Korean Structure, Part I

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What design principles make hangul unique as a writing system? (not listed)
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(1) Consonants designed to look like how they are spoken (ㄱ) molar, (ㄴ) lingual, (ㅁ) labial, ㅇ (laryngeal), ㅅ (dental) (2) Each stroke added to the consonant adds more severity (ㄴ-ㄷ-ㅌ), (3) Vowels represent man (ㅣ), Earth (ㅡ), Heaven (.)
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How were the design principles of the hangul vowels like those of the consonants? How were they different? (not listed)
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(1) Both were created in 2 stages: 3 of the 11 vowel symbols were basic, and the rest derived from those 3, (2) Differences: vowels look like Heaven, Earth, and man, representing philosophical abstraction rather than intended pronunciations
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Discuss the historical documentation of the invention of hangul. (not listed)
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End of 1443, created by King Sejong. Announced in 1446 when Hunmin Chongum was published (~7pages). A group of scholars commissioned by the king released an explanatory text.
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What were the controversies related to the invention of hangul? (not listed)
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(1) Did the scholars actually come up with hangul? (2) Were shapes borrowed? (ㅁ looks like Chinese ‘mouth’)
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Sejong created 28 letters. Why are there only 24 used today? (not listed)
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They became unnecessary. ㅿ(z), ㆆ (q), ㆍ(ʌ) no longer needed… ㆁ (w/long tail) used to be used for ‘ng’ but now ㅇ is used for both.
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Discuss syllabic aspect of hangul and how it affects literacy life in Korea. (not listed)
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(1) ㅇ begins syllable if it’s a vowel, (2) vowels divided into two types: vertical – written to the right, horizontal – written below initial consonant, (3) if one or more consonant follows the vowel in the syllable, they are written below the vowel, (4) the syllable clusters become the individ. units of the writing system, so length is measured in syllables, (5) clustering of syllables affects alphabetical order, (6) allow writing vert. or horiz.
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Discuss some of the reasons why hangul orthography is said to be morphophonemic. (not listed)
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Regardless of pronunciation, words are spelled the same (example: 값)
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Linguistic Relativity (Whorfian Hypothesis) (not listed)
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In addition to reflecting it, language shapes culture to a degree.
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Socio-cultural nature (not listed)
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Includes lexical and sentential meanings and native speakers’ underlying values, attitudes, behavioral patterns, ways of thinking, and patterns of social structure.
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2 major sides of language (not listed)
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Linguistic system (sound patterns, lexicon, syntax, word structure, semantics, writing system) and use of language (communication by the linguistic system for establishment and maintenance of human relationships)
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Culture (2 sides) (not listed)
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Olympian culture / Culture MLA = great Music, Lit, and Art achieved by the people of a society. Hearthstone culture / Culture BBV (Beliefs, Behaviors, and Values)
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Society (not listed)
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A community with its own language and culture. Can be organized into smaller units or based on institution or micro contexts.
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Use of Native words (not listed)
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For essentials to the maintenance of basic human life and for indicating time-honored culture of traditional Korea. Often in novels and domestic and women’s magazines as well as in social columns of newspaper
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Use of Sino-Japanese (not listed)
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Borrowed into Korean in sound-based reading. Only used if SK counterparts are lacking. Predominant in science magazines and scholarly journals and books
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Use of loanwords (not listed)
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In magazines and newspapers or sports, cooking, fashion, technology, imported culture
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Metaphorical Expressions (not listed)
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Native idioms are numerous: 손 보다 (‘hand-see’) means ‘fix, teach a lesson’. Native SK idioms: 사전 (‘4 node’) means ‘first cousin’
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Levels of speech (not listed)
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Highest speech level: ~naida (statement) – died with feudal aristocratic society Former 2nd highest: ~습니다 Polite: ~어요/아요 (used to be female variant of -(s)o) -s(o) 소 (usually by old style boss to employee) and -ne 네 (by parent-in-law to son-in-law), gradually disappearing – blunt 6th level: deferential, polite, intimate, plain
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History of N. Korean language (not listed)
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General division: •1st period (1945-54): adopted morphophonemic orthography devised by Korean Language Society in 1933 (hangul) “Seoul centered Korean period” •2nd period (1954-64/66): introduced set of orthographic conventions different from ones used in S. Korea (hangul). “Common Korean period” •3rd period (1964/1966-pres): period of prescriptive orthography (munhwao) “Pyongyang centered Korean period”
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Linguistic differences between North and South Korean (not listed)
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Alphabetical order: N. Korean: words begin with ㅇ appear after all consonants (specifically after ㅎ) because ㅇ is not considered a consonant, but a symbol of silence Vocabulary: North Korean: North Koreans prefer Native words to SK and SK to loanwords. Phonetics and phonology: •In P’yongyang speech, ㄹ occurs freely in word-initial placement, whereas in Seoul speech it is dropped or replaced by ㄴ (iron vs nron), and ㄴ too (yoja vs nyoja) •Back vowels, when followed by i are often changed to front vowels (ae and e) •Additional semivowel y is inserted before the vowel ŏ in verbal inflection (kae-ŏtta vs. kae-yŏtta) •More tensified pronunciation in N. vs S. Korean. (more militant) •Plural used more frequently in N. Korean. •In N. Korean, prospective modifier form 을 is used when present modifier would be used in S. Korean. •A lot of words have been created in N. Kor using derivational affixes (-hi, -mat, -u, -ji, -na, …) beyond function limited to in S. Korean. •N. Korean only uses 3 levels: polite, equal, low. Stylistics (N. Korean): •Preference for short sentences (militant emotion) •Pref. for commands and exclamatory styles •Use of emphatic vs. repetition •Verbal clauses rather than nominal clauses for title. •Pref. for spoken rather than written style.
