families in their daily lives in order to understand their
A. attitudes about social class. C. stress.
B. discipline practices. D. parenting practices.
The aggressive approach to parenting that stresses assertiveness and interactions with adults, and involves filling children’s schedules is called
A. concerted cultivation. C. authoritarian parenting.
B. helicopter parenting. D. accomplishment of natural growth.
The parenting practice of many poor and working-class families, which allows for informal play and a focus on protection and care is called
A. concerted cultivation. C. authoritarian parenting.
B. helicopter parenting. D. accomplishment of natural growth.
Which of the following is NOT true about the government’s role in our social class system?
A. The amount of government intervention with the poor is higher in the United States than in other developed countries.
B. The government practices progressive taxation in the United States.
C. The government sets the poverty line.
D. Government played a role in the recession of the 2000s.
The text describes the social class system in the United States as a “common description,” because it is
A. widely understood by the public. C. impossible to define classes specifically.
B. the most popular. D. tested by research and accepted.
In the General Social Survey, 3.2 percent of Americans identify as
A. upper class. C. working class.
B. middle class. D. lower class.
In the General Social Survey, 8 percent of Americans identify as
A. upper class. C. working class.
B. middle class. D. lower class.
Most sociologists conceptualize social class as
A. steps. C. a ladder.
B. categories. D. a pyramid.
The social class gap between those with Internet access and those without is known as
A. digital inequality. C. digital gap.
B. Internet inequality. D. digital divide.
Which of the following is NOT a reason discussed in the text for the gap in “media time” between upper-income families and lower-income families?
A. different approaches to parenting
B. financial limitations to buying electronics
C. stress and demands on time
D. differences in the amount of free time children have
Which of the following concepts is illustrated by parents purchasing mostly pink items for their daughters (as shown in the opening photo of Chapter 5)?
A. gender identity C. gender expression
B. gender socialization D. sex preference
When it comes to sex selection of children, American parents
A. most commonly prefer one child of each sex.
B. routinely prefer to have only male children.
C. show a strong preference for female children.
D. indicate no preference in the sex of their children.
All are accurate statements about identity EXCEPT
A. sexual and gender identities always match in adulthood.
B. the expression of identity is often a place where social change occurs.
C. sexual identity is the recognition of a biological sex category.
D. gender identity is the identification with social categories like boy or girl.
The social expression of biological sex is
A. sex identity C. sex selection
B. gender D. gender oppression
The term for the biological category of male and female, based on anatomy and physiology, is
A. sex selection C. sex
B. gender D. gender expression
Sex and gender are different in that
A. sex cannot tell us much about one’s genes, but gender can.
B. gender reminds us that males and females are biological opposites.
C. sex is the more useful of the two terms.
D. gender refers to the social role based on one’s categorical sex.
Restroom symbols and the British stamp illustrate the ways in which males and females are depicted
A. similarly. C. in ways that show the man as superior.
B. according to legal dictates. D. so that women gain power.
Which of the following strategies makes women appear to be the weaker sex?
A. showing women as more broad-shouldered than men
B. photographing women to appear taller than men
C. decreasing the gap in the athletic performance of women relative to men
D. portraying husbands as taller than their wives
When it comes to biological sex differences
A. the differences are so large that males and females rarely act similarly to each other.
B. research has proven that women are biologically inferior to men.
C. the physical sex differences in humans are small when compared with other species.
D. the biological sex differences matter little in the way that people are treated.
The most popular cosmetic surgery procedure for women in 2012 was
A. eyelid alteration C. liposuction
B. tummy tuck D. breast augmentation
The ways in which parents dress their children are important because
A. it helps to turn biological sexual identities into social gender identities.
B. everyone wants to wear the latest styles.
C. physical activity level helps determine the types of clothing available for children.
D. personal expression matters more than any other element in forming gender identity.
When a person’s chromosomal composition does not correspond with his or her sexual anatomy, it is known as
A. intersex C. disordered sex
B. supersex D. multisex
The situation in which one’s gender identity and assigned sex do not match, perhaps leading to a feeling of being trapped in the wrong body, is known as
A. multisex C. transgender
B. transsexual D. gender ideation
Transgender identities
A. present a problem for societies like the United States that have a strictly two-gender system.
B. have never been accepted in an societies.
C. are seen as a third gender option across the United States.
D. will likely result in a great deal of confusion for children.
A sexual identity
A. is never a source of anxiety for humans.
B. develops once children start to interact with others.
C. is assigned to all children at birth.
D. will have little impact on one’s future relationships.
A gender approach in which one is neither exclusively masculine nor exclusively feminine is
A. confusing for children.
B. likely to promote difficulty in personal relations.
C. referred to as an androgynous approach.
D. a new idea practiced by modern parents.
Which of the following countries does NOT include the category of “Other” on questions about gender, thereby preventing transgendered people from being granted rights?
