Industrial Revolution – World History

Flashcard maker : Brad Bledsoe
Industrial Revolution
A social, political, and economic movement that took place during the 19th Century and created significant change in the countries that went through this transformation
Enclosures
The process of purchasing large tracts of land and fencing it in to increase an individual land owner’s space to grow crops; allowed farmers to experiment with new methods of agricultural techniques and required smaller land owners/farmers to compete with large land owning farmers
Crop Rotation
Planting a different crop each year in an effort to increase the nutrients in the soil
Industrialization
The process of shifting economic production from the individual producer in homes and small workshops to the production of goods by machines in factories
England
This is where the IR began due to this country’s rich natural resources, large population, great waterways, and numerous harbors
Factors of Production
Land, Labor, & Capital; those that control these entities control economic production
Factories
Large buildings where the mechanized creation of goods took place
Textile Industry
One of the biggest industrial benefactors of industrialization; really takes off after Eli Whitney invents the Cotton Gin
Entrepreneur
An individual who starts his/her own business; they take the risks and reap the rewards
James Watt
Invented the steam engine that would revolutionize the factory system, transportation, and have significant changes to Industrial Revolution life
Railroads
Significantly increased industrial production and transportation by connecting different regions of a country and allowing goods to travel from one place to another faster than boats could transport goods
Urbanization
The process of villages turning into cities as a result of the industrial revolution; think of your little village changing through time during the \”Urban Game\”
Middle-Class
This social class develops during this time as most of the factory owners and investors in business began to succeed in their ventures; enjoyed a lot of the refinements of life that the upper class historically enjoyed
Industrialization in the U.S.
Name that country: Begins with the Textile Industry, had great natural resources, railroad development increased industrial development
Industrialization in Belgium
Name that country: Ripped the ideas of industrial production from the English, similar resources and waterways to England
Industrialization in Germany
Name that country: Imported British equipment and engineers from England, built vast railways to develop industry, the country unifies as a result of this physical and economic connection
Rise of Global Inequality
As the IR develops, some countries become very rich while others who are not industrializes become poor by contrast; these rich countries would come to dominate world politics in the decades to come and colonize non-industrialized nations to obtain natural resources
Transformation of society
Industrialization shifted the lives of all people in a given society; daily life, life expectancy, the increase in poverty and wealth of the few, the breakdown of the family
Laissez Faire
The idea that governments should not restrict the progress of business; no rules or regulations should be placed on business
Adam Smith
The \”Father of Capitalism,\” argued for Capitlaism to be the dominant economic system in his book \”The Wealth of Nations\”
Capitalism
A system of economics that relies upon the private in investment and ownership of businesses; no government ownership of the business sector
Jeremy Bentham
The philosopher who created the idea of utilitarianism as a system of government
Utilitarianism
A system of government/economics where only decisions and values that have the \”greatest good\” in mind should be pursued; the idea is to do the greatest amount of good for the greatest amount of people
Utopian Ideas
Robert Owen led this movement as a response to the ills of industrial societies; this is an idea that a \”perfect living place\” can be established for a group, community, or society
Socialism
A system of government/economy that allows for a mix of private and public ownership of the business sector and social services; this system attempts to give all segments of society a stake in the economy/government
Karl Marx
The \”Father of Communism\” who argued the natural progression of socialism would lead to class warfare (a struggle between the working class and the middle and upper classes) and eventually Communism
Communist Manifesto
The publication Karl Marx and Fredrick Engels wrote to outline their theories on Socialism and Communism
Communism
A system of government/economics that argues for a society where there is no private ownership in business; all aspects of society are shared equally amongst the people of a society
Labor Unions
These were created as a way for workers to change their situation; these groups would negotiate with management, called collective bargaining, to bring better pay, conditions, and benefits to workers of an industry
Strike
When labor unions and management could not come to an agreement, workers took power into their own hands by refusing to work, and protesting the problems in their working lives
Factory Act of 1833
Made it illegal to hire children under 9 years old in the factories; limited hours kids could work
10 Hours Act of 1847
Further limited work hours to 10 hours for women & children
Abolition of Slavery
This system ends for England in 1807; it ends in America in 1865 after Civil War
Fight for Women’s Rights
This group of people were at the forefront of a number of reform movements; as a result of their activity they began to fight and struggle for their own rights

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