Human Growth & Development Final

When Daniel Offer and his colleagues studied the self-images of adolescents in the United States, Australia, Bangladesh, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Japan, Taiwan, Turkey, and West Germany, at least _____ of the adolescents displayed a healthy self-image.

personal experience and media portrayals
Public attitudes about adolescence emerge from a combination of

early adolesence
Puberty refers to a period of rapid physical maturation involving hormonal and bodily changes that occurs primarily during

it is a gradual process involving multiple distinguishing events.
It is difficult to know exactly when puberty begins and ends because:

increased penis size
Ms. Chang is trying to prepare her health-class students for the onset of puberty. What should she tell the boys that they are likely to experience first

Girls are just as tall boys at the beginning of the ___________ period

11½; 13½
The peak rate of pubertal change occurs at _____ years for girls and _____ years for boys.

The hormone that is associated with breast, uterine, and skeletal development in girls is

is experiencing normal changes during puberty
Fourteen-year-old Kent’s blood tests indicate an eighteen-fold increase in testosterone levels and a two-fold increase in estradiol over the past few years. It appears that Kent

Recent research about hormones and behavior has found the relationship to be:

declined significantly
In the United States the average age of menarche has _____ since the mid-nineteenth century.

Precocious puberty occurs about __ times more often in girls than in boys.

A girl in early adolescence
Who among the following will be most dissatisfied with body image as pubertal change proceeds?

greater satisfaction; satisfied
In the sixth grade, early-maturing girls show _____ with their figures than do late-maturing girls, but by the tenth grade late-maturing girls are more ____.

taller and thinner when they reach high school
Recent research has found that early-maturing girls are more likely than late-maturing girls to be:

corpus callosum
Among the changes in the brain that occur in adolescence is the thickening of the ____, where fibers connect the brain’s left and right hemispheres, improving adolescents’ ability to process information.

Some adolescents are very active sexually
Which of the following is true of an adolescent’s developing sexual identity?

mid- to late adolescence
Most gay or lesbian individuals recognize that they are gay or lesbian in

Tyrone, an African American boy, living in inner-city Chicago
Considering the national trend in the United States, which one of the following teenagers is most likely to be sexually active?

She probably comes from a low SES background.
Mollie is currently 15 and pregnant. Which of the following is most likely to be true about Mollie?

The percentage of overweight 12- to 19-year-olds in the United States in 2004 was:

_____ is the second leading cause of death in adolescence.

illicit drug use has declined in recent years.
According to the study by Lloyd Johnston and his colleagues at the Institute of Social Research at the University of Michigan monitoring the drug use of America’s high school seniors in a wide range of public and private high schools:

that adults characterized by poorer mental and physical health were more likely to have low self-esteem in adolescence than well-adjusted, competent adults.
Results of a New Zealand longitudinal study that assessed the self-esteem of adolescents at 11, 13, and 15 years of age and adjustment and competence of the same individuals when they were 26 years old, indicated:

personality characteristics
Identity encompasses an individual’s

identity confusion
Adolescents who do not successfully resolve their identity crisis suffer from what Erikson calls ___.

The degree to which first-generation immigrants begin to feel _____ appears to be related to whether or not they learn English, develop social networks beyond their ethnic group, and become culturally competent in their new country.

has reason to worry, since his son is more likely to engage in delinquent behaviors.
Manfred is worried about his 16-year-old son hanging around much older people in the neighborhood. Research suggests that Manfred:

either positive or negative, depending on what behavior the clique promotes.
Given what we know about the influence of peers on adolescents, an adolescent’s desire to spend a great deal of time with a clique is probably:

Adolescents enter into romantic attractions and affiliations at about _____ years of age, where dating, if any, occur in a group setting.

At this age, romantic relations are characterized by strong emotional bonds more closely resembling those in adult romantic relationships.

Late bloomers comprise approximately 10 percent of _____ who say that they have had no experience with romantic relationships.

Which ethnic group has the least conservative views regarding teenage dating?

a little more than half the time
Adolescents in the U.S spend _____ on schoolwork as their East Asian counterparts do.

