House of BurgessesThe first official legislative assembly in the Colonies. It was a representative self-government in Virginia
Roger WilliamsA radical separatist who believed in freedom of religion. He used the Church in Salem to voice his opinions: respect the land rights of Native Americans, religious groups shouldnt be supported by taxes, magistrates should have no voice in spiritual matters, and complete separation of church and state. He was banished from Massachusetts in 1636, after which he founded the colony of Rhode Island, named it Providence, and established a government based on the consent of the people, with religious toleration and separation of church and state.
PuritansPeople who were angry with the Anglican church, saying it was too corrupt and similar to the Church of Rome. They wanted to “purify” it from the inside. When William Laud was allotted more control over religious affairs and issued many anti-Puritan decrees, they fled to North America to form the Plymouth colony.
Mayflower CompactA document written by the Pilgrims establishing themselves as a political society and setting guidelines for self-government. They signed it before disembarking, and it set the standard for later constitutions
Anne HutchinsonBrought out the idea of antinomianism—a sharp challenge to Puritan orthodoxy. She was brought to trial in 1638, and she boasted that she had come by her beliefs through a direct revelation from God. The Puritan magistrates banished her, and she moved to NY where she was eventually killed by Indians.
AntinomianismA belief that was brought out by Anne Hutchinson. It claimed that a holy life was no sure sign of salvation and that the truly saved need not bother to obey the law of either God or man. High heresy in the eyes of the Puritans.
SeparatistsExtremist Puritans that wanted to break away entirely from the Church of England. They settled in Holland but wanted to find a place where they could live as English men and women and as purified Puritans.
John WinthropThe first governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony. He was instrumental in forming the colonys government and shaping its legislative policy. He envisioned the colony, centered in present-day Boston, as a “city upon a hill” from which Puritans would spread religious righteousness throughout the world.
Massachusetts Bay ColonyIn 1629 a group of Puritans secured a royal charter from King Charles to form this. Proposed to establish a sizeable settlement in the infertile Massachusetts area. It rapidly became both the biggest and most influential of the New England outposts. They had a sense of purpose, believing they had a covenant with God to build a holy society that would be a model for humankind.
The EnlightenmentAlso known as the “age of reason,” this philosophical movement had a method of thinking based on the presumption that the natural world is understood best through the use of close observation of the human senses coupled with a reliance on reason. It had a huge effect on religion: Some used it to support the benevolence of God, saying that God works through natural causes, while others began denouncing the traditional documents about the nature of God, disputing the divinity of Christ and the process of salvation
Jonathan EdwardsHe was the pastor who ignited the Great Awakening. Denounced the belief in salvation through good works. In his captivating sermons, he affirmed the
EncomiendaAllowed government to give Indians to certain colonists in return for the promise to try to Christianize them. Basically it was slavery. It was the most important technique used to subdue the Indian civilizations.
The EnlightenmentA.k.a. “Age of Reason.” Method of thinking based on the presumption that the natural world is understood best through the use of close observation of the human senses coupled with a reliance on reason. Had a huge effect on religion. Some used it to support the benevolence of God, saying that God works through natural causes. Others denounced the traditional documents about the nature of God, and disputed the divinity of Christ and the process of salvation.
Jonathan EdwardsPastor who ignited the Great Awakening. Ridiculed believing in salvation through good works. Affirmed the need for complete dependence on God. Described the torments of hell in detail. “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God.”
George WhitefieldHad a different style of evangelical preaching. Really eloquent. Moved his audiences a lot. Spread a message of human helplessness and divine omnipotence.
The Great AwakeningReligious revival that emerged in Northampton Massachusetts and exploded between 1730s and 1740s. Emphasis on direct, emotive spirituality undermined the older clergy. Caused schisms in denominations that increased the numbers and the competitiveness of American churches. Encouraged missionary work among Indians and black slaves. Led to founding of “new light” centers (Princeton, Brown, Rutgers, and Dartmouth). First spontaneous mass movement of the American people.
“Old Lights”Orthodox clergymen. Skeptical of the emotionalism and the theatrical antics of the revivalists.
“New Lights”Revivalist ministers. Defended the Awakening for its role in revitalizing American religion.
Slave codesMade blacks and their children the property for life of their white masters. Some colonies made it illegal to teach a slave to read or write. Shows legal differences between the slaves and their masters—largely based on racial discrimination.
The Proclamation of 1763A proclamation from the British government. Called for a halt to westward expansion beyond the Appalachians. The British hoped to keep the colonists tied more closely to English colonial authorities by confining them to the coast. Also, the Seven Years War had put England in dire financial straits, and keeping colonists east of the Appalachians would facilitate the collection of taxes. The Proclamation incensed the colonists, who felt they had earned the right to expansion by risking their lives in the new country. They openly defied British rule and rushed westward, creating new settlements, facing new challenges, and becoming more self-reliant.
John LockeAn English philosopher who in his Essay on Human Understanding in 1690 formulated the tabula rasa theory, stating that the mind is a blank slate formed and shaped by the environment. Highly influenced the Enlightenment in America.
Salem witch trialsConcerns about religious purity were at their pinnacle, members of struggling rural families began to accuse their more successful counterparts of witchcraft. Suspected witches were often burned at the stake, hanged, or drowned. Later admitted as a terrible mistake
Indentured servantsPeople who bound their labor for 4-7 years in exchange for a passage to the new world. During service, they received food, shelter, and clothing. When their terms ended, they were issued freedom dues. Sometimes they were unable to find land and just had to go back into servant-hood.
Half-Way Covenant1662. Caused by the decline in conversions to Puritanism. Modified the “covenant” or agreement between the church and its adherents to admit baptism but not “full communion.” Allowed children of the converted to have church membership even if they had not been baptized. Weakened distinction between “elect” and others, diluting the spiritual purity of the original community, but also led to greater church participation and a change in church membership.
Nathaniel BaconLed the Virginian freemen in revolt in 1676. Resented Governor William Berkeleys policies, especially towards Indians. When Berkeley wouldnt retaliate against an Indian revolt, Bacon fell murderously upon the Indians and there was lots of chaos. Bacon died of disease and Berkeley crushed the uprising. Bacon led the most brutal rebellion in thus far in America, and ignited the unhappiness of landless former servants. Reinforced how dangerous a mass of freed indentured servants might prove.
