Human Development/Nations of One

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human development
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the scientific study of the changes that occur in people as they age from conception until death.
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longitudinal design
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research design in which one participant or group of participants is studied over a long period of time.
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cross sectional design
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research design in which several different age groups of participants are studied at one particular point in time.
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cross sequential design
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research design in which participants are first studied by means of a cross sectional design but are followed and assessed for a period of no longer than 6 years.
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nature
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the influence of our inherited characteristics on our personality, physical growth, intellectual growth, and social interactions.
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nurture
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the influence of the environment on personality, physical growth, intellectual growth, and social interactions.
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genetics
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the science of inherited traits
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DNA
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special molecule that contains the genetic material of the organism.
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gene
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section of DNA having the same arrangement of chemical elements.
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chromosome
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tightly wound strand of genetic material or DNA
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dominant
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referring to a gene that actively controls the expression of a trait
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recessive
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referring to a gene that only influences the expression of a trait when paired with an identical gene.
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conception
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the moment at which a female becomes pregnant
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ovum
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the female sex cell, or egg
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fertilization
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the union of the ovum and sperm
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zygote
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cell resulting from the uniting of the ovum and sperm
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monozygotic twins
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identical twins formed when one zygote splits into two separate masses of cells, each of which develops into a separate embryo.
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dizygotic twins
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often called fraternal twins, occurring when two eggs each get fertilized by two different sperm, resulting in two zygotes in the uterus at the same time.
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germinal period
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first two weeks after fertilization, during which the zygote moves down to the uterus and begins to implant in the lining.
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embryo
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name for the developing organism from two weeks to eight weeks after fertilization
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embryonic period
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the period from two to eight weeks after fertilization, during which the major organs and structures of the organism develop.
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critical periods
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times during which certain environmental influences can have an impact of the development of the infant.
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teratogen
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any factor that can cause a birth defect.
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fetal period
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the time from about eight weeks after conception until the birth of the child
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fetus
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name for the developing organism from eight weeks after fertilization to the birth of the baby
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cognitive development
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the development of thinking, problem solving, and memory
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scheme
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in this case, a mental concept formed through experiences with objects and events
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sensorimotor stage
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Piaget’s first stage of cognitive development in which the infant infant uses its senses and motor abilities to interact with objects in the environment
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object permanence
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the knowledge than an object exists even when it is not in sight
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preoperational stage
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Piaget’s second stage of cognitive development in which the preschool child learns to use language as a means of exploring the world
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egocentrism
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the inability to see the world through anyone else’s eyes
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centration
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in Piaget’s theory, the tendency of a young child to focus only on one feature of an object while ignoring other relevant features.
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conservation
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in Piaget’s theory, the ability to understand that simply changing the appearance of an object doesn’t change the object’s nature
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irreversibility
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in Piaget’s theory, the inability of the young child to mentally reverse an action.
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concrete operations stage
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third stage of cognitive development in which the school-aged child becomes capable of logical thought processes but is not yet capable of abstract thinking
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formal operations stage
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Piaget’s last stage of cognitive development, in which the adolescent becomes capable of abstract thinking.
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scaffolding
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process in which a more skilled learner gives help to a less skilled learner, reducing the amount of help as the less skilled learner becomes more capable.
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zone of proximal development (ZPD)
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Vygotsky’s concept of the difference between what a child can do alone and what that child can do with the help of a teacher
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temperament
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the behavioral characteristics that are fairly well established at birth, such as easy, difficult, and slow to warm up.
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attachment
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the emotional bond between an infant and the primary caregiver
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gender
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the behavior associated with being male or female
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gender identity
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perception of one’s gender and the behavior that is associated with that gender.
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adolescence
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the period of life from about age 13 to the early twenties, during which a young person is no longer physically a child but it not yet an independent, self-supporting adult.
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puberty
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the physical changes that occur in the body as sexual development reaches its peak
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personal fable
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type of thought common to adolescents in which young people believe themselves to be unique and protected from harm
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imaginary audience
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type of thought common to adolescents in which young people believe that other people are just as concerned about the adolescents thoughts and characteristics as they themselves are.
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preconventional morality
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first level of Kohlberg’s stages of moral development in which the child’s behavior is governed by the consequences of the behavior
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conventional morality
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second level of Kohlberg’s stages of moral development in which the child’s behavior is governed by conforming to the society’s norms of behavior
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postconventional morality
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third level of Kohlberg’s stages of moral development in which the person’s behavior is governed by moral principles that have been decided on by the individual and that may be in disagreement with accepted societal norms.
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identity vs. role confusion
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fifth stage of personality development in which the adolescent must find a consistent sense of self
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menopause
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the cessation of ovulation and menstrual cycles and the end of a woman’s reproductive capability.