To preserve identity and to acculturate
Identify the dual struggle often faced by immigrants to the U.S.

encourage skilled behavior, actively monitor his son, try to keep track of his whereabouts
Shafton wants to know how he can keep his young son out of trouble. You would suggest that he

marital strife between parents, economic strife in the family, the emotionally unavailable parent
Ms. Carter is teaching parents about the risk factors for depression in teens. She should discuss

intensive individual attention
If a community wants to develop programs to help at-risk youths, an important component to include in the program would be

Suicide is the _____ leading cause of death in 10- to 19-year-olds in the United States today

Priscilla will join her friends in the antisocial behavior.
Priscilla is in the 8th grade. Her group of friends has recently started shoplifting at departmental stores. What is Priscilla likely to do in this scenario?

The talk-featured, gossip aspect of friendship is more common in girls than boys.
Which of the following is true of gossip among adolescent peers?

Ahmed believes in God
Adrian, 18 is a native of Sweden and Ahmed, also 18, is a native of Pakistan. According to the findings of the Analysis of the World Values Survey of 18- to 24-year-olds, which of the following is most likely to be true of the religious development of these two individuals?

Maria, a Latino girl, being raised in a traditional family
According to research on gender differences that characterize autonomy-granting in adolescence, which of the following adolescents is likely to be subjected to the most parental monitoring?

early adolescence
Conflict with parents most often escalates during

___, or exploration, is defined as a period of identity development during which the individual is exploring alternatives.

reduced production of leptin
A possible genetic explanation for obesity in humans is:

lack of advancement opportunities, low salaries, uncertain job expectations
A recent survey states that the main sources of stress included

About _____ college men admit to forcing sexual activity.

many would have reduced
According to a longitudinal study by Jerald Bachman and his colleagues, by the time individuals reach their mid-twenties, _____ their use of alcohol and drugs.

a combination of factors
An individual’s sexual orientation is most likely determined by

Binge drinking peaks at about ___ years of age

the glass ceiling
Carol, a mid-level manager at Pegasus Incorporated, has not received a promotion in the last three years despite good performance and good ratings at performance appraisals. If she were to be promoted, she would be the only female employee at top management level. Carol seems to have hit:

career mystique
Ever since she passed out of college, Jane has been working long hours at her job as an accountant with a small company in the hope that her hard work will pay off and that she will achieve good career growth and economic stability. Jane obviously believes in what Phyllis Moen describes as the:

getting married
In developing countries, the most widely recognized marker of entry into adulthood is:

holding a more or less full time job
In the United States, which of the following is the most widely recognized marker of entry into adulthood?

Mini wants to know what activities would be most conducive to creative thinking. Based on what people reported in Csikszentmihalyi’s research, you would suggest that Mini would be at her creative best during activities that are

Cultural variations underscore the environment’s role in alcoholism.
Regarding alcohol and drug use, which of the following statements is TRUE?

Sexual orientation is determined by a combination of factors
Regarding the development of a nonheterosexual sexual orientation, which of the following statements is TRUE?

paid apprenticeships in a field that you are interested in pursuing.
More than 1,000 colleges in the United States offer cooperative (co-op) programs, which are:

Nicotine is a

Researchers have found that creativity peaks in one’s

power of one person over another
Sexual harassment is a manifestation of

why sexual orientation is difficult, if not impossible, to modify.
The critical-period hypothesis could explain

support by adults
The three characteristics shared by these “late-bloomers”—individuals who were still showing maladaptive patterns in emerging adulthood but had gotten their lives together by the time they were in the late twenties and early thirties—were being planful, showing positive aspects of autonomy, and ___.

still trying to beat their addiction
There is a “one-third rule” for alcoholism: by age 65, one-third are dead or in terrible shape, one-third are abstinent or drinking socially, and one-third are ___.

a continuum from exclusive male-female relations to exclusive same-sex relations.
Today, it is more accepted to view sexual orientation as

Americans’ sexual lives are more liberal than suggested by previous surveys.
Which of the following conclusions was NOT made by the 1994 survey of sexual practices among Americans?

Avoid tracking your progress too closely
Which of the following is NOT a strategy for building exercise into one’s life?

Emerging adults have sex less frequently than young adults.
Which of the following is included in the patterns of heterosexual behavior for males and females in emerging adulthood?

