Info Exam 2

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disruptive technology
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a new way of doing things that initially does not meet the needs of existing customers. These tend to open new markets and destroy old ones. This tech typically enter the low end of the marketplace and eventually evolve to displace high-end competitors and their reigning technologies.
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sustaining technology
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produces an improved product customers are eager to buy, such as a faster car or larger hard drive. These tend to provide us with better, faster, and cheaper products in established markets. Incumbent companies most often lead this technology to market, but they virtually never lead in markets opened by disruptive tech.
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Internet
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a massive network that connects computers all over the world and allows them to communicate with one another. Originally, it was essentially an emergency military communications system operated by the US Department of Defense Advanced Research Project Agency, which called the network ARPANET.
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World Wide Web (WWW)
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provides access to Internet information through documents including text, graphics, audio, and video files that use a special formatting language called HTML.
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Hypertext markup language (HTML)
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Internet language which links documents, allowing users to move from one to another simply by clicking on a hot spot or link.
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Hypertext transport protocol (HTTP)
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the Internet protocol Web browsers use to request and display Web pages using universal resource locators.
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universal resource locator (URL)
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the address of a file or resource on the Web such as www.apple.com. A domain name identifies a URL address, ‘apple.com’ being the domain name.
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Web 1.0
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term used to refer to the WWW during its first few years of operation between 1991 and 2003. The competitive advantages for first movers would be enormous, thus spurring the beginning of this internet boom. During this period, entrepreneurs began creating the first forms of ebusiness.
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Ecommerce
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the buying and selling of goods and services over the Internet, refers only to online transactions.
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Ebusiness
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includes ecommerce along with all activities related to internal and external business operations such as servicing customer accounts, collaborating with partners, and exchanging real-time information.
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paradigm shift
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occurs when a new radical form of business enters the market that reshapes the way companies and organizations behave. Ebusiness opened up a new marketplace for any company willing to move its business operations online, this transformed entire industries and changed enterprise-wide business processes that fundamentally rewrote traditional business rules.
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information richness
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refers to the depth and breadth of detail contained in a piece of textual, graphic, audio, or video information. Easy access to real-time information is a primary benefit of ebusiness. Buyers need this make informed purchases.
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information reach
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measures the number of people a firm can communicate with all over the world. Sellers need this to properly market and differentiate themselves from the competition.
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personalization
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occurs when a company knows enough about a customer’s likes and dislikes that it can fashion offers more likely to appeal to that person, say by tailoring its website to individuals or groups based on profile information, demographics, or prior transactions. ‘Mass customization’ is the ability of an organization to tailor its products or services to the customers’ specifications.
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long tail
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In this context, refers to an extremely large selection of content or products. Is a phenomenon whereby firms can make money by offering a near-limitless selection.
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intermediaries
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are agents, software, or businesses that provide a trading infrastructure to bring buyers and sellers together.
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disintermediation
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occurs when a business sells directly to the customer online and cuts out the intermediary, the introduction of ebusiness brought this about.
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reintermediation
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steps are added to the value chain as new players find ways to add value to the business process
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cybermediation
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refers to the creation of new kinds of intermediaries that simply could not have existed before the advent of ebusiness, including comparison-shopping sites such as Kelkoo and bank account aggregation such as Citibank.
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interactivity
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measures advertising effectiveness by counting visitor interactions with the target ad, including time spent viewing the ad, the number of pages viewed, and number of repeat visits to the advertisement.
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clickstream data
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through this process, businesses can observe the exact pattern of a consumer’s navigation through a site.
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ebusiness forms
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an ebusiness model is a plan that details how a company creates, delivers, and generates revenues specifically on the Internet. Forms are: content providers, infomediaries, online marketplaces, portals, service providers, transaction brokers.
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business-to-business (B2B)
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type of ebusiness model; applies to businesses buying from and selling to each other over the internet. Examples include medical billing service, software sales and licensing, and virtual assistant businesses. B2B relationships represent 80% of all online business and are more complex with greater security needs than the other types.