A. Pakistan C. United States
B. India D. Nepal
A key goal of the organization “Pink Stinks” is to
A. promote breast cancer awareness.
B. decrease stereotyping of girls that focuses on being pretty, passive, and obsessed with shopping.
C. manufacture only blue items so that boys and girls become exactly alike when they grow up.
D. force girls to wear clothing colors other than pink.
Because sex and gender are so closely linked, genetic predisposition affects the behaviors of men and women. This statement is most consistent with which perspective on gender?
A. biological C. masculine
B. feminist D. symbolic interactionist
The argument that current gender differences arose over time through evolution is most consistent with which perspective on gender?
A. symbolic interactionist C. feminist
B. masculine D. biological
Gender differences are the product of social interaction that reflects men’s dominant position relative to women. This statement is most consistent with which perspective on gender?
A. biological C. masculine
B. feminist D. symbolic interactionist
The study of maleness mirrors that of whiteness in that
A. the emphasis is on oppressed groups.
B. males and whites were neglected in early research on structured oppression.
C. researchers continue to avoid studying these dominant groups.
D. the same group of experts study both topics.
Expectations for men’s behavior compared to women’s behavior
A. permit men more freedom in clothing choices.
B. are less strictly enforced for men than for women.
C. support a narrow cultural view of masculinity.
D. promote more bullying of women compared to bullying of men.
People “do gender” when they enact the social roles that conform to the commonly expected image for their sex. This statement is most consistent with which perspective on gender?
A. biological C. masculine
B. feminist D. symbolic interactionist
When researchers say that masculinity is socially constructed, they mean that
A. men can behave in any way they wish because they are their own bosses.
B. there are different perspectives for what it means to be a man, depending on the setting.
C. it is only through interaction with peers that men can understand how to be men.
D. once boys learn how to be masculine they will have no future need for advice.
All of the following are key agents in socializing people to the expected gender roles EXCEPT
A. parents and siblings C. peer groups
B. schoolteachers D. legal systems
Which of the following is true about the ways that parents treat boys and girls differently?
A. Parents provide the same toys to children regardless of whether they are girls or boys.
B. Mothers spend more time talking to daughters than they do to their sons.
C. The chores that parents assign tend to be based on the child’s skill rather than sex.
D. Fathers and mothers have neutral expectations for the future careers of their children.
The process by which individuals internalize elements of the social structure, making them part of their own personality, is
A. social networking C. socialization
B. identity learning D. indoctrination
Gender socialization occurs
A. within the family through contact with family members.
B. without the influence of social institutions like media or religion.
C. to keep young people acting the same way as their parents.
D. only within the time frame of the preschool years.
Clothing that children wear to school reinforces gendered behavior in which of the following ways?
A. School uniforms make male and female students appear as if they have no gender differences.
B. Teachers require male and female students to dress radically different from each other for identification purposes.
C. When girls wear dresses they are limited in the physical activities in which they can participate.
D. Since boys wear pants rather than dresses, they are not permitted to participate in all physical education activities.
Which of the following is NOT supported by religious conservatives?
A. women having greater authority than men in the home
B. gender equality in the workplace
C. more support for a breadwinner-homemaker model
D. a high value on imparting religious values to children
When it comes to feminism within religion
A. religion and feminism are clearly incompatible.
B. there are no organized religions in which women serve as leaders.
C. conflicts in expectations for males and females have resulted in no changes in doctrine.
D. the Islamic practice of hijab has been a source of controversy for some women.
Which of the following is true about the school performance of boys and girls?
A. Girls are less likely than boys to pursue careers in math and science.
B. High school boys tend to score higher than girls on math tests.
C. Girls outperform boys on nearly all standardized tests.
D. Boys are less likely than girls to take advanced math classes in high school.
People in a similar social situation and of similar status with whom an individual interacts are known as
A. family C. friends
B. peers D. comrades
Which of the following is NOT considered a “boy-typical” activity?