Exercise can be as effective in reducing depression as psychotherapy.
Which of the following statements about the benefits of exercise is true?

thinks that Amelia is also a geek.
“Amelia’s all excited about this new guy she met,” says Julie. “I guess it makes sense because he’s really a geek.” Based on the concept of consensual validation, we can expect that Julie

the good enoughs
According to E. Mavis Hetherington’s research, the largest group of divorced people falls into the category of:

According to Erik Erikson, if individuals do not develop intimacy, they face:

sexual problems
According to Popenoe, et al, all of the following EXCEPT _______ are problems that many couples who cohabit face.

According to Tannen, men’s lack of ______ talk bothers many women.

experiencing a conflict between intimacy and independence.
Angelina is having some difficulty with her boyfriend. She wants to maintain a close and supportive relationship, but at times she feels smothered by the relationship. Angelina is:

distance themselves from their partner.
Avoidant individuals tend to

Davis’s divorce was final just last week, and already he is out looking for a new romantic relationship. Davis is a(n):

Gabriella’s needs and demands will frustrate Tyler’s need for distance.
Gabriella is an anxious person. Her husband, Tyler, is an avoidant person. Based on research by Mario Mikulincer and Phillip Shaver, what issues might this couple face?

If American men and women are going to get married at some point in their life, most do so by the time they are _____ years old.

In the United States, the average duration of a marriage is just over ______ years.

In which of the following countries is chastity the most important factor in a marriage partner?

pressure from society to get married
Julia, who has just turned 30 years old, has never married. She is likely to feel:

secure attachment style
On an assessment of attachment styles modeled on Hazan and Shaver’s questionnaire, Alicia described herself thus: “I find it relatively easy to get close to others and I am comfortable depending on them and having them depend on me. I don’t worry about being abandoned or about someone getting too close to me.” Alicia seems to have a(n):

Recent research suggests that cohabiting before marriage ________ the likelihood of divorce

less likely
Securely attached adults are _________ than others to have one-night stands

decreased in its level of relative importance
Since the early 1900s, the goal of maintaining a stable marriage has:

intimacy vs isolation
What is Erikson’s sixth stage of socioemotional development, which describes the most important issues dealt with in early adulthood?

consummate love
When all three parts of Sternberg’s triarchic theory of love are present in a relationship, what type of love are people experiencing?

solving solvable conflicts
Which of John Gottman’s successful marriage principles is reflected in his advice to regulate emotions, compromise, and be tolerant of each other’s faults?

Which of the following aspects of childhood temperament is related to delayed entry into a stable job track during adulthood?

marrying late in life
Which of the following factors is NOT associated with an increase in divorce?

Remarriage often lowers the financial status of remarried adults
Which of the following is NOT true regarding remarried families

Passionate; compassionate
__________ love is to romantic love as __________ love is to affectionate love

parents have a better idea of what they want from their family roles
Which one of the following is an advantage of having children later?

metabolic syndrome
A condition in middle and late adulthood characterized by hypertension, obesity, and insulin resistance is referred to as

remained stable in middle adulthood
A meta-analysis of studies on everyday problem-solving and decision-making effectiveness indicated that they

According to Victor Frankl, the three most distinct human qualities are freedom, responsibility, and ____.

the back and legs
Age related loss of muscle strength is especially marked in

meaning-making coping
Drawing on beliefs, values, and goals to change the meaning of a stressful situation is known as:

decreased sight and hearing
Larry is a normal 45-year-old male. Which of the following is Larry MOST likely to be experiencing?

Michelle is typical of middle-aged person in her ability to remember information
Michelle is upset because she believes that her memory has been getting worse since she entered middle age. She finds it harder to remember a grocery list or telephone number, though she does not have difficulty with information she uses often, such as her address or Social Security number

longer life
One benefit of taking an annual vacation is

Tony’s condition has been diagnosed as sexual dysfunction. His doctor will MOST likely treat him with _____

rising male to female sex ratio
The rectangularization of the population pyramid has been created by all of the following EXCEPT:

peak performance for vocabulary
The Seattle Longitudinal Study concluded that middle age is a time of:

a lower rate of depression, a lower rate of hypertension, longevity
Religiousness has been associated with

age identity
Questions such as, “To which age group do you belong?” and “How old do you feel?” reflect the concept of ____.

What is the leading chronic disorder for women during middle age?

47 years
What was the average life expectancy in 1900?

cancer, heart disease and stroke
Which of the following are the MOST common chronic disorders for men during middle age?

excessive sexual activity
Which of the following is NOT one of the factors that could be related to erectile problems in middle-aged men?