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business-to-consumer (B2C)
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type of ebusiness model; applies to any business that sells its products or services directly to consumers online. An eshop is an online version of a retail store where customers can shop at any hour. There are three ways to operate as a B2C: brick-and-mortar, click-and-mortar, and pure play.
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consumer-to-business (C2B)
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type of ebusiness model; applies to any consumer who sells a product or service to a business on the Internet. Priceline
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consumer-to-consumer (C2C)
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type of ebusiness model; applied to customer offering goods and services to each other on the Internet. Ebay
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Internet service provider (ISP)
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a company that provides access to the internet for a monthly fee.
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ebusiness tools for communication
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email, IM, videoconferencing, web coonferencing, podcasting, content management systems.
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content management systems (CMS)
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help companies manage the creation, storage, editing, and publication of their website content. Are user-friendly; most include Web-based publishing, search, and navigation, and indexing to organize information; and they let users with little or no technical experience make website changes.
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taxonomy
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used for indexing the content on the website into categories and subcategories of topics.
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information architecture
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the set of ideas about how all information in a given context should be organized. Many companies hire information architects to create their website taxonomies.
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the advantages of ebusiness 2.0
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Content Sharing Through Open Sourcing, User-Contributed Content, Collaboration Inside the Organization, and Collaboration Outside the Organization.
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Web 2.0
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the next generation of Internet use for businesses – a more mature, distinctive communications platform characterized by new qualities such as collaboration, sharing, and free. In ‘Business 2.0’, technical skills are no longer required to use and publish information to the WWW, eliminating entry barriers for online businesses.
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open system
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consists of nonproprietary hardware and software based on publicly known standards that allows third parties to creates add-on products to plug into or interoperate with the system.
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source code
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contains instructions written by a programmer specifying the actions to be performed by computer software. ‘Open source’ refers to any software whose source code is made available for free for any third party to review and modify.
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user-contributed content
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is created and updated by many users for many users. Websites such as Flickr, Wikipedia, and Youtube move control of online media from the hands of leaders to the hands of users.
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collaboration system
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a set of tools that supports the work of teams or groups by facilitating the sharing and flow of information.
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collective intelligence
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is collaborating and tapping into the core knowledge of all employees, partners, and customers.
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knowledge management (KM)
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knowledge can be a competitive advantage for an organization, this is the most common form of collective intelligence – involves capturing, classifying, evaluating, retrieving and sharing information assets in a way that provides context for effective decisions and actions. Primarily used to ensure that a company’s knowledge of facts, sources of information, and solutions are readily available.
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knowledge management system (KMS)
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supports the capturing, organization, and dissemination of knowledge throughout an organization. Can distribute an organization’s knowledge base by interconnecting people and digitally gathering their expertise.
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explicit knowledge
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consists of anything that can be documented, archived, and codified, often with the help of IT. Examples are assets such as patents, trademarks, business plans, marketing research and customer lists.
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tacit knowledge
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the knowledge contained in people’s heads. The challenge inherent in this knowledge is figuring out how to recognize, generate, share, and manage knowledge that resides in people’s mind.
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crowdsourcing
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the most common form of collective intelligence found outside the organization, refers to the wisdom of the ‘crowd’. The idea that collective intelligence is greater than the sum of its individual parts has been around for a long time.
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social media
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refers to websites that rely on user participation and user-contributed content, such as Facebook, youtube, and Digg. A ‘social network’ is an application that connects people by matching profile information. Social networking is the practice of expanding your business and/or social contacts by constructing a personal network.
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social networking analysis
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A process of mapping a group’s contacts to identify who knows whom and who works with whom.
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tags
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are specific keywords or phrases incorporated into website content for means of classification or taxonomy. ‘Social tagging’ describes the collaborative activity of marking shared online content with keywords or tags as a way to organize it for future navigation, filtering, or search.
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folksonomy
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The result of personal free tagging of information and objects. The tagging is done in a social enviroment.
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website bookmark
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locally stored URL or the address of a file or Internet page served as a shortcut. ‘Social bookmarking’ allows users to share, organize, search, and manage bookmarks.