A. playing sports C. making jewelry
B. fishing or hunting D. play fighting
A primary explanation for the difference between female and male graduation rates in low-income neighborhoods is
A. boys are afforded the luxury of staying in school while girls have to go to work.
B. girls’ close social connections encourage them to stay in school.
C. boys are more closely supervised than girls, so they receive extra parental support.
D. girls are more likely to leave school because of pregnancy and parental pressure to marry.
When it comes to occupational sex segregation
A. women and men do different types of work for pay than they do at home for no pay.
B. men and women study different things in school but end up in similar careers.
C. job screeners might bring their preconceived ideas of gender to the applicant selection process.
D. the jobs are unimportant because managers are likely to pay male and female employees the same salaries.
One of the reasons the number of employed women increased rapidly after World War II was because
A. men wanted to stay home and be taken care of financially.
B. women obtained more education and wanted to use their degrees.
C. day-care centers improved so much that women no longer wanted to care for their own children.
D. the government mandated that companies hire as many female employees as male employees.
Despite women’s increasing participation in work, on average they earn just _____________ percent of what men earn.
A. 72 C. 81
B. 77 D. 89
Compared to jobs dominated by men, jobs dominated by women
A. are more likely to mesh with women’s family obligations.
B. pay much better because women are scarce in the work world.
C. require significant education and hold much prestige.
D. have lower status and lower pay.
The study in which children were asked to rate the status and pay of the fictional job of “tenic” demonstrates that
A. females and males are viewed the same when doing the same work.
B. gender expectations lead to more favorable evaluations of jobs associated with men.
C. jobs for women are seen as much more difficult than jobs associated with men.
D. inequality occurs between jobs, but not within them.
Sexual identity is important in today’s society because of the
A. sexualization of society.
B. loss of traditional values.
C. changing role of women.
D. freedom of sexual choice.
Fundamental self-description often depends on gendered categories that are tied to
A. biological identities. C. sexual orientations.
B. technological advances. D. sexual identities.
Sexual identity includes all of the following, EXCEPT
A. frequency of sexual activity. C. sexual orientation.
B. biological identity. D. gender identity.
Sexual orientation refers to a pattern of sexual ________ with regard to one’s gender identity.
A. attraction C. promiscuity
B. activity D. identity
Asexual behavior is estimated to describe ________ percent of the population.
A. 1 C. 3
B. 2 D. 4
The term queer includes all of the following sexual orientations, EXCEPT
A. bisexual. C. heterosexual.
B. homosexual. D. asexual.
Sam is not sexually attracted to either gender and shows little interest in sexual partners. This form of sexual orientation is best described as
A. asexual. C. heterosexual.
B. bisexual. D. homosexual.
Shanae is sexually attracted to people of the same gender and engages primarily in same-sex sexual activities. This form of sexual orientation is best described as
A. asexual. C. heterosexual.
B. bisexual. D. homosexual.
Dante is sexually attracted to people of both genders, but is currently in a relationship with an opposite-sex partner. This form of sexual orientation is best described as
A. asexual. C. heterosexual.
B. bisexual. D. homosexual.
Sexual identity can best be described as a
A. fixed identity that does not change.
B. fluid identity that can vary.
C. biological identity that is predetermined.
D. social identity based on choice.
Which of the following is true regarding same-sex sexual behavior and the role of gender?
A. Gender matters in college, but not in adulthood.
B. Men and women are equally likely to engage in same-sex sexual behavior.
C. Men are more likely to engage in same-sex sexual behavior.
D. Women are more likely to engage in same-sex sexual behavior.
Disliking someone because they identify as lesbian, bisexual, or gay is referred to as
A. heterosexism. C. homophobia.
B. stigmatization. D. antipathy.
John chose a new seat on the opposite side of the room after his classmate “came out” during a lecture on sexual orientation. This illustrates
A. heterosexism. C. homophobia.
B. stigmatization. D. antipathy.
Queer theory suggests that scholars and scientific researchers could best understand sexual orientation as
A. fixed and either/or. C. fixed and diverse.
B. fluid and diverse. D. fluid and either/or.
Currently, approximately ________ of Americans believe that homosexuality is morally wrong.
A. one-quarter C. one-half
B. one-third D. two-thirds
In terms of social support, Americans are ________ accepting of homosexuality than ________.
A. more; teen sex C. more; divorce
B. less; single parents D. less; extramarital affairs
The process of revealing one’s sexual orientation to family, friends, or other significant people is referred to as
A. being gay. C. heterosexism.
B. homophobia. D. coming out.
Coming out is a significant event in the life of someone who identifies as queer because
A. biology determines sexual orientation.
B. sexuality is part of self-identity.
C. social categories ignore stigmas.
D. sexual behavior is varied.
Current research regarding the cause of sexual orientation indicates that which of the following is UNLIKELY to play a role?