As adults become older their age identity is younger than their chronological age.
Which of the following is a consistent finding regarding age identity?

difficulty viewing close objects
Which of the following is most typical of the vision-related issues faced by middle-aged persons?

offering incentives to middle-aged employees to retire early
Which of the following is one of the outcomes of the restructuring, downsizing, and outsourcing resulting from globalization?

susceptibility to colds and allergies decreases
Which of the following is typical of the health condition during early and late middle-age?

Maximum bone density occurs in late adolescence
Which of the following statements about bone density is NOT true?

Virtually all women are postmenopausal by age 55
Which of the following statements about menopause is NOT true?

high blood sugar
Which of the following symptoms is NOT associated with menopause?

They have to make final decisions about having children
Why is menopause an important marker for women?

openness to experience increased in adolescence and early adulthood
A recent meta-analysis of personality stability and change organized according to the Big Five framework showed that

more “empty nests.”, higher income, more concern for parents
According to the Mitchell & Helson study, conditions that distinguished the lives of women in their early fifties from those of women in other age periods included

faced fewer challenges and did not develop as fully as the other women
According to Helson’s Mills College Study, women who did not commit themselves to one of the lifestyle patterns (family-oriented, career-oriented, and those who followed neither path):

Both Allen and Jan will be better able to use the divorce as a way to make positive changes in their lives than they could have several years ago.
Allan and Jan are a middle-aged couple going through a divorce. They have both agreed that divorce is the best solution for them. Which of the following is likely?

historical contexts
Cohort effects are differences based on

often missing; these cultures only refer to adults as young or old.
Cross-cultural studies show that in nonindustrialized countries the concept of middle age is

It is probably unlikely that Delilah and Symonds will experience closeness in this age because, as children, they were not close to each other
Delilah and her brother Symonds are living in their middle age now. As young siblings, they were not so close to each other and even had to undergo counseling to resolve their disputes. Considering their life-stage, which of the following is MOST probably true of the current relationship between them?

Don and Ellie have been married for over 30 years. Which of the following is likely to be LEAST important in their relationship?

Francisco’s parents
Francisco moved to the United States from Mexico for greater economic opportunities. His wife and children joined him 5 years ago, and his parents joined him 2 months ago. His daughter wants to go on an overnight camping trip with a school club. Which of the family members would be MOST likely to disapprove of such a trip?

66; 41
In a survey conducted by AARP (2004), _____ percent of the divorced women said they initiated the divorce compared with only _____ percent of the divorced men.

In most cases researchers have found that relationships between aging parents and their children are usually characterized by ____

the effect of her daughter’s presence on Mary’s privacy
Mary is unhappy about her 24-year-old daughter’s request to move back home after college. Which of the following is likely to be Mary’s main concern?

it varies more now
What changes in the social clock has taken place in recent years?

life events are temporary, hassles are long lasting
What is the difference between life events and hassles?

For most parents, marital satisfaction increases after the transition to an empty nest.
Which of the following is TRUE about the empty nest syndrome?

Individuals whose lives are synchronized with the social clocks are less stressed.
Which of the following is a significant observation by Neugarten regarding social clocks?

Similarity between parents and an adult child is most noticeable in religion and politics.
Which of the following statements about intergenerational relations is TRUE?

Many other cultures do not have a well-defined concept of midlife.
Why is it difficult to identify a midlife crisis in other cultures?

_____ encompasses adults’ desire to leave legacies of themselves to the next generation.

middle-aged adults may have to care for their own adolescent children as well as their elderly parents.
Middle adulthood is referred to as the sandwich generation because:

a daily hassle
Mr. Chang gets very angry when he discovers his newspaper in the mud underneath the bushes once again. He begins throwing things and yelling loudly. Mr. Chang is experiencing the stress of:

Peter, a 20-year-old, is in the _____ phase, according to Levinson.

cumulative personality
The _____ model of personality development states that with time and age people become more adept at interacting with their environment in ways that promotes increased stability in personality.

they do not have enough money to live on their own.
The main reason that some children delay leaving home until early adulthood is that:

A disease that starts out slowly but lasts a long time is called ____.

