Hope’s AP world history Unit 2 vocab

Flashcard maker : Rebecca Baker
4 Noble Truths
Part of the Dharma of Buddhism
1. All life is suffering
2. Desire is the cause of suffering
3. Removing desire removes suffering
4. This may be done through the 8-fold path
8-Fold Path
Part of the Dharma of Buddhism
# 4 of the 4 noble truths
Right views, intention, speech, action, livelihood, effort, mindfulness, concentration
Achaemenids
Persian empire overtaken by Seleucids
Alexander of Macedon
Rapid expanison throughout Mediterranean basin
Invaded Persia successfully
Respected and spread Greek culture throughout Persia
Turned back in India when troops mutinied
Analects
Confucius’s teachings
Written by his disciples
Anatolia
Modern day Turkey
Lydia was its capital
Animism
the belief that natural objects, natural phenomena, and the universe itself possess souls
Ashoka
Emperor of high point of Mauryan empire (r. 268-232 BCE)
Expanded empire to include all of Indian subcontinent but south
Better known as a ruler than a a conqueror
Officially endorsed Buddhism
Athens
Political, commercial, and cultural center of Greek civilization
Development of early democracy
Fought Sparta and Sparta won
Bactria
Modern day Afghanistan
Regional kingodm in NW India
Linked China and Mediterranean region
Brahma
A Hindu god
Brahmin
Highest Caste
Priests
Buddha
god of Buddhism (wasn’t considered divine until Mahayana Buddhism)
Buereaucrat
an official of a bureacracy
Carthage
an ancient city-state in N Africa, near modern Tunis: founded by the Phoenicians in the middle of the 9th century b.c.; destroyed in 146 b.c. in the last of the Punic Wars
Caste System
From Aryan times
Brahmins (priests), Kshatriays (warriors, aristocrats), Vaishayas (peasants, merchants), Shudras (serfs)
Conscription
A writing?
Constantine
Emperor of later Classical Rome
Constantinople
Capital of Rome founded by Constantine?
Consuls
2 presidents chosedn by arsitocrats in Classic Rome
Cyrus
Founder of Persian Achaemenid empire
Daoism
Criticized Confucianism
Live in Harmony with nature
Founded by Laozi
Sacred book=Daodejing (classic of the way and of virtue)
Doctrine of Wuwei
Darius
Emperor of persian Achaemenid empire at its peak
Deforestation
To clear forests of trees
Desertification
the processes by which an area becomes a desert.
2. the rapid depletion of plant life and the loss of topsoil at desert boundaries and in semiarid regions, usually caused by a combination of drought and the overexploitation of grasses and other vegetation by people.
Dharma
Part of Buddhism (composed of 4 noble truths and 8-fold path)
In Hinduism, obedience to religous and moral laws
Diaspora
( usually initial capital letter ) the scattering of the Jews to countries outside of Palestine after the Babylonian captivity.
2. ( often initial capital letter ) the body of Jews living in countries outside Israel.
3. Any group that’s been forced out of its traditional homeland
diplomacy
the conduct by government officials of negotiations and other relations between nations.
Eunuch
a castrated man, especially one formerly employed by Oriental rulers as a harem guard or palace official
Filial Piety
Patriarchal social order in classic China
Subordination ot elder males
Gaul
Modern day France
Han Wudi
\”Martial Emperor\”
2 main policies: administrative centralization and imperial expansion
Increased taxes fo fund public works
Monopolized essential goods
Legalist principles
Hegemony
leadership or predominant influence exercised by one nation over others, as in a confederation.
2. leadership; predominance.
3. (especially among smaller nations) aggression or expansionism by large nations in an effort to achieve world domination.
Huns
White Huns were a nomadic group from Central Asia that helped bring about the fall of the Gupta Empire
Jainism
Religion of salvation in India
Very ascetic and noviolent (ahisma)
Rejected caste, jati distinctions
Jati
Guilds that acted as subcastes
Enforeced social order (organized courts, resolved differences, etc.)
Jesus
THE SAVIOR OF THE WORLD!!!
Julius Ceasar
Names self dicator of Rome for life
Centralized military
Redistribution of land to war veterans, other allies
Major building projects reduce urban unemployment
Extended citizenship to provinces
Assasinated by aristocrasts 44 BCE
Legalism
Classic China (Qin and Han dynasties)
Strict punishment
Collective responsibility for law
Emphasis on development of state (ruthless, no concern for ethics, morality, or propriety)
Discouraged anything other than agriculture and military
Magi
( sometimes lowercase ) the wise men, generally assumed to be three in number, who paid homage to the infant Jesus. Matt. 2:1-12. Compare Balthazar ( def. 1 ) , Caspar ( def. 1 ) , Melchior ( def. 1 ) .
2. ( sometimes lowercase ) the class of Zoroastrian priests in ancient Media and Persia, reputed to possess supernatural powers.
3. ( lowercase ) astrologers.
Monastic
of or pertaining to monasteries: a monastic library.
2. of, pertaining to, or characteristic of monks or nuns, their manner of life, or their religious obligations: monastic vows.
3. of, pertaining to, or characteristic of a secluded, dedicated, or austere manner of living.
Monsoons
Spring/winter winds blow from SW; fall/winter winds blow from NW
Helped allow maritime trade along silk roads
Octavian Augustus
Classic Rome emperor
Julius’s nephew
Monarchy disguised as republic
Increasing centralization
Parthians
Classical Persia empire
Patricians
Aristocrats, elite class that chose consuls, land owning nobles, members of powerful senate, classical Rome
Patronage
the control of or power to make appointments to government jobs or the power to grant other political favors.
4. offices, jobs, or other favors so controlled.
5. the distribution of jobs and favors on a political basis, as to those who have supported one’s party or political campaign
Pax Romana
\”Roman Peace\”
27-250 CE
Facilitated trade (safety), communication, and growth of arts and sciences
Plebians
commoners, free, threaten to leave, vs. patricians, classical Rome
Polis
City-state (like early Mesopotamian Civilizations)
Classical Greece
Composed of citizens (adult mens), free people (no rights), and non-citizens (slaves)
Urban center, dominating surrounding rural areas
Punjab
Important city in India
Qanat
Classical Persia
System of underground canals
Avoided excessive loss to evaporation
Need due to scarcity of water
Reincarnation
Being continuously born again
Sanskrit
an Indo-European, Indic language, in use since c1200 b.c. as the religious and classical literary language in India
Satrapies
Classical Persia
23 administrativce districs (~to states with governors)
Seleucids
Hellenistic empire
Massive colonization of Greeks
Export of Greek culture and values as far east as India
Senate
Part of Classic Rome
Composed of Patricians
Shamanism
the animistic religion of northern Asia, embracing a belief in powerful spirits that can be influenced only by Shamans
Siddhartha Gautama
Founder of Buddhism/ the buddha (enligtened one)
Sparta
Classic Greece
Agricultural and Highly Militarized
Stoics
Hellenistic philosophy
Duty, virtue, and emphasis on inner peace
Tribute
a stated sum or other valuable consideration paid by one sovereign or state to another in acknowledgment of subjugation or as the price of peace, security, protection, or the like.
Varna
Hindu god
Hinduism focuses on his various incarnations
Veneration
reverence
Visigoths
Nomadic group that settled on the edges of classic Rome and later, along with other Germanic people groups, took control of W. Roman empire
Xerxes
A more strict Persian emperor
Xiongnu
A nomadic people group who posed threats to ancient China

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