Two Treatises of GovernmentWritten by John Locke. Lashed out at the view that monarchs had a divine right to rule over others. Said government should be established among free people as social contracts. Civil rulers should be given authority from among the people they were governing. If government failed to give natural rights (life, liberty, property) then rebellion is justified. Had a huge influence on the American Revolution
Thomas PaineWrote Common Sense. Argued that the cause or problems between Britain and America was King George III. Authority of all government officials should originate from the popular consent of the people they governed. Concept of an island ruling a continent goes against natural law. Called for colonists to establish an American republic where free citizens were in control, NOT a monarch. Paine said America had an obligation to the world to become an independent, democratic society. Influenced people to turn their backs on the status quo and embrace new ideas of a free society
The Boston Tea PartyWhen the British East India Company was going bankrupt, Parliament gave it a complete monopoly on the American tea business and sell directly to the American merchants. The Americans didnt like this and would force the ships to turn back. The Royal Governor of Massachusetts, Tom Hutchinson, docked 3 ships at Boston Harbor and told them to stay until all the cargo was unloaded. Members of the Sons of Liberty disguised as Indians boarded the ships on 12.16.1773 and smashed open 342 chests of tea and dumped it into the harbor. Some colonists like John Adams were thrilled. Others like Ben Franklin were appalled. Parliament wanted to punish the colonists behavior and show them who was boss
The Townshend DutiesAn indirect import tax on glass, white lead, paper, paint, tea, and silk established by Charles Townshend. Colonists began boycotting. British authorities sent soldiers to set the colonists straight, which eventually led to the Boston Massacre.
Coercive (Intolerable) ActsResult of the Boston Tea Party. Designed to punish the colonists and tighten British control over the colonies. Closed down the Boston Harbor until the Massachusetts colonists paid for the ruined tea. Forced Bostonians to shelter soldiers in their own homes.
The Declaration of IndependenceWritten by Thomas Jefferson. An act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the Thirteen Colonies in North America were “Free and Independent States” and that “all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved.”
The Continental CongressIn Philadelphia, from September 5th to October 26th, 1774, this group met to discuss problems. Came up with a list of grievances, which were ignored in Parliament. Only Georgia didnt have a representative. Came up with a Declaration of Rights. They agreed to meet again in 1775 (the next year) if nothing happened
Abigail AdamsWife of John Adams. Promoted womens rights. “Remember the Ladies”
Crispus AttucksLeader of the mob during the Boston Massacre. One of the “innocent” victims that was killed. Considered the first death of the Revolutionary War.
Lexington and ConcordKing George III sent British soldiers here to capture minutemen and confiscate their weapons. About 70 minutemen gathered in their path. A shot was fired. Sparked the Revolutionary War.
The Olive Branch PetitionAdopted in July 1775 by the Continental Congress. Professed American loyalty to the crown and begged King to prevent further hostilities. Said that the colonists just wanted to be treated more fairly by king. George III ignored it and declared war on the colonies
Minute MenColonial Militia. Trained to fight on a minutes notice
Battle of YorktownBritish General Cornwallis established a base at Yorktown. He thought the British navy controlled American waters and Washingtons troops were preoccupied with the British in New York. What Cornwallis did not know was that a French fleet in the West Indies under the command of Admiral de Grasse was on its way to join with American forces in a strike at Yorktown. Washington and Rochambeau surrounded Cornwallis on land, while de Grasse battled the British fleet and won control of the Chesapeake. The British were successfully blockaded. Cornwallis surrendered his army of 7,000. Winning this battle sealed victory of the Revolutionary War for Americans.
Peace of Paris 1783Britain formally recognized the USA as an independent nation. All British troops left. Granted generous boundaries. America was officially free
The Articles of ConfederationJuly 1776: John Dickinson headed a committee that drafted this. Put into effect in April 1781. It had many weaknesses. It was basically a loose confederation of states. There was only one vote in Congress for each state. Laws were administered loosely by committees of Congress. Congress didnt have power over commerce or taxes. Federal Courts were limited. It was significant, however because it was the “glue” that kept the 13 colonies working together. Gave the Continental Congress a legal foot to stand on.
The Constitutional ConventionAka Philidelphia Convention. In 1787, Congress called a convention to revise the Articles of Confederation into a more powerful document. Each state appointed delegates to attend a meeting in Philadelphia to develop a more effective and unified constitution. In total, 55 delegates from 12 states were present. Made the decision to throw out the Articles of Confederation and start fresh developing a framework for strengthening the power of the United States federal government. Thus began the drafting of the Constitution.
Shayss RebellionDue to economic difficulties, Massachusetts increased their taxes. These fell most heavily on farmers and the poor. Many farmers were losing their farms through mortgage foreclosures and tax delinquencies. An armed mob began to stop foreclosures by forcibly preventing the courts from holding their sessions. Under the leadership of Daniel Shays nearly 1,200 angry farmers marched to the federal arsenal at Springfield, Massachusetts. They wanted a more flexible money policy, suspension of property confiscations, and the right to postpone paying taxes until the depression lifted. The Massachusetts authorities summoned troops and ended the uprising. Daniel Shays was condemned to death, but was later pardoned. When the next legislature came into session, the majority sympathized with the rebels and met some of their demands for debt relief. Led to discussions about the need for a stronger central government.
The Philadelphia ConventionAka Constitutional Convention. 55 delegates from 12 states met to revise the Articles of Confederation in May 1787. Decided to completely do away with the Articles of Confederation
The Virginia PlanSuggested by Edmund Randolph and James Madison. Called for a 2-house legislature that would select the president and the court officials for the judicial system. Population determines representation, and therefore, the big states would have the advantage.
The New Jersey PlanSuggested by William Patterson. Called for a one house Congress that had the power to tax and control trade. Each state has one vote. The Executive and Judicial branches were separate from Congress and not as powerful.
The Great Compromise of 1787Called for two houses: The Lower house was the House of Representatives. Here, delegates were based on states population—elected by the people. All bills concerned with taxation and revenue would begin in this house. The Upper house was the Senate. It had 2 delegates per state. Elections were carried out by legislatures. The President was granted the power to appoint officials, veto, and the role of Commander-In-Chief of the military.
