Global civilization plays an important aspect in the developing countries in that they highly benefit from civilized nations through cultural exchanges which lead to economic growth of their countries. Characteristics associated with the various early American civilizations in the areas of culture, religion, and government and explanation of each civilization’s territory and regional influence.
The Olmec culture consisted of ball games, gods symbolized as animals, sacred monuments which were complex in nature, stones sculptures and the act of drinking chocolate. The Olmecs recorded their gods and religious practices using symbols through the help of priesthood. This practices consists of offerings,sacrifices,cave rituals, pilgrimages, ball-courts and pyramids (Mark, 2013) The Olmec’s government involved Mesoamerican civilization which consisted of their religion, philosophies and cultures. This civilization was passed on to all those who followed it. This civilization promoted trade of goods like feathers. It also allowed agricultural surplus in the region and led to development of urban centers at San Lorenzo, La Venta, and Las Limas.
The Mayan culture consisted of maize agriculture, use of arts to design various tools as well as items, sharpening of stones and construction o...
f beautiful cities using stones. The Mayans religion is seen in their construction of temples using stones. They were served by priests who led them in sacrifices and giving of offerings. The Mayan civilization was an empire which consisted of a group of twenty independent states with similar cultures to help in their process of civilization. Mayan civilization led to development of culture in twenty different independent states with system of art, architecture, astronomy, writing, political, religion and military order.
The Toltec people used arts and architecture in their daily cultures. In addition, they used the art of pottery in building their civic centers. The Toltec built temples as their place of worship. They offered sacrifices and did rituals with the help of a priest. The empire consisted a group of citizens and rulers from mixed population who developed unique cultures to govern them in their operation. This civilization led to promotion in trade networks, a connection to other empires involved in civilization and increased variety of economic resources.
The Aztec culture involved the use of stones to build symbols such as temples and use of stones for writing poetry. They also decorated their skin and used patterns on their clothes. Aztec religion involved human sacrifices in huge temples built with stones. Their religion consisted of two calendars one of which was of the days of the year and the other one for religious events. Aztec was an empire that originated from a small group of poor wanderers. It consisted of a ruling class of Aztecs with fifteen million subjects of different cultures living in five hundred different cities and towns. This civilization led to attack from Spanish conquerors and Mexican allies who wanted to destroy the Aztecs. It also led to the spread of smallpox and highly infectious viral diseases among the Aztec.
The Inca culture involved stone architecture
making of gold and jewellery, woving of fabrics, building roads and development of trade. Inca religion involved sacrifices and offerings which were done in the temple which was built with stones. The priest served the people and assisted in all religious activities. Inca was an empire in south America which developed a distinctive culture to govern their operation. The empire was governed by an emperor who remained in power until he was killed. Inca civilization led to attack by Spanish conquerors who wanted to destroy them making their territory a colony of spain.However, it also led to the spread of smallpox in the region.
Their culture was building of mounds and earthworks for various ceremonies like burials, religious activities and residential purposes. Their religion consisted of temple mounds which acted as a platforms for religious structures and activities like sacrifices and rituals. Their government consisted of different types of societies including the hunters and the gatherers and the farmers who governed their operations.
This civilization led to depopulation whereby people were displaced leaving many mounds unattended. This was due to violent conflict with Europeans. However, it led to infectious diseases such as smallpox and influenza.
Journeys, economic impact, and cultural effects of the explorers listed in the table including their discoveries’ impact on Europe’s economy and the economies of the places they visited and the effect of the explorer on the culture of Europe and the places they visited.
Christopher’s destination was in the west particularly in Bahamas and other Islands. He discovered about the Indians where he believed China was above the horizon. His exploration promoted exchange program called Columbian exchange which promoted contact with other islands leading to trade and knowledge of new innovations to the nations he visited. For instance, steel helped Europeans conquer the Americans.
Christopher’s exploration led to introduction of metal tools and weapons in the places he visited this in turn led to low economic gain to the Europeans since they would no longer trade with the Americans in terms of tools after acquiring them.
Ferdinand’s journey was destined to travel around the world where he discovered that the planet is round and also discovered and named the pacific ocean. In addition, he discovered a static connection between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Ferdinand’s exploration improved European economy in that it increased trade through opening of many trade routes. However, his journey made the economies of the places he visited to improve due to civilization that came as a result of new trade routes.
The cultural effect of Ferdinand’s exploration was the introduction of trade which facilitated exchange of different cultures between Europe and places he visited. This in turn provided new route for invasion and future explorers to the Europeans and promoted growth and expansion of the places he visited.
Vasco De Gama
Vasco’s journey started from Portugal to Indian then proceeded to Mozambique and finally to Mombasa. His discoveries were to displace the Moslem traders and to join with the Christians forces to crusade against Islam. His exploration boosted economic growth of Europe by opening doors to many distributors of valuable commodities.
- Emile Durkheim
- Gender Roles
- Interpersonal Relationship
- Social Change
- Social Class
- Social Movement
- Social Science
- Social Status
- Social Stratification
- Sociological Imagination
- Sociological Perspective
- Sociological Terms
- Sociological Theories