IB History of the Americas Canada and World War I

Flashcard maker : Brenda Gannon
relationship with Britain in 1914
was a ‘Dominion’ of the British Empire; foreign policy was controlled by Great Britain
military in 1914
centralized and integrated; imperial defense plans were led by a Canadian; participated in the war because Great Britain did
military recruitment in Quebec
slowed almost to a stop because of less available unmarried male volunteers; work was preferable to enlistment; language differences and discrimination against French Canadians; Catholics were excluded from service; public political opposition
reasons for involvement
trade improvement; seat in the War Cabinet; leadership of Great Britain; Protestant opposition won over by moral cause
military role
recruitment easy early on but need to keep up with high casualties so the government turned to conscription; inexperienced, courageous soldiers more effective over the course of the war; orders were taken from British commanders, causing bitterness and language barrier tension
impact on the economy
becomes industrialized as manufacturing increases; thus increasing prices and employment; wheat, chemical, and textile production soars, causing problems and eventually lead to depression; the US replaces Great Britain as main trade partner
economic role
increase in the exports of meat, wheat, lumber, munitions, and other products; economy rejuvenated, allowing Canada to escape recession; Imperial Munitions Board controlled industry to meet war need of Allies
impact on society
Sam Hughes’ appointment; Ross rifle inadequate; no central recruitment; confusion, chaos, opposition to war resulting in mutiny, especially among Quebecers; who also supported draft exemptions; no veteran help; increase in radical politics and communist influence- ‘Red Scare’
leadership (diplomatic) role
under British command; no input strategy but eventually gained input and decision making after arguing for the right; in 1917, was given a seat in the Imperial War Court
impact on Canada’s relationship with Great Britain
reconsiders relations with Great Britain; demands participation in the peace process; signs treaty separately; dominions begin to want more control of their foreign policies to protect themselves when Britain is at war
diplomatic status
will negotiate trade agreements without Great Britain’s input; own, separate membership to the League of Nations; in 1923, established the Halibut Treaty with the US without Britain’s involvement
impact of the Conscription Crisis on Canada
established by Borden in May 1917; widespread opposition by citizens; loopholes in conscription taken advantage of; the majority exempted
Borden’s hopes for peace proceedings
Canada’s recognition as a separate nation rather than a Dominion

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