Juvenile Delinquency chapters 4,5,6

question

social structure
answer

The relatively stable formal and informal arrangements that characterize a society, including its economic arrangements, social institutions, and values and norms
question

social disorganization theory
answer

An approach that posits that juvenile delinquency results when social control among the traditional primary groups, such as the family and neighborhood, breaks down because of social disarray within the community
question

opportunity structure and delinquency
answer

The differences in economic and occupational opportunities open to members of different socioeconomic classes
question

cultural transmission theory
answer

An approach that holds that areas of concentrated crime maintain their high rates over a long period, even when the composition of the population rapidly changes, because delinquent \”values\” become cultural norms and are passed from one generation to the next
question

cultural deviance theory
answer

A theory wherein delinquent behavior is viewed as an expression of conformity to cultural values and norms that are in opposition to those of the larger U.S. society
question

focal concerns
answer

The values or focal concerns of lower class youth that differ from those of middle-class youth: Trouble Toughness Smartness Excitement Fate Autonomy
question

Miller’s thesis
answer

Central to Miller’s thesis is the belief that persons of lower socioeconomic status share a distinctive culture of their own, and that the focal concerns of that culture make lower-class boys more likely to become involved in delinquent behavior.
question

strain theory
answer

Proposes that delinquency results from the frustrations individuals feel when they are unable to achieve the goals they desire
question

Robert merton
answer

Merton placed emphasis on two elements of social and cultural systems: Culturally defined goals Institutionalized means
question

Culturally defined goals
answer

the set of purposes and interests a culture defines as legitimate objectives for an individual
question

Institutionalized means
answer

culturally sanctioned methods of obtaining these goals
question

Merton’s theory of anomie: Five types of adaptation
answer

Conformity Innovation Ritualism Retreatism Rebellion
question

Blocked Opportunity
answer

The limited or nonexistent chance of success According to strain theory, a key factor in delinquency
question

Cohen’s Theory of Delinquency Subcultures
answer

Suggest that lower-class youth are fully internalizing the goals of middle-class youth but they experience *Status Frustration*, or strain, because they are unable to attain it Consequently, strain explains their *reaction formation* and membership in gangs, and their nonutilitarian, malicious, and negativistic behavior.
question

Cloward and Ohlin’s Opportunity Theory
answer

A perspective that holds that gang members turn to delinquency because of a sense of injustice about the lack of legitimate opportunities available to them
question

Reduced Social Capital
answer

Social capital is the resources that reside in the social structure itself—norms, social networks, and interpersonal relationships that contribute to a child’s growth. Lower class youth often lack access to social capital
question

Disorganized Communities
answer

To adapt to a disorganized community, adolescents may learn to accept cultural patterns that are conducive to delinquent behavior
question

Collective efficacy
answer

Shared values, trust, and expectations for social interventions The levels of collective efficacy are strongly influenced by neighborhood conditions.
question

Social Process Theories
answer

A theoretical approach to delinquency that examines the interactions between individuals and their environments, especially those that might influence them to become more involved in delinquent behavior
question

Sutherland’s Differential Association Theory
answer

The view that delinquency is learned from others and that delinquent behavior is to be expected of individuals who have internalized a preponderance of definitions that are favorable to law violations
question

Matza’s Drift Theory
answer

The theoretical perspective that juveniles neutralize the moral hold of society and drift into delinquent behavior
question

Neutralization theory
answer

provides a meaning of understanding how delinquents insulate themselves from responsibility for wrongdoing.
question

Soft Determinism
answer

The view that delinquents are neither wholly free nor wholly constrained in their choice of actions
question

Control Theories
answer

Any of several theoretical approaches that maintain that human beings must be held in check, or somehow be controlled, if delinquent tendencies are to be repressed
question

Reckless’ Containment Theory
answer

A theoretical perspective that strong inner containment and reinforcing external containment provide insulation against delinquent and criminal behavior
question

Hirschi’s Social Control Theory
answer

A perspective that delinquent acts result when a juvenile’s bond to society is weak or broken Hirschi theorized that individuals who are most tightly bonded to positive social groups, such as family, the school, and successful peers, are less likely to commit delinquent acts
question

Theory Integration
answer

Implies the combination of two or more contexts, including existing theories, on the basis of their perceived commonalities
question

Elliott and Colleagues’ Integrated Social Process Theory
answer

An explanatory model that expands and synthesizes traditional strain, social control, and social learning perspectives into a single paradigm that accounts for delinquent behavior and drug use
question

Thornberry’s Interactional Theory
answer

Views delinquency as a result of events occurring in a developmental fashion Delinquency is not viewed as the end-product; instead it leads to the formation of delinquent values.
question

Hawkins and Weis’s Social Development Model
answer

A perspective based on the integration of social control and cultural learning theories that proposes that the development of attachments to parents will lead to attachments to school and commitment to education, as well as belief in and commitment to conventional behavior and the law

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member