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andropause
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gradual changes in the sexual hormones and reproductive system of middle-aged males.
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intimacy
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an emotional and psychological closeness that is based on the ability to trust, share, and care, while maintaining a sense of self.
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generativity
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providing guidance to one’s children or the next generation, or contributing to the well-being of the next generation through career or volunteer work
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authoritarian parenting
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style of parenting in which parent is rigid and overly strict, showing little warmth to the child.
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permissive parenting
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style of parenting in which parent makes few, if any, demands on a child’s behavior.
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permissive neglectful
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permissive parenting in which parents are uninvolved with child or child’s behavior
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permissive indulgent
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permissive parenting in which parents are so involved that children are allowed to behave without set limits.
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authoritative parenting
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style of parenting in which parents combine warmth and affection with firm limits on a child’s behavior.
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ego integrity
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sense of wholeness that comes from having lived a full life and the ability to let go of regrets; the final completion of the ego.
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activity theory
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theory of adjustment to aging that assumes older people are happier if they remain active in some way, such as volunteering or developing a hobby.
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Hyper individuation
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a personal frame of reference through which the lone individual views the world that exists beyond the self, a shift from cooperative support system to a money and market based goods and services provider system
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singularity
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\”I am alone in the midst of impersonal economic forces that, beyond consistent payment of debts, are indifferent to my behavior. I am largely free of obligation to others and can do as I wish.\”
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Initial Hyper -individuation
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characterized by search for self in a global economic system that emphasized consumption. advertising plays an important part in his/her life.
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developed Hyper-individuation
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the understanding that one must actively engage in the hard work of self-discovery in dHI
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transcendental HI
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based on the understanding of the self in relationship to a larger context. an appreciation of other people, the arts, science, and religion in completing awareness of the self and the world that lies beyond.
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non-HI
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lives in a prisoner’s dilemma arrangement in which the person with whom he/she is relating to can’t be relied upon to cooperate.
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Cellular Clock Theory
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cells are limited in the number of times they can reproduce to repair damage.
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wear and tear theory
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points to outside influences such as stress, physical exertion, and bodily damage. body’s organs and cells wear out after repeated use.
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free radical theory
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gives a biological explanation for the damage done to cells over time.
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Intimacy vs. Isolation
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young adults who have difficulty trusting others and who are unsure of their own identities may find isolation instead of intimacy.
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trust vs. mistrust
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birth-1 year, babies learn to trust or mistrust others based on whether or not their needs – such as food and comfort- are met.
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autonomy vs. shame and doubt
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toddlers realize that they can direct their own behaviors. if they’re successful, they learn to be independent.
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initiative vs. guilt
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preschoolers are challenged to control their own behavior, such as controlling their exuberance when in a restaurant. if they succeed, they feel capable.
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industry vs. inferiority
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when elementary schoolers succeed in learning new skills and obtaining new knowledge, they develop a sense of industry, a feeling of competence.
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identity vs. role confusion
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adolescents are faced with deciding who or what they want to be in terms of occupation, beliefs, attitudes, and behavior patterns
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intimacy vs. isolation
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the task facing those in early adulthood is to be able to share who they are with another person in a close, committed relationship.
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ego integrity vs. despair
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the issue is whether an old person will reach wisdom, spiritual tranquility, a sense of wholeness, and acceptance of his/her life
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secure
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willing to get down from mothers lap when they first entered room with mothers. when mother left, infants got upset, but when mothers returned, infants were easily soothed and were glad to have her back.
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avoidant
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somewhat willing to explore but did not touch base with mothers. reacted very little to mother’s absence.
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ambivalent
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babies were clinging, unwilling to explore, upset by the stranger. when mother returned, babies demanded to be picked up.
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disorganized-disoriented
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some babies seemed unable to decide how they should react to mothers return. infants seemed fearful and showed a dazed and depressed look on their faces
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cooing
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vowel like sounds
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babbling
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add consonant sounds to the vowels to make a babbling sound, at times can sound like real speech
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one word speech
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actual words, usually nouns and may seem to represent an entire phrase of meaning. called holophrases
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telegraphic speech
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stringing words together to form short simple sentences
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rooting reflex
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when you touch a baby’s cheek, it will turn towards your hand, open its mouth, and search for your nipple.
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down syndrome
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there is an extra chromosome in what would normally be the twenty-first pair
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Klinefelter’s Syndrome
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there is an extra sex chromosome in the twenty-third pair (XXY), with the extra X producing a male with reduced masculine characteristics, enlarged breasts, obesity, and excessive height.
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Turner’s Syndrome
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the twenty-third pair is missing an X, so that the result is a lone X chromosome. these females tend to be short, infertile, and sexually underdeveloped.

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