The Three-Fifths CompromiseThere was a constant debate occurring about whether or not a slave should be counted as a person in population counts. This compromise said that a slave counted as 3/5 of a person. It also said that Congress wouldnt restrict slave trade for 20 years.
FederalistsThis group consisted of mainly wealthy and well educated. Basically the aristocracy. Examples are Alexander Hamilton, George Washington, and Benjamin Franklin. They Wanted a strong central government. Had a loose interpretation of Constitution (loose constructionists)
AntifederalistsThis group consisted mainly working class citizens. They were loyal to state governments. Examples are Patrick Henry and Samuel Adams. They had a strict interpretation of the Constitution
The Federalist PapersWritten by Hamilton, Madison, and Jay and they argued that limitations on governmental power were built into the Constitution with a series of checks and balances. Explained the need for centralized government so the United States could earn the respect of other countries. Because of this, Federalists were able to break down resistance and gain enough support to ratify the Constitution. They were the most influential political writings of the time
Bill of RightsMany states had ratified the Constitution on the condition that this would be part of it, and many antifederalists had criticized the Constitution for not having one. Eventually, they were added as the first 10 amendments of the Constitution. Issues addressed include freedom of religion, press, speech, and assembly; the right to bear arms; the right to refuse to house soldiers on private property; the right to trial by jury; protection against unreasonable searches and seizures; and protection against cruel and unusual punishment. The rights it granted only applied to white, free man
Hamiltons Financial PlanUrged government to assume its debts ($54 million) and try to pay them off at face value, PLUS interest, as well as assume the debts of the states ($21.5 million). Wanted to create a national bank. Added custom duties and taxes on certain goods (ex. whiskey)
The Whiskey RebellionFed up farmers revolted against Hamiltons excise tax. Began tarring and feathering revenue collectors. Washington army of 13,000 troops from various states to the revolt, but the soldiers found nothing upon arrival; the rebels had scattered.
Democratic-RepublicansHad a strict interpretation of Constitution. Wanted to support France in their war against Britain.
Jays TreatyGave the British 18 months to withdraw from the western forts, although they were given the right to continue fur trade with the Indians. Called for America to repay debts incurred to England during the Revolutionary War
Pinckneys TreatySpanish granted almost all the United States requests, including ownership of the previously disputed territory north of Florida. Gave American western farmers and traders the right of deposit at New Orleans
The XYZ AffairJohn Adams sent three envoys to France to attempt to negotiate a settlement with France and stop the attacks on American shipping. They were approached by three agents, “X,” “Y,” and “Z,” who demanded 32 million florins and a $250,000 bribe just for talking to Talleyrand. Pinckney rejected the terms
Washingtons Farewell AddressIn this, Washington conveyed his concerns regarding alliances—both international and domestic. Said no alliance should be permanent. Encouraged citizens to examine their loyalty to the United States, rather than to individual political parties
The Alien and Sedition ActsNaturalization Acts said that you had to live in the US for 14 years for citizenship. Alien Enemies Act allowed the president to expel aliens in wartime. Alien Act authorized the president to deport or imprison all aliens whom he considered dangerous to the safety of the United States. Sedition Act prohibited antigovernment activity. Many colonists, angry at the Federalist abuse of authority, shifted their political support to the Democratic-Republican Party
The 12th AmendmentGuarantee that a voting deadlock would never occur again. Required separate balloting in the Electoral College for president and vice president
Kentucky and Virginia ResolutionsThomas Jefferson & James Madison. Asserted that each state enter into a or contract, with the national government and delegate power to the centralized entity for the common good of all states. If a state decided that the national government overstepped its constitutional authority, it could intervene to protect its citizens from tyrannical law
Election of 1800The candidates were Republicans Jefferson and Aaron Burr and Federalists Adams and Charles C. Pinckney. Jefferson and Burr both received 73 votes. Eventually Thomas Jefferson won. Revolution because Federalists gave up victory relatively easily.
The Louisiana PurchaseNapoleon offered to sell New Orleans and the land west of it, Louisiana, for a bargain of $15 million. The purchase was finalized on April 30, 1803. It doubled the size of the United States, and was the biggest bargain in history (average 3 cents per acre). Greatly expanded the fortunes of the United States
Meriwether Lewis and William ClarkIn the spring of 1804, Jefferson sent these two men to explore this new territory. Along with a Shoshoni woman named Sacajawea, the two spent 21/2 years exploring the land. They went all the way to Oregon and the Pacific before returning
Zebulon PikeSent by Jefferson to gather information about the territory west of the Mississippi River. Explored the upper Mississippi River, the Arkansas River and parts of present day Colorado and New Mexico. His explorations offered Americans valuable information regarding the Great Plains and Rocky Mountains.
The Aaron Burr ConspiracyWhen Jefferson removed him as Vice President, he planned with Federalists to make New England and New York secede from the union. Hamilton foiled his plans, and then _____ killed him in a duel. He formed a partnership with the governor of the Louisiana Territory, General James Wilkinson. Wilkinson changed his mind and sent Jefferson a letter warning him of Burrs scheme. In 1806, he was arrested for treason, but the two witnesses were nowhere to be found. He was acquitted and he fled to Europe where he tried to persuade Napoleon to make peace with Britain and attack the U.S.
Marbury v. MadisonWilliam Marbury had been one of the “midnight judges” appointed by John Adams. When Secretary of State James Madison decided to shelve the position, he sued for its delivery. Marshall dismissed the case, but he said that the Judiciary Act of 1789 was unconstitutional. This suggested that the Supreme Court could determine the constitutionality of laws (judicial review)
Embargo Act of 1807Forbade the export of all goods from the United States. Actually ended up hurting the New England merchants that it was trying to protect. Illegal trade mushroomed in 1808, where people resorted to smuggling again. Congress repealed the act on March 1st, 1809. Because of this Act, the Federalist Party regained some of its lost power. It also helped to promote industrialism.
Non-Intercourse ActReopened trade with all the nations of the world, except France and England
Macons Bill No. 2Permitted American trade with all the world. Promised American restoration of trade to France and/or England if either dropped their commercial restrictions
TecumsehChief of the Shawnee who tried to unite Indian tribes against the increasing white settlement. Gathered followers, urging them to give up textile clothing for traditional buckskin garments. Argued for Indians to not acknowledge the White Mans “ownership” of land. Urged that no Indian should cede control of land to whites unless all Indians agreed
Tenskwatawa, “The Prophet”Tecumsehs brother. Told Indians to be scared of white culture; said Native Americans must give up white ways, and no longer trade with them.