A. genetic components C. social interactions
B. prenatal hormones D. religious convictions
According to the text, the book And Tango Makes Three illustrates that homosexual behavior occurs
A. only in humans. C. in many species.
B. only in mammals. D. in all species.
Human sexual behavior in a modern society is LEAST impacted by
A. evolutionary adaptation. C. symbolic understandings.
B. cultural variations. D. capacity for change.
Which of the following has NOT contributed to a modern culture that is more accepting of sexual activity?
A. modern birth control C. acceptance of premarital sex
B. declining religious beliefs D. decreased parental supervision
The first scientific study of sexual activity is known as the ________ report.
A. Adolescent Health C. Health and Social Life
B. Family Growth D. Kinsey
Premarital sexual activity is fairly common, with ________ percent of people reporting sex prior to marriage.
A. 95 C. 75
B. 80 D. 60
On average, men report about twice as many sexual partners as women. This is evidence of a
A. sexual script. C. gender bias.
B. double standard. D. biological distinction.
About _____ of women report being forced to have sexual intercourse against their will.
A. one-tenth C. one-third
B. one-quarter D. one-half
On average, married couples have sex
A. once a month. C. twice a week.
B. twice a month. D. once a week.
Married sex, as compared to sex for singles, is characterized by
A. higher frequency. C. lower satisfaction.
B. lower frequency. D. lower-quality relationships.
Evidence for the continuing role of the sexual double standard can be found in the fact that
A. men prefer to date women with less sexual experience.
B. men prefer to marry women with less sexual experience.
C. men are comfortable with women initiating sex.
D. there is equal social response to sexual activity for men and women.
The text suggests that lower-class families do not control the sexual behavior of female teens because
A. they reject the double standard.
B. they are less concerned about morality.
C. they are less able to protect their daughters from exploitation.
D. early childbearing results in greater welfare.
Teen sex is described as being more male-oriented because
A. it involves mutual orgasm.
B. males are more likely to perform oral sex.
C. females are equally likely to initiate sex.
D. males receive greater social rewards.
The national survey that examines teen sexual behavior is known as the
A. Youth Risk Behavior Survey.
B. Teen Sexual Behavior Survey.
C. Kinsey Report.
D. Sexual Activity Report.
Which of the following is true regarding teen sexual behavior?
A. Sexual activity is increasing.
B. Teens are less likely to use condoms.
C. Fewer than half of all teens have had sex.
D. Fewer than half of all teens used a condom in their last sexual encounter.
A study comparing the sexual outcomes for Dutch and American teens found that the more permissive Dutch environment is associated with
A. more monitoring of teen sexual behavior.
B. less monitoring of teen sexual behavior.
C. increased sexual activity.
D. increase chances of STDs and pregnancy.
According to the text, the single biggest concern for society regarding teen sex is
A. nonconsensual sex between teens and adults.
B. teen pregnancy.
C. STD rates.
D. consensual sex between teens.
“Shotgun” weddings decreased during the middle of the
A. 1950s. C. 1970s.
B. 1960s. D. 1980s.
“Shotgun” weddings decreased as
A. acceptance of single parenthood increased.
B. acceptance of teen sex increased.
C. fewer teens engaged in premarital sex.
D. abortions increased.
Decreased teen pregnancy rates have resulted primarily from
A. the success of abstinence programs.
B. increases in teen abortions.
C. decreased teen sexual activity.
D. improved use of contraceptives.
Of the negative outcomes commonly associated with teen sexual activity, research supports that
A. teens have no different outcomes than adults.
B. teens are less likely to use contraceptives.
C. teens usually have a negative impact from sexual behavior.
D. teen pregnancy is associated with lower educational attainment.
The STD that had the most impact on partners’ communication about sex and sexual health is:
A. HPV. C. herpes.
B. HIV/AIDS. D. chlamydia.
The most common STD is
A. HPV. C. herpes.
B. HIV/AIDS. D. chlamydia.
The relationship between an individual’s education, family structure, health care, and behavior with regard to sexual activity is studied as ________ by sociologists.
A. sex education C. social networks
B. inequality D. social status
Access to education and health care, the role of poverty, and the impact of social distance help explain the higher STD rate of which racial group?
A. Asians C. Hispanics
B. blacks D. whites
Sexually transmitted diseases affect a higher percentage of the population of which social group?
A. upper class C. lower class
B. middle class D. poor
Sexually transmitted diseases affect a higher percentage of the population of which racial group?
A. Asian C. Hispanic
B. black D. white
Research shows that the most common cause of erectile dysfunction is
A. smoking. C. age.
B. obesity. D. lack of exercise.
Sexual disorders, which prevent people from experiencing their sexuality as they would like, are caused by a variety of
A. social factors. C. biological factors.
B. psychological factors. D. all of the above.

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