Lifespan Development Epilogue

thanatology
the study of death and dying, especially of the social and emotional aspects

hope, more, less
one constant emotion is _____, death has become _____ feared as it has become _____ familiar

actions during life were thought to affect destiny after death, an afterlife was more than a hope; it was assumed, mourners responded to death with specific prayers and offerings, in part to prevent the spirit of the dead person from haunting or hurting them
themes apparent in all known ancient cultures

each faith is distinct; considered a passage, not an endpoint Ex. Hinduism – person should die on the floor surrounded by family, Christian – very sick taken to the hospital, Muslim – dead person bathed by next of kin, Native Americans – no family touches dead person
contemporary religion
Ex.

organ donation, historical conditions, life after death, memorials, what happens to the body
diversity in beliefs

death occurs later, dying takes longer, death often occurs in hospitals, the main causes of death have changed
changes over time

children as young as 2 have some understanding of death, fear of being abandoned, parents’ response is important, honest answers are best, coping largely dependent on other caregivers response
thoughts about death are influenced by each person’s cognitive maturation and past experiences, death in childhood

control death anxiety by taking risks
death in late adolescence

terror management theory
the idea that people adopt cultural values and moral principles in order to cope with their fear of death, this system of belief protects individuals from anxiety about their mortality and bolsters their self-esteem, so they react harshly when other people go against their moral principles involved

shift in attitude, death no longer romanticized, fear of death peaks in middle age, increase in self-care and prevention reaction closely connected with person’s age, harder to accept in prime of life, most feared deaths are seemingly random, seek details, many ignore unhealthy habits
death in adulthood

attitudes shift again, anxiety decrease, hope rises, terror management theory is less in late adulthood, older individuals more open to end of life planning, acceptance, but maintain health and independence, people more likely to die soon, more likely to believe in life after death, increase in religious beliefs
death in late adulthood

hope
coming close to death is often an occasion for ____

near-death experience
when a person almost dies, but survives and reports having left his or her body and moved toward a bright white light while feeling peacefulness and joy, often include religious elements

the limitations of social status, the insignificance of material possessions, the narrowness of self-centeredness
in every culture, when close to death, people realize

at the end of a long life, peaceful, quick, in familiar surroundings, with family & friends present, without pain, confusion, discomfort
characteristics of a “Good Death”

honest conversation, hospice, palliative care
factors that make a good death more likely

not linear, doesn’t go in order
Elizabeth Kübler-Ross
1. Denial
2. Anger
3. Bargaining
4. Depression/Sadness
5. Acceptance
stages of grief & dying, proposed by…, each person responds to death in his/her own way, human relationships are essential

hospice
an institution or program in which terminally ill patients receive palliative care to reduce suffering; family and friends of the dying are helped as well

60%, ethnicity, education and income
___% in US die w/o hospice care, correlates w/…, in the US, those with higher SES are more likely to receive hospice care

palliative care
care designed not to treat an illness but to provide physical and emotional comfort to the patient and support and guidance to his or her family

double effect
a situation in which an action (such as administering opiates) has both a positive effect (relieving a terminally ill person’s pain) and a negative effect (hastening death by suppressing respiration)

listening to a person’s heart, brave wave cessation
deciding when death occurs: historically determined by…, today, respirators can pump air into the lungs and continue life, life-support measures, since 1970, death = ?

brain death, dead
prolonged cessation of all brain activity w/ complete absence of voluntary movement, no spontaneous breathing, no response to pain, noise, and other stimuli, brain waves have-ceased, the electroencephalogram is flat, the person is…

locked-in syndrome, not dead
the person cannot move, except for the eyes, but normal brain waves are still apparent, the person is…

coma, not yet dead
a state of deep unconsciousness from which the person cannot be aroused, some people awaken spontaneously, others enter a vegetative state, the person is…

vegetative state, not yet dead
a state of deep unconsciousness in which all cognitive functions are absent, although eyes may open, sounds may be emitted and breathing may continue, the person is…, can be transient, persistent or permanent

passive euthanasia
a situation in which a seriously ill person is allowed to die naturally, through the cessation of medical intervention (die in due course)

DNR (Do Not Resuscitate) order
a written order from a physician (sometimes initiated by a patient’s advance directive or by a health care proxy’s request) that no attempt should be made to revive a patient if he or she suffers cardiac or respiratory arrest

active euthanasia
a situation in which someone takes action to bring about another person’s death, with the intention of ending that person’s suffering

suffering cannot be relieved, illness cannot be cured, patient wants to die
conditions for active euthanasia

physician-assisted suicide
a form of active euthanasia in which a doctor provides the means for someone to end his or her own life, Oregon

slippery slope
the argument that a given action will start a chain of events that will culminate in an undesirable outcome

advance directives
an individual’s instructions regarding end-of-life medical care, written before such care is needed

living will
a document that indicates what medical intervention an individual prefers if he or she is not conscious when a decision is to be expressed, for example, some do not want to be given mechanical breathing

health care proxy
a person chosen by another person to make medical decisions if the second person becomes unable to do so

grief
the deep sorrow that people feel at the death of another, personal and unpredictable, a normal human emotion, hardest during the first few weeks

complicated grief, absent grief, disenfranchised grief, incomplete grief
types of grief

complicated grief
a type of grief that impedes a person’s future life, usually because the person clings to sorrow or is buffeted by contradictory emotions

absent grief
a situation in which mourners do not grieve, either because other people do not allow grief to be expressed or because the mourners do not allow themselves to feel sadness

disenfranchised grief
a situation in which certain people, although they are bereaved, are prevented from mourning publicly by cultural customs or social restrictions

incomplete grief
a situation in which circumstances such as police investigation or an autopsy interfere with the process of grieving

mourning
the ceremonies and behaviors that a religion or culture prescribes for people to employ in expressing their bereavement after a death, move grief from loss to reaffirmation

assesssing blame
_____ – common impulse, not rational

🙂
bereaved people depend on the customs and attitudes of their community, social network, legacy of earlier loss