William Henry HarrisonAdvanced upon Tecumsehs headquarters at Tippecanoe and burned it to the ground. Battle of Tippecanoe made him a national hero
Battle of TippecanoeTecumseh and the Prophet lead a surprise attack but are defeated by William Henry Harrison; makes many Americans suspicious of British aid, since Tecumseh drove into an alliance with them, and also stirred up talk of Canadian invasion. Harrison became a national hero.
War HawksEager for war with Britain. Interested in expansion westward and into Canada, were angry at British leaders for closing trade channels with America and considered Britains treatment of American sailors illegal. They believed retaliation was necessary to gain respect from European leaders. They were the primary force behind Madisons decision to call for war with Britain.
The War of 1812War between Britain and America caused by American outrage over the impressment of American sailors by the British, the British seizure of American ships, and British aid to the Indians attacking the Americans on the western frontier. An attempt to invade Canada failed when a large number of British troops, and a group led by Indian chief Tecumseh, overwhelmed American forces that were spread too thin. In 1813, Captain Oliver Hazard Perry defeated British forces that controlled Lake Erie. The battle was a turning point for the Americans because Chief Tecumseh died, which caused the Indians to bail out on the war and Britain had to think of another strategy. Britain burned the White House and the Capital building. The Battle of New Orleans in 1814 was an overwhelming success for the Americans. In the end, the war was basically a draw. The war strengthened American nationalism and encouraged the growth of industry.
Francis Scott KeyUnited States lawyer and poet who wrote a poem after witnessing the British attack on Baltimore during the War of 1812. The poem later became the Star Spangled Banner.
The Battle of New OrleansIn 1814, British planned another attempt to overtake New Orleans. armada of 60 ships and 11,000 men, led by Major General Sir Edward Pakenham, set off. General Andrew Jackson quickly rallied his troops and ambushed the British fleet. The American army, which consisted of soldiers, sailors, pirates, militiamen, and freed slaves, used a strategy of revolving firing lines to make sure that guns were always firing at the Redcoats. The British army was forced to retreat after it suffered more than 300 fatalities, including Major General Pakenham. This battle was an overwhelming success for the Americans and made General Andrew Jackson a hero.
Treaty of GhentSigned December 1814. Called for both the British and Americans to quit fighting and return conquered territory. Did not acknowledge the complaints that prompted the United States to declare war on Britain. Search and seizures, Orders in Council, and the impressment of American sailors were ignored. After the treaty was signed, ships were free to sail to any port, goods could be traded with any customer, and Royal Navy warships no longer patrolled the American coastline.
Supreme Court Justice John MarshallServed at Valley Forge during the War. Became a lifelong Federalist, committed to strengthening the power of the federal government. Many famous cases: Fletcher v. Peck (1810), McCulloch v. Maryland (1819), Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819), and Gibbons v. Ogden (1824). Shaped the American legal tradition more profoundly than any other single figure
The “Era of Good Feelings”Ushered in with Monroes election. The country enjoyed peace & progress during his first yrs of presidency. There was a sense of nationalism. The name is a misnomer, however. Tariff and bank issues. Sectionalism crystallizing. The slavery was conflict taking its toll
Panic of 1819A paralyzing economic panic. Brought deflation, depression, bankruptcies, bank failures, unemployment, soup kitchens, and overcrowded debtors prisons. There were many causes—most important being overspeculation in frontier lands. The Second Bank of United States was to blame. Brought a resurgence of sectionalism
The Missouri CompromiseProposed by Henry Clay. Agreed to admit Missouri into the Union as a slave state. Maine spilt from Massachusetts and accepted as a free state. Prohibited slavery in all other parts of the Louisiana Purchase north of the southern boundary of Missouri (36 30 line)
American SystemMade by Henry Clay. It had 3 main parts: a strong banking system, protective tariffs, and a network of roads and canals
Rush-Bagot Agreement of 1817Between Britain ; US. Agreed to a limited naval presence on the Great Lakes. Resulted in the demilitarization of the entire border.
Adams-Onis TreatyFlorida became US territory for $5 million. America abandoned claims to Texas.
McCulloch v. MarylandMaryland attempted to place an annual tax on the Bank of the United States and other “foreign” banks. The Maryland branch of the Bank of the United States refused to pay. Maryland filed a suit against John W. McCulloch. Chief Justice Marshall declared the bank constitutional. Strengthened federal authority and power of Congress while striking a blow at states rights. Loose Construction—Constitution derived from consent of the people and allowed the government to act for their good.
Gibbons v. OgdenAttempt by New York to grant a monopoly to Aaron Ogden to operate a ferry between New York and New Jersey. Ogden sued Thomas Gibbons for setting up his trade there too. Marshalls decision favored Gibbons. He said that the Constitution says that only Congress has control over interstate commerce. Kept the power of the states in check and strengthened the power of the federal government
The Monroe DoctrineMonroes statement proclaiming that the era of colonization in the Americas had ended. US wouldnt interfere with existing European colonies and would avoid involvement in European affairs
The Nativist MovementFor many American “natives,” the large influx of immigrants in the 1840s and 1850s was a threat of unknown languages and customs. Feared that foreigners would outnumber them and overrun the country. In 1849, nativists formed a group in New York called the “Order of the Star Spangled Banner,” which developed into a political party called the “American Party.” The anti-Catholic group won many elections until the 1850s, when the anti-Catholic movement subsided and slavery became the focal issue of the time.
Samuel Slater“Father of the Factory System.” Left Britain in disguise and arrived in America with the plans in his head for a textile machine that would spin cotton. In 1791, he created the first efficient American machinery for spinning cotton thread
Eli WhitneySparked the Industrial Revolution. Invented the cotton gin, a machine used for removing the seeds from the cotton fiber. He hoped to make the lives of slaves easier through this invention. He also invented interchangeable parts, parts that looked exactly alike and were easily assembled or exchanged. Eventually became the basis of modern assembly-line production methods.
