Invitational Public Speaking

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Civility
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Care and concern for others, the thoughtful use of words and language, and the flexibility to see the many sides of an issue
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Intrapersonal Communication
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Communication with ourselves
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Interpersonal Communication
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Communication with others
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Encoding
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Translating ideas and feelings into words, sounds, and gestures.
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Decoding
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Translating words, sounds, and gestures into ideas and feelings in an attempt to understand the message.
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Audience
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Complex and varied group of people the speaker addresses.
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Channel
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Means by which the message is conveyed
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Noise
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Anything that interferes with understanding the message being communicated.
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Feedback
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Verbal and nonverbal signals an audience gives a speaker.
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Context
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Environments or situation in which a speech occurs
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Communication Apprehension
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Level of fear or anxiety associated with either real or anticipated communication with another person.
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Trait Anxiety
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Apprehension about communicating with others in any situation.
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State/Situational Anxiety
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Apprehension about communicating with others in a particular situation.
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How can speakers minimize communication apprehension?
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Do your research, practice speech, have realistic expectations, practice visualizations(giving good speech) and affirmations(positive words), connect with audience.
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Why do we listen to others?
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to confirm (recognize, acknowledge, and express value for another person)
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Hearing
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Vibration of sound waves on our eardrums and the impulses then sent to the brain.
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Listening
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Process of giving thoughtful attention to another person’s words and understanding what you hear.
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Interference
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Anything that stops or hinders a listener from receiving a message
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Jargon
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Technical language used by a special group or for a special activity.
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Slang
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Informal nonstandard vocabulary.
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Colloquialism
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Local or regional informal dialect or expression.
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Euphemism
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Word or phrase that substitutes an agreeable or inoffensive expression for one that may offend or suggest something unpleasant.
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Careful Listener
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Listener who overcomes listener interference to better understand a speaker’s message
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Critical Listener
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Listener who listens for the accuracy of a speech.
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Ethical Listener
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Listener who considers the moral impact of a speaker’s message on one’s self and one’s community.
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Classroom Setting
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Preselected purpose, time limits, highly structured assignments, instructor as audience, class members as audience.
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General Purpose
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Speech’s broad goal: inform, invite, persuade, introduce, commemorate, or accept.
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Specific Purpose
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Focused statement that identifies exactly what a speaker wants to accomplish.
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Thesis Statement
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Statement that summarizes in a single declarative sentence the main ideas, assumptions, or arguments you want to express in your speech.
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What are ways of identifying information about an audience?
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Demographic Audience Analysis Open-ended questions (allows unrestricted answers) Close-ended questions (choosing answers)
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Master Status
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Significant positions occupied by a person within society that affect that person’s identity in almost all social situations.
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Standpoint
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Perspective from which a person views society
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Attitude
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General positive or negative feeling a person has about something
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Value
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Person’s idea of what is good, worthy, or important.
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Belief
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Person’s idea of what is real, not real, true, or not true
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Voluntary Audience
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People who choose to be present
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Involuntary Audience
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Required to be present
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Plagiarism
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Presenting another person’s words and ideas as your own
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Patchwork Plagiarism
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Constructing a complete speech that you present as your own from portions of several different sources
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Global Plagiarism
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Stealing an entire speech from a single source and presenting it as your own
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Incremental Plagiarism
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Presenting select portions from a single speech as your own
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Claim
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Assertion that must be proved
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Evidence
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Materials that speakers use to support their ideas
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Example
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Specific instance used to illustrate a concept, experience, issue, or problem
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Real Example
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Instance that actually took place
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Hypothetical Example
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Instance that did not take place but could.
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Narrative
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Story that recounts or foretells real or hypothetical events
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Brief Narrative
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Short story or vignette that illustrates a specific point
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Extended Narrative
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Longer story that makes an evolving connection
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Intertextuality
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Process in which stories reference other stories or rely on parts of other stories to be complete
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Testimony
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Opinions or observations of others
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Expert Testimony
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Opinions or observations of someone considered an authority in a particular field
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Peer Testimony
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Opinions or observations of someone who has firsthand knowledge of a topic
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Personal Testimony
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Your own opinions or observations that you use to convey your point
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Bias
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Unreasoned distortion of judgment or prejudice about a topic
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Objectives
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Having a fair, ethical, and undistorted view on a question or issue
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Denotative Definition
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Dictionary definition, exact meaning
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Connotative Definition
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Subjective meaning of word or phrase based on personal experiences and beliefs.