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blog
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an online journal that allows users to post their own comments, graphics, and video. These websites let writers communicate – and reader’s respond – on a regular basis through a simple yet customizable interface that does not require any programming.
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microblogging
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the practice of sending brief posts to a personal blog, either publicly or to a private group of subscribers who can read the posts as IMs or as text messages. Posts can be submitted by a variety of means, such as instant messaging, email or the Web.
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Real Simple Syndication (RSS)
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is a Web format used to publish frequently updated works, such as blogs, news headlines, audio, and video, in a standardized format. These documents or feeds include full or summarized text, plus other information such as publication date and authorship.
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wiki
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a type of collaborative Web page that allows users to add, remove, and change content, which can be easily organized and reorganized as required.
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network effect
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describes how products in a network increase in value to users as the number of users increases.
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application programming interface (API)
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content used in ‘mashups’ is typically sourced from this, which is a set of routines, protocols, and tools for building software applications.
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semantic web
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an evolving extension of the WWW in which web content can be expressed not only in natural language, but also in a format that can be read and used by software agents, thus permitting them to find, share, and integrate information more easily.
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Egovernment
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involves the use of strategies and technologies to transform governments by improving the delivery of services and enhancing the quality of interaction between the citizen-consumer within all branches of government.
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Copyright
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the legal protection afforded an expression of an idea, such as a song, book, or video game.
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intellectual property
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is intangible creative work that is embodied in physical form and includes copyrights, trademarks, and patents.
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ethics
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the principles and standards that guide our behavior toward other people.
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privacy
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is the right to be left alone when you want to be, to have control over your personal possessions, and not to be observed without your consent.
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confidentiality
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related to privacy, which is the assurance that messages and information remain available only to those authorized to view them.
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information ethics
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govern the ethical and moral issues arising from the development and use of information technologies. as well as the creation, collection, duplication, distribution, and processing of information itself
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pirated software
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the unauthorized use, duplication, distribution, or sale of copyrighted software. ‘Counterfeited software’ is software that is manufactured to look like the real thing and sold as such.
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information management
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examines the organizational resource of information and regulates its definitions, uses, value, and distribution ensuring it has the types of data/information required to function and grow effectively.
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information governance
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a method or system of government for information management or control. ‘Information compliance’ is the act of conforming, acquiescing, or yielding information.
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Ediscovery
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refers to the ability of a company to identify, search, gather, seize or export digital information in responding to a litigation, audit, investigation, or information, inquiry.
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Epolicies
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are policies and procedures that address information management along with the ethical use of computers and the Internet in the business environment.
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ethical computer use policy
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contains general principles to guide computer user behavior.This policy ensures the users know how to behave at work and the organization has a published standard to deal with infractions.
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information privacy policy
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an organization wanting to protect its information should develop this type of policy, which contains general principles regarding information privacy.
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acceptable use policy (AUP)
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requires a user to agree to follow it to be provided access to corporate email, information systems, and the Internet. Useres generally agree to the following: 1) Not using the service as part of violating any law. 2) not attempting to break the security of any computer network or user. 3) not posting commercial messages to groups without prior persmission. 4) not performing any nonrepudiation.
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nonrepudiation
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a contractual stipulation to ensure that ebusiness participants do not deny (repudiate) their online actions. This type of clause is usually contained in an acceptable use policy.
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email privacy policy
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details the extent to which email messages may be read by others. A typical policy includes: 1) defines legitimate email users and explains what happens to accounts after a person leaves the organization. 2) explains backup procedures. 3) describes the legitimate grounds for reading email and the process required before such action is performed. 4) discourages sending junk email or spam to anyone who does not want to receive it.
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Internet use policy
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contains general principles to guide the proper use of the Internet. 1) describes the Internet services available to users, 2) defines the organization’s positions on the purpose of Internet access and what restrictions, if any, are placed on that access. 3) describes user responsibility for citing sources, properly handling offensive material, and protecting the organization’s good name. 4) states the ramifications if the policy is violated. 5) prohibits attempting to mail bomb a site. 6) informs users that the organization has no control over email once it has been transmitted outside the organization.