The Industrial RevolutionBegan in Britain. Eventually spread to other places, including America. New innovations and inventions: canning foods, cotton gin, interchangeable parts, etc. It created the factory system and transformed agricultural production, communication, and transportation across the United States.
Francis Cabot LowellCombined the spinning machines with power weaving machines at the Boston Manufacturing Company plant, which became a model for new factories.
Cyrus McCormickDeveloped the mechanical reaper. It replaced scythes as the preferred method of cutting crops for harvest, and it was much more quick and efficient. The invention helped the agricultural growth of America.
Robert FultonInvented the first commercially successful steamboat, the Clermont. Steamboats played a vital role in opening the west and south to further settlement. They stimulated the agricultural economy of the west by providing better access to markets at a lower cost. Farmers quickly bought land near navigable rivers, because they could now easily ship their produce out. Steamboats were also much more comfortable than other forms of land transportation at the time.
Samuel MorseInvented the telegraph. This was an early form of quick communication that helped tie people together regardless of distance.
The black beltThe name given to the region in the Deep South, an area stretching from South Carolina and Georgia to Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana for its abundance in slaves.
The “Corrupt Bargain”After Adams was elected President, he chose Clay as his Secretary of State. Caused an uproar among Jacksons supporters, who believed that Clay and Adams had conspired to get Adams into office
The Spoils SystemJackson believed in appointing his own staff comprised of his supporters. Rewarded political supporters with public office. This had several negative consequences. Often, the individuals appointed were unskilled, and sometimes incapable fulfilling their responsibilities. Corrupt individuals were placed in offices that they abused, stealing millions from the government.
The National-RepublicansAdams supporters. The oak was their symbol. Eventually became the Whig party.
The Democratic-Republicans (after 1820s)Jacksons supporters. Hickory poles were their symbol. Portrayed Jackson as a frontiersman and champion of the common man and said Adams was a corrupt aristocrat—both were untrue
The Tarrif of AbominationsName the Southerners gave to the Tariff of 1828. It wreaked havoc during Jacksons presidency. Southerners felt the financial strain of the tariffs due to their reliance on northern commodities. Felt they were being treated unfairly, and they rallied against the Tariff of 1828 and against Jackson
“The South Carolina Exposition”Secretly written by Vice President John C Calhoun, a South Carolinian. Offered persuasive arguments for nullifying the Tariff of 1828, stating that it was unjust and unconstitutional.
Webster-Hayne debateHayne was serving in the Senate when a fellow senator, Samuel A. Foot, proposed a restriction on the sale of western lands still owned by the federal government. Believing this was an attempt to restrict western expansion and the inevitable political influence of a strong western region, Senator Thomas Hart Benton told the South to join forces with him to defeat the proposal. Hayne recognized the potential benefits of an alliance with the west and stepped forward. Hayne was drawn into a debate against Danel Webster. Webster was able to steer Hayne toward another sensitive issue—nullification. Webster underscored nationalism and the destruction that could befall a nation that allows one state to nullify a federal law. Made himself look like a unifier and Hayne a divider. Webster won the debate with his argument for nationalism, and Hayne lost public support for his interpretation of the Constitution
The Tariff of 1828Jacksons supporters strategized to sabotage Adams presidency. They pushed a proposal through Congress that would raise tariffs on manufactured items such as wool and textiles. Since Adams was a New Englander and increase in tariffs would be supported there, Jacksonians hoped to portray Adams as favoring his home region over the south and west. Jackson did not need the tariff to be elected; got elected without it. But the proposal was still there. The tariff was eventually passed and it caused an outrage in the south
Clays CompromiseProposed by Henry Clay. Tariffs would be reduced by 10% over an 8-year period. Lessened tension between Andrew Jackson and South Carolina.
The Force BillResponse to South Carolinas resistance to tariffs. Jackson felt that a new and specific bill would strengthen his case against South Carolina. Gave the president the power to use the army to enforce a tariff. South Carolina hated it— called it the “Bloody Bill.” Eventually Congress repealed it.
SpeculationGambling on what will happen in the future. Speculators would buy large tracts of land on borrowed capital, expecting the price to go up as settlers entered the region.
The Bank of the United States“Moneyed monster” according to Jackson. Minted gold and silver coins. Most powerful bank in America. Its notes, unlike other banks were stable in value. Privately owned institution. Bank eventually fell into practices of overextending credit.
SpeciePaper money was not the currency—gold and silver coins were. The value of these coins was determined by the value of the metal in the coins themselves. The _____________ Circular was a decree that required all public lands to be purchased with “hard,” or metallic, money.
“Wildcat” banksLoaned money to speculators. These banks were more interested in making a fast dollar than building a secure banking business. Excessive loan practices caused many more banknotes to be in circulation in the United States than there were deposits to cover them.
Nicholas BiddlePresident of Bank of United States. Held an immense amount of power over the nations financial affairs. Was able to force smaller banks to refrain from excessive printing of banknotes, which was a major contributor to inflation. When Jackson told the Secretary of State to remove all federal funds from the bank, _________ freaked out and called in many of the Banks loans, especially those to other banks. Placed a hardship on smaller banks and businesses, and caused a minor financial downturn.
WhigsOpposition party to the Democratic-Republicans. Adams supporters. Supported a national bank, strong central government, tariffs, and government induced moral reform.
The Indian Removal Act1830: Provided for the resettlement of all Native Americans then residing east of the Mississippi to what is now Oklahoma. There the Indians were to be free to pursue their lives without interference. Removal intended to be voluntary, but groups of Indians were harshly pressured to go. Countless died.
The Bureau of Indian AffairsEstablished in 1836 to handle and administer relations with the Indians. It had no control, however, over white expansion westward. Unable to honor many of the agreements made with the Indians. The frontier that the Bureau had claimed as a permanent settlement for the Indians lasted only into the 1850s as Americans kept moving West
The Trail of TearsIn 1838, the U.S. government ordered the forcible removal of the Cherokees from Georgia to the Indian Territory in present-day Oklahoma. Of the 18,000 that began the 1,000 mile, 116-day trek, 4,000 perished on the way of illness, cold, starvation, and exhaustion. The U.S. Army oversaw the march and forced a continuous pace at rifle and bayonet point disregarding the terrible hardship of the travelers
Davy CrockettThe most bitterly outspoken opponent of the Indian Removal Bill. He was a Jacksonian Democrat until he and the president parted ways over treatment of the Indians. Disgusted with partisanship, Crockett left the arena of national politics and went to Texas. Died at the Alamo.