75-80 times
According to the cellular clock theory of aging, cells can divide a maximum of:

At 60 years of age, the retina receives only about _____ as much light as it did at 20 years of age.

Assertiveness training
Judith Rodin gave nursing home residents

Macular degeneration
Deterioration of the retina is called

Hearing problems
Compared to men, elderly women are less likely to have

The yellowing of the lens of the eye
Color vision declines with age due to

Women would have longer life expectancies than men
If men and women engaged in the same behaviors, diet and habits, what would be expected?

Loss of bone tissue is associated with

Increase sexual activity among the elderly
Sex education for elderly people has been found to

Late onset alcoholism
Stuart is 67 years old, widowed, lives alone and began drinking.

The average life expectancy of someone born in the US today

Cognitive ability
Taking B vitamins is positively correlated with

People age because their cells normal metabolism produces unstable oxygen molecules that bounce around and damage cells.
The free radical theory of aging

The young-old people are

Verbal memory decreased
When scientist fed rats restricted calorie diets, what did NOT occur

Cellular clock theory
What biological theory of aging is because cells divide 75-80 times?

Prefrontal cortex
What area of the brain shrinks more than others

They counteract the damage done by free radicals
What do antioxidants do

Cataracts, glaucoma, macular degeneration
Three major vision impairing diseases

Life expectancy
The number of years a person is likely to live when they’re born

The most prevalent chronic health condition in late adulthood

With age, both brain weight and volume

Women engage in fewer high risk behaviors
Why is life expectancy higher for women than men?

A persons knowledge about the world

Age differences have been found in retelling stories, giving instructions of completing a task. This aspect of communication pertaining to extended verbal expression is called

Another name for explicit memory is

Alzheimer’s disease is an example of

Experience age related stereotypes
Older workers are more likely to

Early onset Alzheimer’s accounts for ___ of cases

Wisdom is correlated with cognitive factors such as intelligence
Paul Baltes found all EXCEPT that

A male in failing health
Who is most likely to commit suicide

On average today’s workers will spend ____ of their life retired

Social security
The option to retire in the US exists largely because of

Remembering where you went on vacation last year is ______ memory

A persons knowledge of the world is ________ memory

Age differences have been found in retelling a story or giving instructions for completing a task. This aspect of communication, which pertains to extended verbal expression, is called

another name for explicit memory is

Alzheimer’s disease is an example of

Early onset Alzheimers accounts for about ___ of all cases

wisdom is correlated with cognitive factors such as intelligence
In his studies on wisdom, Paul Baltes has found all of the following EXCEPT

older adults who are less educated adjust better to retirement
Which of the following statements is FALSE?

what has NOT been associated with performance of memory tasks

what is NOT a noncognitive factor influencing older adult performance on memory tasks

both are chronic and progressive
what do Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease have in common?

increase in social support
what is NOT a risk factor for depression

7 million
Approximately ________ Americans return to work after they retire

do not
older adults _____ have a higher incidence of mental disorders than younger adults

selective attention
what type of attention could be described as focusing on one voice among many in a crowded room?

_______ memory is retaining information about the where and when of lifes happenings

generational inequity
“There wont be any social security left by the time I retire; all those old people will take it out and not pay any higher taxes to replenish the system” is an example of

reminiscence therapy
A therapy that involves discussing past activities and experiences with older clients

The percentage of older people living in poverty is

According to the socioemotional selectivity theory, individuals are motivated by two types of goals – emotional and

According to the cross sectional study by Ursula Staudinger, which of the following is MOST important investment for adults ages 25-34?

because they die before reaching the age of eligibility for benefits
According to the text, which of the following could be the reason why many ethnic minority workers never enjoy the social security and medicare benefits to which their earnings contribute?

projecting future life experiences
all of the following are a part of the life review process EXCEPT

Erik Erikson believed that people who experience isolation and stagnation in earlier adulthood are more likely to experience ____________ in later adulthood

the rely on family networks and often the church
how do many african americans cope with the challenges of growing older in a racist and ageist society

collectivistic; individualistic
It is observed that repect for older adults is greater in ______ cultures than in ______ cultures.

the people in her religious community
Maria is an elderly latina. which of the following support systems is she MOST likely to use to cope with the daly difficulties she faces?