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spam
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unsolicited email. An ‘anti-spam policy’ simply states that email users will not send unsolicited emails (or spam)
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social media policy
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Outlines the corporate guidelines or principles governing employee online communications. Might include: employee online communication policy detailing brand communication, employee blog and personal blog policies, employee social network and personal social network policies, twitter, linkedin, facebook, and youtube policies could be specified.
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information technology monitoring
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tracks people’s activities by such measures as number of keystrokes, error rate, and number of transactions processed. The best path for an organization planning to engage in employee monitoring is open communication including ’employee monitoring policy’ stating explicitly how, when, and where the company monitors its employees.
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downtime
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refers to a period of when a system is unavailable. The cost is – financial performance, decreased revenue, damaged reputation, and other expenses.
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information security
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a broad term encompassing the protection of information from accidental or intentional misuse by persons inside or outside and organization. Is the primary tool an organization can use to combat the threats associated with downtime.
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hackers
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experts in technology who use their knowledge to break into computers and computer networks, either for profit or just motivated by the challenge.
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virus
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software written with malicious intent to cause annoyance or damage. Some hackers create and leave these causing massive computer damage.
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adware
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software that, while purporting to serve some useful function and often fulfilling that function, also allows Internet advertisers to display advertisements without the consent of the user.
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spyware
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a special class of adware that collects data about the user and transmits it over the internet without the user’s knowledge or permission.
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Insiders
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legitimate users who purposely or accidentally misuse their access to the environment and cause some kind of business-affecting incident.
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social engineering
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through this, hackers use their social skills to trick people into revealing access credentials or other valuable information
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dumpster diving
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looking through people’s trash, is another valuable way hackers obtain information
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information security policies
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policy which identifies the rules required to maintain information security, such as requiring users to log off before leaving for lunch or meetings, never sharing passwords with anyone, and changing passwords every 30 days.
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identity theft
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the forging of someone’s identity for the purpose of fraud. The fraud is often financial, because thieves apply for and use credit cards or loans in the victim’s name.
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Phishing
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a technique to gain personal information for the purpose of identity theft, usually by means of fraudulent emails that look as though they came from legitimate businesses. The messages appear genuine, with official looking formats and logos, and typically ask for verification of important information such as passwords and account numbers, ostensibly for accounting and auditing purposes.
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Pharming
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reroutes requests for legitimate websites to false websites. For example, if you were to type in the URL to your bank, this could redirect to a fake site that collects your information.
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authentication
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a method for confirming users’ identities. Once a system determines the authentication of a user, it can then determine the access privileges for that user.
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authorization
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the process of providing a user with permission including access levels and abilities such as file access, hours of access, and amount of allocated storage space.
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content filtering
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occurs when organizations use software that filters content such as emails, to prevent the accidental or malicious transmission of unauthorized information.
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biometrics
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the identification of a user based on a physical characteristic, such as a fingerprint, iris, face, voice, or handwriting. Unfortunately, biometric authentication can be costly and intrusive.
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encryption
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scrambles information into an alternative form that requires a key or password to decrypt. If there were a security breach and the stolen information were encrypted, the thief would be unable to read it. Can switch the order of characters, replace characters with others, insert or remove characters, or use a mathematical formula to convert the information into a code. Companies that transmit sensitive information over the Internet, such as credit card numbers, use this.
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Public key encryption (PKE)
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encryption technology which uses two keys: a public key which everyone can have and a private key for only the recipient.
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certificate authority
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a trusted third party, such as VeriSign, that validates user identities by means of digital certificates.
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digital certificates
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a data file that identifies individuals or organizations online and is comparable to a digital signature.
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firewall
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hardware and/or software that guards a private network by analyzing and outgoing and information for the correct markings.
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Antivirus software
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software which scans and searches hard drives to prevent, detect, and remove known viruses, adware, and spyware.
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intrusion detection software
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software which features full-time monitoring tools that search for patterns in network traffic to identify intruders. IDS protects against suspicious network traffic and attempts to access files and data.
