Introduction to Organic Chemistry

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Organic Compounds
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-Organic Compounds is the study of carbon-containing compounds -Carbon can bond to other carbons forming many compounds. -Organic compounds contain C-C and C-H covalent bonds. -Some organic compounds have *heteroatoms*.
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Heteroatoms
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-(O, N, P, S, and halogens) Halogens: F,Cl,Br,I
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Forumula of an organic compound is written as
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-CaHbXd X = C, N, P, S, or halogen
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General Properties of Oragnic Compounds
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-Most are nonpolar covalent compounds. -Weak interactions (dispersion forces) between molecules. Have low melting points and boiling points. -They are flammable. Undergo Combustion. -Most are not soluble in water – they are hydrophobic (water fearing) -Polar compounds (when polar groups present, Ex: OH group) are soluble in water – hydrophillic (water loving) -Less Dense than Water
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Hydrocarbons
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are organic compounds that contrain only carbon and hydrogen.
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Types of Hydrocarbons
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1. Alkanes 2. Alkenes 3. Alkynes 4. Aromatic Hydrocarbons
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Alkanes
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-Carbons joined by single bonds only. -They are saturated hydrocarbons because they have the maximum number of possible hydrogens. -2n + 2 no. of hydrogens, where n is the no. of carbons -Carbon has four valence electrons; hydrogen has one. Each carbon forms four bonds to achieve an octet. Ex: CH4
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Alkenes
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-Contrain one or more Carbon-Carbon double bonds. -Unsataturated hydrocarbons because they have less than the maximum no. of H. (for each double bond, 2 less hydrogens) -The general formula of a alkene with one double bond is C8H2n -Simplest Alkene is: C2H4 -Carbons with double bonds have trigonal planar molecular geometries with 120 degree bond angles.
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Alkynes
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-Contain one or more Carbon-Carbon triple bonds. -Unsaturated. For each triple bond, 4 less hydrogen. -Forumla for an alkyne with one triple bond is CnH2n-2 -Simpliest Alkyne os: C2H2 -Triple bonded carbons have linear molecular geometries with 18- degree bond angles.
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Aromatic Hydrocarbons
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-Ring structures with alternating double and sinlge bonds. -Unsaturated. -Simplest aromatic Hydrocarbon is benzene. -Benzene has 6 Carbon atoms arranged in a shape of a hexagon -One Hydrogen atom is attached to each carbon. -There are two possible structions, which are called resonance structures.
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Benzene Structure
Benzene Structure
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-Actual Benzene Structure is a hybrid of the two resonance forms (called a resonance hybrid) -Benzene does not have three separate double bonds. -The six electrons making the double bongs shared by the six carbon atoms (i.e. six electrons are delocalized around the ring) -The resonance hybrid is shown with a circle inside the ring, instead of three double bonds.
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Molecular formulas
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~give the total number of each kind of atoms. – Do not show how atoms are connected. Ex: C4H10
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Molecular models
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-show how atoms are connected.
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Space-filling model
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-spheres show relative size and distance between atoms – most accurate way of showing a molecule
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Ball-and-stick model
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– atoms are shown as balls and bonds as sticks
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Expanded structural formulas
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Each atom and bond is explicitly shown.
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Condensed structural formulas
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– show each carbon atom and its hydrogen atoms as a group.
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Skeletal line structures (skeletal formulas)
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– Carbons and hydrogens are omitted. ~Carbon – carbon bonds are shown as lines
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Number of bonds
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H C NP OS F,Cl,Br,I
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H C NP OS F,Cl,Br,I
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H – 1 Bond C – 4 Bonds NP – 3 Bonds OS – 2 Bonds F,Cl,Br,I (Halogens) – 1 Bond

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