Isotopes and nuclear chemistry

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Nuclear Reaction
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A reaction that affects the nucleus of an atom
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Transmutation
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The transformation of atoms of one element into atoms of a different element as a result of a nuclear reaction
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Nuclear radiation
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The particles that are released from the nucleus during radioactive decay, such as neutrons, electrons, and protons
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Alpha particle
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A positively charged atom that is released in the disintegration of radioactive elements and that consists of two protons and two neutrons
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Beta particle
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A charged electron emitted during certain types of radioactive decay, such as beta decay
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Gamma ray
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The high – energy proton emitted by a nucleus during fission and radioactive decay
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Electromagnetic radiation
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The radiation associated with an electric and magnetic field ; it varies periodically and travels at the speed of light
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Nuclear fusion
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The splitting of the nucleus of a large atom into two or more fragments ; releases additional neutrons and energy
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Nuclear fission
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The combination of the nuclei of small atoms to form a larger nucleus; releases energy
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Chain reaction
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A continuous series of nuclear fission reactions
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Critical mass
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The minimum mass of a fissionable isotope that provides the number of neutrons needed to sustain a chain reaction
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Control rod
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A neutron-absorbing rod that helps control a nuclear reaction by limiting the number of free neutrons
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What defines each of the hydrogen isotopes as a hydrogen atom?
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The number of protons
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What part of the atom is changing in the isotopes?
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Neutrons
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What does the periodic table contain?
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Weighted averages of all the isotopes that exist in nature
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Amu
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Is the unit for average atomic mass
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One amu is about the same mass as a
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Proton or neutron
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Isotopes
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Atoms of the same element with different mass numbers
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The atoms are of the same element because they have different number of
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Neutrons
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#neutrons
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mass #-atomic#
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How are most elements found in nature
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Most elements are found as a mixture of isotopes
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The relative abundance of each isotope is
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Constant
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Does the number of neutrons affect the behavior of the element?
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No because they have no charge
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Isotope : same number of protons ( atomic number
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same number of protons (atomic number) with different number of neutrons (mass number)
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Mass number =
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Protons (atomic #) + neutrons
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Nuclear reaction characteristics:
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1.involves the nucleus 2. New elements are formed 3. Nuclei emit particles and/or energy 4. LARGE energy changes 5. Reaction rate is not changed; always the same rate
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Radioisotope
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An isotope that has an unstable nucleus and emits radiation to become more stable
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Loss of an alpha particle from a nucleus will result in:
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-mass number decreases by 4 – atomic number decreases by 2
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Loss of a beta particle from a nucleus will result in:
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– mass number stays the same -atomic number increases by 1
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Loss of gamma energy
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Does not change an isotopes mass number or atomic number
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Fission
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Nuclei of atoms split and release neutrons, reaction releases energy, used in nuclear reactors and atomic bombs
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Fusion
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2 nuclei are fused together, only happens under really hot conditions like in the sun, fueled by the fusion of hydrogen to produce helium

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