be more satisfied with her life
Mavis, age 72, volunteers 4 hours each week in the hospital gift shop and reads a story to second grade children for 45 minutes every Monday morning. Research shows that compared to her peers who do not engage in any volunteer work, Mavis is more likely to

spend most of her time with familiar friends
Now the Natsya is in late adulthood, the socioemotional selectivity theory predicts that she will

communicate with relatives
older adults use the internet most often to

recent studies have led researchers to conclude that the emotional life of older adults is more ______ than once thought

social support is negatively correlated with

the model of selective optimization with compensation proposes that successful aging is related to three main factors. which of these factors is based on the concept that in old age there is a reduced capacity and loss of functioning that mandate a reduction of performance in most domains of life?

many older adults prefer spending more time with a smaller circle of friends to avoid negative experiences
which of the following could be probable reason why older adults tend to report being less lonely than younger adults

whether older people have had a large number of children
which of the following is NOT a factor that predicts high status for the elderly in a culture?

if things dont go well for you, be willing to let others help you
which of the following is a compensation strategy used be Baltes and his colleagues?

acceptance of past selves increases
which of the following is true in the possible selves of older adults

middle aged adults
according thewhich age group has the highest self esteem?

retirement brings the greatest changes to _____ families

wrong; most elderly adults live with other family members
After losing her husband, Ebony does not want to move in with her daughter, she wants to stay in her home like other old people. studies say that she is

“aninut” “avelut” and “shivah” are all parts of the grieving process for people in the _____ community

brain death
a flat EEG recording for a specific period of time is one criterion of

A recent study of end of life planning revealed that ___ of patients 18 and older had a living will

it is unclear, because death can be defined in many different ways
A young woman was seriously injured in a car accident and now shows no higher cortical brain function. Her parents decide to take her off of life support and are shocked when she continues to breath on her own. is the young woman dead?

approximately ___ of corpses are disposed of by burial

approximately ___ of corpses are disposed of by cremation

human life depends on the abilities such as intelligence and personality
defining death as nonfunction of the higher cortex implies that

produce more intense feelings in survivors that if the person died of a long illness
deaths that are sudden, violent or traumatic are likely to

ones brain shows no electrical activity
death occurs neurologically when _____ for a specified period of time

in the patients homes
currently in the US, 90% of hospice care is provided

approximately _____ of survivors experience normal or uncomplicated grief reactions

passive euthanasia
Basillo sustained severe and irreversible brain damage due to an accidental overdose of insulin. His wife and his children decided to remove his life support system and Basillo subsequently died. This is an example of

denial can help to insulate the dying person from coping with intense feelings of anger
for a terminally ill person, which of the following can be the most useful benefit of denying ones imminent death

in the dual process model of coping with bereavement, coping with loss and engaging in restoration can occur

Robert Kastenbaum emphasizes that the death system in any culture is comprimised of several components. which of the following is NOT one of those components?

chronic diseases
older adults and most likely to die from

community relations
the womens health initiative study of widowhood was a 3 year longitudinal study designed to examine all of the aspect of widows EXCEPT

the stage of death during which a person may wish to be alone is

make a death more peaceful and less frightening for the patient and family
the main purpose of hospice is to

involvement of volunteer widows as counselors
the key feature of a successful program that helps widows adjust to the death of their spouses is

Trisha has managed to cope with her husbands death quite well. She is probably

in 2004, births to adolescent girls fell to a record low, and then increased in 2006
which of the following is true of adolescent pregnancies in the US

he is less likely to also engage in these behaviors than he was 2 years ago
Aaron is a junior in high school. his group of close friends have recently started engaging in vandalism and graffiti. what is aaron likely to do?

which of the following media do older adolescents spend the most of their time on

declines in adolescent girls
though controversial, it is indicated that self esteem

provide her with a useful guide for dealing with issures she faces as a homemaker
Tina is a middle aged woman who has lived a very satisfying life as a mother and homemaker. Contemporary adult stage theories of development probably

cardiovascular disease
the leading cause of deathin the 75-84 and 85+ age groups

elder maltreatment is carried out primarily by family members
regarding victimization of crime in late adulthood, developmentalists know that

some individuals continue a life of strong work and productivity throughout late adulthood
which of the following is a true statement regarding work in late adulthood

a temporary obstruction of a blood vessel

his physicians can disconnect him from life support
Germaine has signed an advance directive. this means

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