Inorganic Chemistry Final Exam Review

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chemistry
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the study of the composition, structure, and properties of matter; the processes that matter undergoes; and the energy changes that accompany these processes
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extensive properties
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depend on the amount of matter that is present (volume, mass)
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intensive properties
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do not depend on the amount of matter present (melting point, boiling point, density)
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solid
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has definite volume and definite shape
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liquid
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has definite volume but indefinite shape
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gas
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has neither definite volume nor definite shape
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plasma
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high temperature state in which atoms lose most of their electrons
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homogenous
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uniform in composition (water)
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heterogenous
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not uniform in composition (pulpy orange juice)
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Law of Conservation of Mass
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Matter cannot be created or destroyed.
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pure substance
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a substance that cannot be separated without changing its identity
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kg
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SI unit of mass
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l
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SI unit of volume
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m
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SI unit of length
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mole
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SI unit for the amount of a substance
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density
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mass/volume
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accuracy
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refers to the closeness of measurements to the correct or accepted value of the quantity measured
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precision
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refers to the closeness of a set of measurements of the same quantity made in the same way
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percentage error
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deci
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1/10
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centi
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1/100
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milli
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1/1000
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Law of Definite Proportions
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the fact that a chemical compound contains the same elements in exactly the same proportions by mass regardless of the size of the sample or source of the compound
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Dalton
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-solid, sphere, simplistic -did not have a nucleus, neutrons, protons, and electrons
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Thomson
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-plum pudding model -electrons floated around aimlessly -positive particles floating too
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Rutherford
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-planetary model -atom has a tiny, heavy, nucleus surrounded by lighter negatively charged electrons -Gold Foil experiment -protons were in center nucleus
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Bohr
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-electrons travel around the nucleus in circular orbits -quantum model -electron cloud with orbitals
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isotope
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atoms of the same element that have different masses (a nuclide)
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Avogadro’s number
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6.02 * 10^23
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electromagnetic radiation
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a form of energy that exhibits wavelike behavior as it travels through space
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wavelength
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(λ) the distance between the crests of two waves
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frequency
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(v) the number of waves that pass a given point in a specific time, usually one second ex. Hz
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photoelectric effect
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refers to the emission of electrons from a metal when light shines on the metal
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quantum
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the minimum quantity of energy that can be lost or gained by an atom
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orbital
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a three-dimensional region around the nucleus that indicates the probable location of an electron
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quantum numbers
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specify the properties of atomic orbitals and the properties of electrons in orbitals
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Planck’s constant
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6.626 * 10^-34
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speed of light (λ*v)
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3.0 * 10^8
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electromagnetic spectrum
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orbital quantum number
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s,p,d,f
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principal quantum number
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1-7 energy levels
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Aufbau principle
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an electron occupies the lowest-energy orbital that can receive it
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Hund’s rule
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electrons will fill equal-energy orbitals half-filled first
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Pauli exclusion principle
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