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prevention and resistance
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technologies stop intruders from accessing intellectual capital. Include: content filtering, encryption, and firewalls.
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MIS infrastructure
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includes the plans for how a firm will build, deploy, use, and share its data, processes, and MIS assets. A solid infrastructure can reduce costs, improve productivity, optimize business operations, generate growth, and increase profitability.
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client
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a computer designed to request information from a server.
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server
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a computer dedicated to providing information in response to requests
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enterprise architect
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a person grounded in technology, fluent in business, and able to provide the important bridge between MIS and the business. Firms employ these people to help manage change and dynamically update MIS infrastructure.
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information MIS infrastructure
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supporting operations; identifies where and how important information, such as customer records, is maintained and secured.
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agile MIS infrastructure
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supporting change; includes the hardware, software, and telecommunications equipment that, when combined, provides the underlying foundation to support the organization’s goals.
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sustainable MIS infrastructure
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supporting the environment; identifies ways that a company can grow in terms of computing resources while simultaneously becoming less dependent on hardware and energy consumption.
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backup
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an exact copy of a system’s information. ‘Recovery’ is the ability to get a system up and running in the event of a system crash failure that includes restoring the information backup.
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fault tolerance
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the ability for a system to respond to unexpected failures or system crashes as the backup system immediately and automatically takes over with no loss of service. This enables a business to support continuous operations if there is a power failure or flood. Is an expensive form of backup, and only mission-critical applications and operations use it.
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failover
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a specific type of fault tolerance, occurs when a redundant storage server offers an exact replica of the real-time data, and if the primary server crashes, the users are automatically directed to the secondary server or backup server. Is a high-speed and high-cost method of backup and recovery.
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failback
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occurs when the primary machine recovers and resumes operations, taking over from the secondary server.
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disaster recovery plan
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a detailed process for recovering information or a system in the event of a catastrophic disaster. This plan includes such factors as which files and systems need to have backups and their corresponding frequency and methods along with the strategic location of the storage in a separate physical site that is geographically dispersed.
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cold site
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alternative disaster site; a separate facility that does not have any computer equipment but is a place where employees can move after a disaster.
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warm site
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alternative disaster site; a separate facility with computer equipment that requires installation and configuration.
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hot site
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alternative disaster site; a separate facility that is fully equipped where the company can move immediately after a disaster and resume business.
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business continuity planning
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details how a company recovers and restores critical business operations and systems after a disaster or extended disruption. This plan includes such factors as identifying critical systems, business processes, departments, and the maximum amount of time the business can continue to operate without functioning systems.
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emergency notification system
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sometimes part of a business continuity plan, it’s an infrastructure built for notifying people in the event of an emergency. A firm will implement these in order to warn employees of unexpected events and provide them with instructions about how to handle the situation.
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accessibility
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…refers to the varying levels that define what a user can access, view, or perform when operating a system.
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availability
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…refers to the time frames when the system is operational. A system is called unavailable when it is not operating and cannot be used. High availability occurs when a system is continuously operational at all times.
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maintainability
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…refers to how quickly a system can transform to support environmental changes, AKA flexibility. Building and deploying flexible systems allow easy updates, changes, and reconfigurations, for unexpected business or environmental changes.
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portability
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…refers to the ability of an application to operate on different devices or software platforms, such as different operating systems.
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reliability
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…ensures a system is functioning correctly and providing accurate information, AKA accuracy. Housing unreliable information on a website can put a company at risk of losing customers, placing inaccurate supplier orders, or even making unreliable business decisions.
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scalability
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describes how well a system can scale up, or adapt to the increased demand of growth. Anticipating expected, and unexpected, growth is key to building scalable systems that can support that development.
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usability
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the degree to which a system is easy to learn and efficient and satisfying to use. Providing hints, tips, shortcuts, and instructions for any system, regardless of its ease to use, is recommended.
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Moore’s Law
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a law which refers to the computer chip performance per dollar doubles every 18 months.