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Composition of Korean Lexicon (not listed)
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65% sino Korean, 30% native Korean, 5% loanwords
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Sino Korean origin (not listed)
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•Chinese characters and culture achieved popularity in Korea of the Three Kingdoms period (China was long the center of E. Asian culture and civilization) •With the use of unification of the Korean peninsula by Silla Dynasty AD677, the use of Chinese characters grew in popularity, since the unification was achieved by Tang China’s militant support. •SK began to overtake native words in Koryo dynasty: King Kwangjo adopted in 958 the Chinese system of civil service examinations based on Chinese classics. •Chinese characters facilitate creation of new words to represent new concepts (bc ideographic and monosyllabic)
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3 layers of Sino-Korean words (not listed)
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(1) SK words from Chinese: 자연, 질문, 학교, 학생 … largest number of members. Introduced through Confucian classics, hist & lit works, colloquial Chinese works many words underwent semantic change (nae-oe ‘husb and wife’ was originally ‘inside and outside’) pronunciations of contemporary Chinese character words in Korean are similar to those of Late Middle Chinese (2) SK words from SJ: 입구, 영화, 악yak속, 과학 … (3) SK words coined in Korean: 일기, 편지, 식구 …
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Sino-Korean words – phonology characteristics (not listed)
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Applies to native and SK: •Change n to l before or after l •palatalization •ai to ae Just SK: •Middle Chinese initial j deleted where it appears before i •deletion of n and l/r before i •3 tensed consonants (pp,tt,tch) do not occur in SK roots •aspirated and tensed cons. do not occur in syllable-final positions in SK roots •consonant clusters (ps) do not occur in SK roots •most productive diphthong yo •order of roots usually follows V-O (rather than O-V)
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Use of Sino-Korean (not listed)
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Convey more formality and sometimes prestige (chip vs deck), surnames and given names, place names, proper names, technical terms, organization names, cultural concepts/products, days of week, holidays, seasons, numerals, color terms, kinship terms, metaphorical expressions
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Korean in Japanese (not listed)
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•Wall paintings in Japan and Korea are very similar. •During Unified Silla, Silla’s trade w/ the islands was so important that the Japanese stationed Silla lang. interpreters on Tsushima Island. •Some terminology associated w/ the workings of the early Japanese state is believed to have been borrowed from Korea. •names of official ranks were taken into Korea from China, then passed to Japan. •Koreans taught lang. in early Japan too (teachers of Chinese, but w/ Korean methods)
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History of Japanese in Korea (not listed)
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Japan (19c+) used China as new source of vocab. Until WWII, Japanese lang had powerful influence on Korean (foreign and not altogether friendly, though). Japanese became lang. of the oppressor. Knowledge of Japanese became necessary for survival, though resented) Finally, Korean use was forbidden.
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Aftermath of Japanese in Korea (not listed)
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•While many Japanese words were changed or replaced, many were also too deeply embedded in life and culture •Many words of Japanese origin are not listed in most Korean dictionaries. •Words of Japanese origin are disguised when the Chinese characters they are written with are given Korean pronunciations. The majority of terms formed from Chinese were coined in Japan. (The words were written in Chinese characters so they looked Chinese, and Korean used them) •Also, many “Western” words were imported through Japan (알바이트 or 아르바이트, 아파트, 센터 [shopping center])
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Altaic language family (not listed)
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•Same basic word order •post positions •no number or gender distinction •cognates includes Korean and Japanese
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Bright and dark vowels, and changes in sound symbolism (not listed)
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아, 오, 애 bright 어, 우, 으, 에 dark i associated with largeness and a with smallness. In sound symbolism, all vowels are bright or dark, except the high vowels i and u are neutral when in the middle of a word. Vowel changes in sound symbolism originate from vowel harmony. Changes in vowels (dark to bright, bright to dark) seem to have more to do with the size of the moving object
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Consonant changes in sound symbolism (not listed)
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Has to do with shift in the speed and force of the movement
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Final consonant sound symbolism (not listed)
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l: smooth, flowing, liguid ng: round, hollow, open k: abrupt, shrill, tight t: in small, fine, pointed detail n: light, quick movement m: over a large area, nicely
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Sound patterns in Korean (V + C) (not listed)
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21 vowels (8 simple, 13 diphthongs), 19 consonants
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Agglutinative language (not listed)
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Can attach suffixes to verbs and nouns.
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Postposition (not listed)
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Suffixes: 에게, 은, 의, etc.
