History of Jazz Exam 2

Flashcard maker : Richard Lattimore
front line
Trumpet: main melody Clarinet: harmonic/melodic embellishment Trombone: bass line in \”tailgate\” style (lots of slides)
rhythm section
Bass instrument: tuba or double bass or bass sax, or left hand of the piano Chording instrument: piano, banjo, or guitar – mostly flat four style Drums: beat was kept on snare drum ; Wood blocks were used in recordings
collective improvisation
Several musicians play improvised music at the same time (polyphonic texture)
red-light district in New Orleans
Migration to Chicago
musicians traveled to chicago where there was work, leads to speakeasys and the jazz ago
used a wax cylinder that picked up sound waves using a needle
stride piano
jazz piano style with ragtime roots (mm-bop left hand and crazy right hand)
Harlem rent party
tenents of over-priced slum apartments would throw parties before the rent was due to earn money for rent; usually a stride pianist would play
a pre-modern jazz piano style ; repetitive left hand bass that uses eight sixteenth note patterns
Scat Singing
using syllables instead of words to improvise singing
Buddy Bolden
the first \”Cornet King\”; made the \”front line\” of the jazz band popular
Joe \”King\” Oliver
Had a band called \”King\” Oliver’s Creole Jazz Band ; Oliver’s playing style influenced Armstrong
Louis Armstrong
Played second trumpet for Joe Oliver’s Band; Often called the \”father of Jazz\” Born in New Orleans; Popularized scat singing
Bix Beiderbecke
Offered listeners an approach that contrasted Armstrong’s; Played the cornet; White guy from Iowa
Jelly Roll Morton
Pianist, composer, arranger, and band leader from New Orleans; Bridged that gap between the piano styles of ragtime and jazz; Was the first important jazz composer
James P. Johnson
Was part of east coast jazz piano tradition One of the first jazz musicians to broadcast on the radio Considered \”father of stride piano\”
\”Fats\” Waller
one of most popular jazz pianists; wrote \”jitterbug waltz\”; best at improvising in the stride style
Earl Hines
\”brassy sound\” on piano, played really hard and phrased like a trumpeter
Pitting Saxes vs. Brass
both play competing melodies at the same time
Voicing across Sections
Played by combination of instruments drawn from different sections
Hot,Sweet,Crossover BB
Hot band- Afro-American musicians; Driving swing; More improvisation;Count Basie Orchestra Sweet Band- White musicians ; Stiff swing feel ; More arrangement; Glenn Miller Orchestra Crossover BB – AA musicians integrated into white band
Territory Bands
group of musicians hired to go around to small cities in mid-west and play; often bands got \”mixed up\”
Head Arrangement
a band arrangement that was made up by musicians and not written down; a spontaneous series of riffs played by all performers in a concert
a short simple musical phrase – theme statements and background for solos
Jam Session
musicians get together and improvise on well known songs
A place where musicians would meet to have jam sessions Hired a rhythm section to play for musicians
Decline of the Swing Era
American Federation of Musicians ban members from recording now Instrumental music Popular singers take the place of instrumental music By 1942, all efforts of common citizens went to war effect
Fletcher Henderson
pianist and composer; created first big band and was very commercially successful; first black musician to be hired by white band
Duke Ellington
bandleader of longest lasting big band, piano (stride style), composer – very creative, took jazz into the field of \”extended works\”; Growl style of trumpet and trombone
Benny Goodman
Played clarinet – led best known big band of late 30’s; \”king of Swing\”; first jazz musician to play at Carnegie Hall
Count Basie
stride pianist; used silence to pace his lines; had a famous big band
Count Basie Rhythm Section
Basie, W. Page, F.Green, J.Jones – excellent sense of tempo, relaxed playing at high tempos
(Billy Strayhorn)
arranger for ellington’s band
(Don Redman)
arranger for fletcher henderson’s band
Nat \”king\” Cole
most influential of 1930’s pianists, lightened up left hand of piano
Teddy Wilson
lightened up left hand in piano; more comping and variety; organized a lot of Billie holiday’s stuff
Art Tatum
piano player from Toledo, OH, Reharmonization (chord substitution); amazing speed but made it look easy
Coleman Hawkins
\”father of the jazz tenor saxophone\” ; nickname = the bean; interested in chord progression; complicated style
Lester Young
basie’s best soloist – the \”prez\” of the tenor sax; no vibrato, offered an alternative to coleman hawkins
Roy Eldridge
Trumpet; a link between swing and modern jazz; Sax-like lines
Charlie Christian
played jazz guitar – development of bebop
Evolution of Bebop
evolved from improv clubs like Mintons; more about the art and music rather than entertainment and dancing; musicians weeded out people who couldn’t play it (level goes up)
Bop style characteristics
small combo; faster tempo; showing off their talent was important to musicians; improvation and surprise valued highly; a lot like modern jazz today
taking an already written chord progression and adding new melodies
Charlie Parker
Inovation of bebop; played sax; from kansas city; ability to do double time
Dizzy Gillespie
trumpet player who worked on same ideas as C. Parker; has a bob-style big band; cuban music

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