The Romantic MovementRetaliation against the classicism and rational thinking of the Enlightenment. People felt a need to balance reason and calculation with emotion and spirit. Emphasized feelings, intuition, individual acts of heroism, and the study of nature, rather than pure thought
TranscendentalismRejected that all knowledge comes to the mind through senses. Believe that truth cannot be found through observation alone. Every person possesses an inner light that can illuminate the truth and put him/her in direct contact with God, aka “Oversoul”
Ralph Waldo EmersonPoet and philosopher. Stressed self-reliance, self-improvement, self-confidence, optimism, and freedom. Ideas reflected those of an expanding America. Outspoken critic of slavery. Supported the Union in the Civil War
Henry David ThoreauPoet, mystic, transcendentalist, and nonconformist. Condemned government that supported slavery. Gifted prose writer—Walden: Or Life in the Woods describes living a full emotional and intellectual life for two years while residing in a tiny cabin he made himself and existing in every other way at a barely subsistence level. He believed he should reduce his bodily wants so as to gain time for a pursuit if truth through study and meditation. He refused to pay a tax that he felt would support the Mexican War and was temporarily jailed. Wrote the essay On the Duty of Civil Disobedience.
The Second Great AwakeningOne of the most momentous episodes in the history of American religion. Encouraged evangelicalism. Spread on frontier through huge “camp meetings.” Peter Cartwright and Charles Grandison Finney held moving sermons. Feminization of religion—women were the most fervent enthusiasts of religious revivalism. Result: converts, reorganized churches, and numerous new sects.
Charles Grandison FinneyGreatest of all revivalist preachers. Held crowds spellbound. Preached a version of the old-time religion. “Anxious Bench” repentant sinners could sit in full view of the congregation. Encouraged women to pray aloud in public. Denounced alcohol and slavery.
Utopian MovementsReformers in the aftermath of the Second Great Awakening sought to get away from authoritarian power structures. Brook Farm, New Harmony, the Shaker and Amana communities, and Oneida Colony are examples
Dorothea DixGave up her job as a teacher to help the mentally impaired. Traveled 60,000 miles in 8 years. Reported to the legislature that the insane were treated as violent criminals. Persuaded 20 state legislatures and the federal government to establish mental health asylums. Her endeavors resulted in improved conditions & a gain in the concept that the demented were not willfully perverse but mentally ill. Clearly influenced governmental policy during the Age of Reform.
Brigham YoungSeized Mormon movement after Joseph Smith. Aggressive leader, eloquent preacher, and gifted administrator. Led the oppressed Latter-Day Saints to Utah. Under his leadership, the community became a prosperous frontier theocracy.
Horace MannCampaigned for more and better schoolhouses, longer school terms, higher pay for teachers, and an expanded curriculum. Huge influence. Schools improved considerably.
Harriet Beecher StoweWrote Uncle Toms Cabin, an antislavery propaganda novel that had a huge influence on people in the North. People who werent too concerned about the slavery issue before began to abhor slavery.
The temperance movementDrinking problem was getting out of hand. American Temperance Society formed in Boston in 1826. Within a few years, thousands of similar groups formed. Implored drinkers to sign the temperance pledge. Made effective use of pictures, pamphlets, and lecturers. T.S. Arthur wrote Ten Nights in a Barroom and What I Saw There. Some wanted temptation to be removed by legislation. Example, Neal S. Dow—”Father of Prohibition.” Sponsored the Maine Law of 1851—prohibited manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquor. By 1857 about a dozen states passed prohibitory laws, but they were repealed within a decade. End result: much less drinking among women than earlier in the century and less consumption of hard liquor.
Sojourner TruthA former slave. A leading advocate of the abolition of slavery and for the rights of women
Lucretia MottShe and Elizabeth Cady Stanton were two female delegates to the World Anti-Slavery Convention held at London in 1840. Denied full participation because of their gender, and they returned to America determined to campaign for equal rights. They organized the first womens rights convention held at Seneca Falls, New York, in July 1848.
Elizabeth Cady StantonShe and Lucretia Mott were two female delegates to the World Anti-Slavery Convention held at London in 1840. Denied full participation because of their gender, and they returned to America determined to campaign for equal rights. They organized the first womens rights convention held at Seneca Falls, New York, in July 1848. Adopted a “Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions.” Patterned on the Declaration of Independence. “We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men and women are created equal.”
Susan B. AnthonyA Quaker who had been active in the temperance movement. Assumed the leadership role in the drive for womens legal equality and the right to vote.
“Manifest Destiny”Emotional upsurge in which Americans believed that God had “manifestly destined” the American people for a hemispheric career. Land greed and ideals of “empire” and “liberty” were joined. Had a huge influence on expansionist Democrats
The Panic of 1837Several states defaulted on their bonds or repudiated them openly. Englishmen who lost money assailed their rash American borrowers
Oregon TrailAn over 2000-mile trail across America, was a common route to Oregon during the early 1840s
TejanosMexican residents of Texas
EmpresarioA person who arranged for the settlement of land in Texas during the 1800s, they had cheap land as long as they obeyed mexican law and followed catholic religion
Santa AnnaDictator of Mexico. Told the U.S. that if he could return to Mexico, he would take over the government, end the war, and give California to the U.S. He was lying. Tried to crush the Texas revolt and who lost battles to Winfield Scott and Zachary Taylor in the Mexican War
Sam HoustonFormer Tennessee congressman and governor. Elected president of Texas
James Russell LowellOne of Americas best poets. Remembered as a political satirist in his Biglow Papers, where he condemned the alleged slavery-expansion designs of the Polk administration
The “Wilmot Proviso”Representative David Wilmot introduced an amendment that said that slavery should never exist in any of the territory that the US got from Mexico. Amendment passed the House twice but not the Senate. Eventually endorsed by all but one of the free states. Symbolizes the burning issue of slavery in the territories
Nat Turners rebellionA literate slave led an uprising and slaughtered about 60 Virginians. He eluded his pursuers for two months before being captured, tried, and executed. Result: southern states strictly enforced laws prohibiting the education of slaves, and increased surveillance of free African-Americans.