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sustainable MIS disposal
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refers to the safe disposal of MIS assets at the end of their life cycle. It ensure that ewaste does not end up in landfills causing environmental issues.
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grid computing
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An aggregation of geographically dispersed computing, storage, and network resources, coordinated to deliver improved performance, higher quality of service, better utilization, and easier access to data.
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cloud computing
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refers to the use of resources and applications hosted remotely on the Internet.
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Infrastructure as a Service
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a service that delivers hardware networking capabilities, including the use of servers, networking, and storage over the cloud using a pay-per-use revenue model.
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Software as a Service
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one of the first applications of cloud computing, delivers applications over the cloud using a a pay-per-use revenue model. The software is priced on a per-use basis with no up-front costs, so companies get the immediate benefit of reducing capital expenditures.
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Platform as a Service
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supports the development of entire systems including hardware, networking, and applications using a pay-per-use revenue model. With this service, the development, deployment, management, and maintenance is based entirely in the cloud and performed by the provider, allowing the company to focus resources on its core initiatives.
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virtualization
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creates multiple “virtual” machines on a single computing device; a process that allows networked computers to run multiple operating systems and programs through one central computer at the same time
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data center
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A facility used to house management information systems and associated components, such as telecommunications and storage systems. Sometimes referred to as ‘server farms’, they consume power and require cooling and floor space while working to support business growth without disrupting normal business operations and the quality of service.
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Web 3.0
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the next generation of the Internet and Web applications. Is based on “intelligent” Web applications using natural language processing, machine-based learning and reasoning, and intelligent applications. This version of the web offers a way for people to describe information such that computers can start to understand the relationships among concepts and topics; transforming the web into a database, a move toward making content accessible by multiple non-browser applications, the leverage of AI technologies, or semantic web and evolution toward 3D.
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network
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a communications system created by linking two or more devices establishing a standard methodology in which they can communicate.
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cell reference
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is used when you refer to a particular cell or range of cells within a formula or function instead of a value.
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relative cell reference
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cell reference that adjusts to a new location when copied or moved. When you copy or AutoFill as formula to the right or left, the relative cell reference to the column will change. When you copy or AutoFill a formula up or down, the reference to the row will change.
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absolute cell reference
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refers to the address of a cell, when both the column and row needs to remain constant regardless of the position of the cell when the formula is copied to other cells. Cell reference that does not adjust to the new cell location when copied or moved. $D$2 or $A$1*B4
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mixed cell reference
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refers to referencing a cell within the formula where part of the cell address is preceded by a dollar sign to lock – either the column letter or the row value – as absolute and leaving the other part of the cell as relatively referenced. When you add one dollar sign, but not the other, you have a mixed – $B10 or B$10.
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pie chart
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type of chart; commonly used for depicting parts of the whole such as comparing staff performance within a department or comparing the number of transactions of each product category within a period of time.
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line chart
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type of chart; help convey change over a period of time. These are great for exploring how data in a business, such as sales or production, changes over time.
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column chart
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type of chart; useful for comparing data sets that are categorized, like departments, product categories, or survey results. Useful for showing categories over time where each column represents a unit of time, good for comparisons both individually, in groups, or stacked.
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bar chart
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type of chart; useful for comparing data in groups and are similar to column charts. The bars are horizontal representations of the data rather than vertical. Typically not used with time, and can be ‘stacked’ to show how the individual parts add up to create the entire length of each bar.
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scatter chart
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type of chart; a particular type of chart that conveys the relationship between two numeric variables. Very common as a statistical tool depicting the correlation between two variables.
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area chart
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type of chart; a variation of a stacked line chart that emphasizes the magnitude of change over time and visually depicts a trend. This type of chart has a nice visual characteristic because each colored layer changes, growing or shrinking, as it moves across time periods.
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sparklines
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small charts that are embedded into spreadsheet, usually beside the data to facilitate quick analysis of trends. Can be used within a spreadsheet to give an immediate visual trend analysis, and it adjusts as the source data changes. This type of chart can graphically depict the data over time through either a line chart or a bar chart that accumulates the data.

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