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Toulmin Model
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Grounds: why you think something is true or want to propose it Warrant: the evidence you have to be certain your grounds support claim Backing: evidence you have to be certain your warrant supports your grounds
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Main points
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Most important ideas you address in your speech
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Organization of main points
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Chronological (Traces sequence of events or ideas), spatial (arranges ideas in terms of location or direction), causal (describes cause and effect), problem-solution (identifies problem, offers solution), topical (subtopics addressing larger topic)
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Connectives
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Transitions (word or phrase used to link ideas. i.e.. Now that you understand, as you can see), Internal preview (statement that tells what will be addressed next i.e. takes me to my next point), internal summary (statement that summarizes a point already discussed i.e. in short), signpost (simple word that indicates where you are in speech i.e. first, second, the most important thing, the next point is crucial)
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Outlines
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Preparation (full detailed sentence outline containing:title, specific purpose, thesis statement, introduction, main points and subpoints, connectives, conclusion, and source citations) Speaking (Keywords and phrases, cues for delievery)
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Notecards
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Keywords and phrases, no more than 6 lines, only one side, number cards, cues for delievery
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Effective Introduction
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First impression Catch audience’s attention, reveal topic, establish credibility, preview speech
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Effective Conclusion
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Signal end, reinforce thesis statement, be brief
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Language
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System of verbal or gestural symbols a community uses to communicate
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Symbol
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Word or phrase spoken by a speaker
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Referent
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Object, concept, or event a symbol represents
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Thought/Reference
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Memory and past experiences that audience members have with an object, concept, or event
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Concrete Language
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Refers to a tangible object: person, place, thing
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Abstract Language
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Refers to idea or concept but not to specific objects
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Idiom
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An expression whose meaning is not indicated by its individual words i.e. I was in stitches
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Spoken Language
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More interactive, more casual, more repetitive
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Linguistic techniques
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Simile( like or as), Metaphor(saying one thing is another), personification(human characteristics), alliteration(repetition of initial sound), mnemonic device(verbal device to help remember information), Antithesis(placement of words and phrases in contrast or opposition to another i.e. as not what your country can do for you…)
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Methods of Delivery
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Extemporaneous(carefully planned and practiced from brief notes), impromptu(speech that is not planned in advance), manuscript speech(read from written text), memorized speeches(short wedding toast)
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Verbal Components of Delivery
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Vocal variety(changes in volume, rate, and pitch),Volume(loudness of voice), Rate(speed of speech), Pitch(high or low), Inflection(manipulation of pitch to create certain meanings or moods), Articulation(physical process of producing specific speech sounds to make language intelligible. not running words together), Pronunciation(Act of saying word correctly according to the accepted standards of language)
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Nonverbal Components of Delivery
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Personal Appearance(way speaker looks), eye contact, facial expression, posture, gestures
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Why visual aids are important
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Help gain and maintain attention, recall information, explain information, increases persuasiveness and credibility, reduce nervousness.
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Making an effective list
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Brief and balanced, include heading
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Guidelines for Visual Aids
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Prepare, practice, use only when you discuss them, explain what is shown on each slide, speak to audience
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Aristotles 3 types of proof
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Logos(logical arrangement of evidence), Ethos(Speaker’s credibility), Pathos(emotional appeal)
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Inductive Reasoning
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Specific instances or examples, to make a claim about a general conclusion Hasty generalization(Error in reasoning, speaker makes a conclusion without enough evidence to support)
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Deductive Reasoning
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Process of reasoning that uses a familiar and commonly accepted claim to establish the truth of a very specific truth.
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Major Premise
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General principle, something that is commonly believed
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Minor Premise
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Specific instance, establishes truth of major premise
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Causal Reasoning
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Supports a claim by establishing a cause-and-effect relationship
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False Cause
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Assuming an event happened because of another event just because it happened first
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Analogical Reasoning
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Comparison and similarity that implies that became two things resemble each other in one respect, they also share similarities in another respect.
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Reasoning by Sign
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Assuming something exist or will happen based on something else that exist or has happened
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Types of Informative Speeches
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Speech about a process(describes how something is done, how something comes into what it is, and how it works. Chronological pattern), Events(describes or explains a significant, interesting, or unusual occurrence), Place or Person(Describes a significant, interesting, or unusual place or person), Objects(anything that is tangible, that can be perceived by the senses) Concepts(idea, theory, or principle)
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Invitational Speaking
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Speaker enters into dialogue with an audience to clarify positions, explore issues and ideas, or articulate beliefs and values
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Public Deliberation
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A process that involves the careful weighing of information and views. Egalitarian process that allows people to speak
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Condition of equality
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Acknowledge that all audience members hold equally valid perspectives worthy of exploration
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Condition of value
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Recognize the inherent value of the audiences views, although they may differ from your own
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Condition of Self-Determination
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Recognize that people know what is best for them and have the right to makes choices about their life
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Most common speech for Invitational speaking
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Speech to explore an issue: Speaker attempts to engage an audience in a discussion about an idea, concern, topic, or plan
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Persuasive Speech
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Message attempts to change or reinforce an audiences thoughts, feelings, actions
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Small groups
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Group of 3 to 15 people
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Why speak in small groups?
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Decided to speak in group, asked to speak in group, require
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Formats of small group
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Oral reports(given by individual that presents a group’s findings to larger audience), Panel(structured discussion, facilitated by moderator), Symposium(Public discussion several people each give speeches on different aspect of same topic),
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Parts of problem solving session
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Identify, analyze, suggest solution, consider solutions, reach decision about solution
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Meetings
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Provide agenda, specify time and location, be prepared, use effective procedure for conducting, provide minutes
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Preparing for question and answer
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Identify potential questions, formulate and practice answers

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