The Compromise of 1850Written by Stephen A. Douglas, a young Democratic senator from Illinois. California was admitted as a free state, Utah and New Mexico were created as territories, Texas was compensated with $10 million for reducing its borders, slave trade abolished in the District of Columbia, and a more stringent fugitive slave law enacted.
Uncle Toms CabinWritten by Harriet Beecher Stowe. Most significant response to the Fugitive Slave Act. Sold 10,000 copies its first week in print, and 300,000 within a year. By the time of the Civil War, several million copies were in circulation. Released feelings of guilt and revulsion toward slavery among Northerners who previously had not given much thought to the sectional controversy. Stowe was denounced in the south but her novel was a propaganda victory for the antislavery cause
The Ostend ManifestoUrged that the administration offer $120 million for Cuba. If Spain refused, US would be justified in fighting for it. It was leaked to the New York Herald, and it created a furor in the north. Drove a wedge between the North and the South and undermined the effectiveness of the Compromise of 1850 as the final solution to the sectional controversy
Kansas-Nebraska ActProposed by Stephen Douglas. Split the territory into two sections, slave state Kansas and free state Nebraska. Residents of each territory decide whether their state would permit slavery. Repeal of the Missouri Compromise that prohibited slavery north of the 36° 30 line because both Nebraska and Kansas were located north of the line. Northerners were enfuriated. Outraged protesters declared the compromise repeal “a gross violation of a sacred pledge.” The decision to reopen the slavery issue to allow more slave states re-ignited decades-old conflict between Northerners and Southerners and set the foundation for the coming Civil War
Dred Scott DecisionDred Scott, a Missouri slave who frequently traveled with his owner through Illinois and the Wisconsin Territory. In 1846, Scott sued his owners widow for his freedom. Claimed that his residence in free state Illinois, and in the Wisconsin Territory, where the Missouri Compromise outlawed slavery, made him a free man. The Supreme Court—with 5/9 members from slave states—ruled that black people were not citizens of the United States. Chief Justice Taney argued that the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional because it deprived citizens of their property—slaves in this case. Taneys ruling declared that since slave owners could take their “property” anywhere, Congress could not ban slavery from the territories. Angered blacks, abolitionists, and popular sovereignty supporters who had fought to end—or at least limit—the expansion of slavery. Republicans responded by declaring that the Courts ruling was an opinion and was not enforceable. Southerners were outraged at the Northerners blatant defiance of the Supreme Courts verdict and promptly revisited their secession discussions.
Lincoln-Douglas Debates of 1858Eyeing Stephen Douglass seat in the Senate, Abraham Lincoln challenged him to a series of debates. Debates took place in cities throughout Illinois but garnered national attention. Debate at Freeport, Illinois was the most famous. Referring to the Dred Scott case, Lincoln asked his opponent if the residents of a territory could exclude slavery before the territory became a state. Douglas replied that in order for slavery to exist, laws were necessary to protect it. Concluded that if the residents did nothing, slavery would essentially be excluded from the territory, an answer that came to be known as the Freeport Doctrine, and cost him the Democratic nomination. Lincoln catapulted to the top of the Republican Party and received its nomination for president
John BrownMassacres led by a radical abolitionist. He believed that he was appointed by God to rid the nation of slavery. Gathered a group of volunteers and raided Pottawatomie Creek. Savagely murdered and mutilated five proslavery supporters. Moved from town to town, raising havoc in the name of God and antislavery supporters. In 1859, he and his gang advanced toward Harpers Ferry and cut the telegraph lines. The men overpowered the few night watchmen and took several townspeople hostage. The next morning, his men shot a railroad employee. Townspeople heard shots and sent for help. Before long, they were surrounded by local militiamen and a company of United States Marines. Charged with murder, conspiracy, and treason against the state of Virginia. His lawyer planned to enter an insanity plea, but he refused. He wanted to become a martyr. Southerners linked the violence to all Northerners and were outraged that some Northerners sympathized with him
Robert E. LeeOne of the most talented officers. General of the Confederate Army. Sent McClellans Union army in retreat after the Seven Days Battle. Crushed McClellans forces in Richmond. In the Second Battle of Bull Run he defeated General Popes Union forces. He met McClellans forces again at the Battle of Antietam, and after a bloody battle, the Confederate march Northward was stopped. Defeated by Meades force at Gettysburg. On April 1865, he surrendered at the Appomatox Convention, ending the Civil War.
Ulysses S. GrantCommander of the Union Army. His first victory was when he captured Fort Henry and Fort Donelson on February 1862. Defeated by a Confederate force at the Battle of Shiloh in April 1862. He drove off a Confederate attack at Shiloh but was criticized for heavy Union losses. Laid seige to Vicksburg in 1863. Won the battle at Chattanooga, and the state of Tennessee was cleared of Confederates. 1864, Grant ordered the frontal assault on Cold Harbor. Many Union soldiers died in the assault, but he captured Richmond and cornered Lee.
Fort SumterLocated in the Charleston harbor. It needed supplies in order to support its men. Lincoln told the South that the North was sending provisions to the fort, not supplies for reinforcement. On April 12, 1861, SC fired cannons onto the fort; after 34 hours of non-lethal firing, the fort surrendered. Lincoln now had a reason for an armed response.
Bull RunFirst battle of the Civil War. If the Union won, the victory would show the superiority of the Union and might lead to the capture of Charleston. On July 21, 1861, the Union and Confederate forces met. A Union victory was thought to be for sure. However, the Confederates won as “Stonewall” Jackson held his line of Confederate soldiers until reinforcements arrived and sent the Union soldiers in disarray. This battle showed both sides that this would not be a short, easy war.
Battle of AntietamMcClellans men found a copy of Lees plans and were able to stop the Confederates on one of the bloodiest days of the Civil War. No side won, but it was the Union display of power that Lincoln needed to announce his Emancipation Proclamation.
Battle of GettysburgThe bloodiest battle of the Civil War. General George Meade led the Union Army. Union eventually won. However, both sides suffered heavy losses: 23,000 Union soldiers and 28,000 Confederate. North was inevitably going to win the war now.
Appomattox Court HouseOn April 9th, 1865, Grant cornered Lee here to discuss the terms of surrender. The Civil War was finally over.