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Sentence structure (not listed)
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SOV (head final) N + particles V + inflectional suffixes Modifier + head
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Rules of pronunciation 읽어요 부엌 진리 학교 좋아요 읽다 같이 (not listed)
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•Resyllabification: link syllable-final consonant to the following syllable. 읽어요 → [일거요] •Neutralization: aspirated consonants and tense consonants in syllable-final position are neutralized. 부엌 → [부억], 밖 → [박], 잎 → [입] •Nasal assimilation: non-nasal consonants become nasal before a nasal sound. 학년 → [항년], 입만 → [임만] •Assimilation: when ㄴ and ㄹ come together /ㄴ/ usually replaced by /ㄹ/ 진리 → [질리], 팔년 → [팔련] •Tensification: plain becomes tense when preceded by another plain consonant 학교 → [학꾜], 학생 → [학쌩] •When ㅎ is followed… [unable to get] •Weakening: ㅎ tends to becomes silent bw 2 voiced sounds 좋아요 •Consonant cluster simplification: drop 1 of double consonants in word final or before another consonant 값, 읽다 → [익따] •Palatalization: when ㄷ or ㅌ followed by vowel, ㄷ and ㅌ pronounced as ㅈ and ㅊ. 같이
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Written syllable structure & spoken syllable structure (not listed)
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Written (c) (s) v (c) (c) Spoken (c) (s) v (c)
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Place and manner of consonant articulation in Korean (not listed)
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places: bilabial, alveolar, palatal, velar, glottal manner: stop, fricative, nasal, lateral
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Articulatory positions of simple vowels (not listed)
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front, central, back high, mid, low
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Usage of nunde
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Sentence-final 는데 occurs frequently in final pos. (60% of time) -makes conversation more polite and indirect. -invites interlocutor to make an inference about the speaker’s intended action or what is being implied – uses: making requests, dispreferred responses, apologies, wh-questions (어디서 오는데요?), topic proffers Sentence-medial: -background info, introduced as a contrastive connective
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Speech levels and sentence types
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Speech levels: plain, intimate, differential, polite Sentence types: declarative, interrogative, propositive, imperative
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Honorifics (Addressee)
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(who you are talking to) Indicates formality and psychological distance 1. Formal situations (e.g. new broadcasting, job interview, classroom teaching, etc.) 2. When talking to acquaintances or strangers (not including children)
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Honorifics (Referent)
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(who or what you are talking about) Indicates formality, age, social ranks, in-groupness -> social circle standing 1. Formal situations 2. When referring to a superior or an older person (e.g. parents, grandparents, teacher, boss) When speaking to someone higher than the referent, do honorific suppression (할아버지, 아버지가 진지 잡수시라고 했습니다)
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Object (or benefactor) referent honorifics
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한테, 에께, 께 1. Irregular verbs 주다>드리다, 보다>뵙다, 묻다>여쭈다 2. Honorific nouns 밥>진지, 말>말씀, 집>댁, 이름>성함, 생일>생신
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Subject referent honorifics
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1. Particles 이,가>께서 2. Verbal suffix 시 3. Irregular verbs 먹다>잡수시다, 자다>주무시다, 죽다>돌아가시다, 있다>계시다
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Power
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degree of relative superiority of one person over another – vertical relationship, non-reciprocal control and submission, distance and formality (kinship, age, sex, social status)
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Solidarity
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relative intimacy or distance between individuals – horizontal closeness, degree of intimacy or distance, reciprocal bonding and alienation (groupness, intimacy, casualness)
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K, J, E in terms of power: kinship, age, sex, rank
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Kinship: K >J>E Age: K>J>E Sex: J>K>E Rank: J/K>E
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K, J, E in terms of solidarity: groupness, intimacy
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Groupness: J>K>E Intimacy: E>J>K
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English loanword titles: misu, misuto (usage)
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used only towards adults who are both younger in age and of lower status (used more in business settings)
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Junior titles (usage)
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yang, kun. Used only toward adults who are both younger in age and of lower status (used more in social settings)
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ssi (usage)
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gender-neutral, marriage-neutral. ssi is generally not used toward older, in-group members due to the availability of more appropriate terms.
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T/F: The professional title with the honorific suffix -nim can be used to persons of higher or equal status
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True
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Korean kinship distance is calculated using the term _______.
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Rank term
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sonbae, hubae Based only on seniority, on the year of joining an organization
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Familiar vocative
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-i after names that end in consonants or (none) after names that end in vowels. Used only as addressee terms, by adults to address younger subordinates.
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Intimate vocative
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-ya, -a. Used only as addressee terms, by adults to children, and among children, including adults whose friendship began in childhood.
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Addressee terms in Korea vs. America
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[-power, -solidarity] In Korea, mutual use of the neutral title applies within a much more narrow age range (5 years at most). In America, first names can be exchanged despite a 20-year age gap. [-power, +solidarity] In Korean, mutual address by the intimate vocative would be expected in an even tighter age ranger (maybe a year)
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Choose a subject honorific form. (To a teacher) 선생님, 오늘 부모님이 한국에 가시었습니다.
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-시
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Choose a referent honorific form (To a teacher) 선생님, 식사 하셨어요?
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식사

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