Monitor and MerrimacFirst ironcald warships in the Civil War. March 9th 1862, the Union and Confederate ironcleds met and fought to a standstill. Posed a danger to the Norths blockade on the South.
Shermans MarchGeneral Sherman lead a force from Chattanooga, Tennessee to South Carolina destroying all of souths towns, crops, wells, and everything else the Confederates could use to survive. He captured and burned city after city to the ground. The Souths economy was devistated.
The Confiscation ActsThe first of the two acts allowed the Union to seize Confederate property. It also granted freedom to any slave serving in the Confederate Military. The second act punished “traitors” by declaring their slaves property of war who shall be free.
GreenbacksName for Union paper money not backed by gold or silver. Value would fluctuate depending on status of the war.
Ex Parte MerrymanA Supreme Court case that Chief Justice Taneys ruled that the suspension of habeas corpus was unconstitutional without an act of Congress. Lincoln openly defied the ruling by suspending it for the arrest of anti-Unionists during the Civil War. Lincoln justified his overstepping the boundaries of the constitution by saying he was doing so to preserve the Union.
The Emancipation ProclamationAfter the battle of Antietem, President Lincoln announced that slaves in the South would be free. It didnt immediately free the slaves, but had other effects. The abolition of slavery became a goal of the war. European nations were thinking about joining the war on the Confederate side, but after this was issued, the Working Classes of the European nations began to sympathize with the North, and the governments decided not to intervene.
Thirteenth AmendmentAbolished slavery once and for all.
The Freedmens BureauDeveloped by Congress on March 8, 1865. Dedicated to educating, training, and providing financial and moral support for former slaves. White Southerners campaigned against it. President Johnson allowed it to expire in 1872. In general, it helped a former slaves achieve some degree of success. Freed slaves began to develop a political unity, learned civil responsibility, and began entering politics.
Homestead ActPassed in 1862, it gave 160 acres of public land to any settler who would farm the land for five years.
Morrill Land Grant ActPassed in 1862, it offered states land to support agricultural colleges.
John Wilkes BoothAssassinated President Abraham Lincoln
CopperheadsLed by Clement L. Valladingham, they were a group of northern Democrats who strongly opposed abolition and sympathized with the South during the Civil War.
Lincolns “10 percent plan”1863. Said that the southern states could be reintegrated into the Union when 10% of its voters pledge an oath to the Union and acknowledge the emancipation of the slaves.
Radical RepublicansLed by Thaddeus Stevens, Ben Wade and Charles Sumner. A minority group that felt that the Confederate states should be treated like conquered provinces and deserved punishment for seceding. They wanted to drastically change the south and give the free slaves full citizenship before restoring the states. Also, they thought that Congress should be in charge of Reconstruction, not the president. Thinking the 10% plan was not sufficient, they passed the Wade-Davis Bill in
The Wade-Davis BillRadical republicans passed this because they thought the 10% plan wasnt strong enough. It required 50% of the states voters to take oaths of allegiance and also required the state constitutional conventions abolish slavery. Lincoln vetoed it by letting it expire.
The Black CodesSouthern states passed these to control the freed slaves. They were oppressive laws aimed at keeping the Black population in submission and to regulate their affairs. Blacks were forbidden to serve on a jury, vote, or rent or lease land. The harshness of the laws varied from state to state. They had to sign annual labor contracts and were severely punished if they were violated. The conditions of the blacks made many abolitionists wonder if the price of the Civil War was really worth it.
The Fourteenth Amendment1. All Blacks had civil rights and were American citizens. 2. If a state denied Blacks citizenship, then its representatives in the Electoral College were reduced. 3. Former Confederates could not hold federal or state office. 4. The federal debt was guaranteed while the Union assumed all Confederate debts. All Republicans agreed that states HAD to ratify this in order to
The Fifteenth AmendmentPassed in 1869, it gave Blacks their right to vote.
The Military Reconstruction ActDivided the South into five districts, each commanded by a union general and policed by Union soldiers to maintain order and protect civil rights. It temporarily disfranchised tens of thousands of former Confederates, required states to ratify the 14th Amendment if they wanted to be re-admitted to the Union, and states constitutions had to allow former adult male slaves to vote.
Thaddeus StevensA radical Republican who believed in harsh punishments for the South. Leader of the radical Republicans in Congress.
Charles SumnerA leader of the Radical Republicans in the Senate. Senator of Massachusetts. He was strongly opposed to slavery.
Civil Rights Act of 1875Gave blacks the privilege of American citizenship and denied states the right to restrict blacks of their property, testify in court, and make contracts for their labor. Johnson vetoed this, but Congress voted to override the veto.
Tenure of Office Act, 1867Said the president had to secure the consent of the Senate before removing his cabinet members once they had been approved by the Senate. Its purpose was to keep Edwin M. Stanton in the cabinet.
Edwin M. StantonSecretary of War appointed by Lincoln. President Andrew Johnson dismissed him in spite of the Tenure of Office Act, and as a result, Congress wanted Johnsons impeachment.
Hiram RevelsAmerican clergyman, educator, and politician, he became one of the first African Americans in the U.S. Senate. Represented Mississippi.
Blanche K. BruceSenator of Mississippi from 1875 to 1881 and was one of the first African Americans to serve a full term in the Senate.
CarpetbaggersSleazy northerners who came to the south seeking get-rich-quick business opportunities. They wanted power and profit.
Enforcement Acts (1870-1871)Allowed the Federal government to intervene when state authorities failed to protect citizens.
Jay Gould and Jim FiskTwo millionare businessmen who came up with the scheme to corner the gold market during the Ulysses S. Grants presidency.
The Resumption Act1875. Called for the gradual redemption of greenbacks for gold starting in 1879, making the value of paper money equal to the value of gold.
Samuel J. TildenThe democratic presidential candidate in the election of 1876
Compromise of 1877Settled the 1876 presidential election contest between Rutherford Hayes and Samuel Tilden. Hayes was awarded the presidency in exchange for the permanent removal of federal troops from the South. As a result, the Reconstruction was over and the Republicans gave up on the fight for racial equality.
ScalawagsSoutherners who were accused of plundering Southern treasuries through their political influence in the radical governments and selling out the Southerners. They were ridiculed for not wanting to secede and allying with the blacks.
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