History 17A

Flashcard maker : Michael Seabolt
reciprocity
A situation in which two parties provide the same help or advantages to each other (for example, Producer A living in State A can transact business as a nonresident in State B if State B’s resident producers can transact business in State A).
stewardship
God’s entrusting of the earth’s natural resources to mankind in order to care for the world, to master it by labor, and to enjoy its fruits.
usufruct rights
-rights to use, not to own
animism
Belief that objects, such as plants and stones, or natural events, like thunderstorms and earthquakes, have a discrete spirit and conscious life.
Columbian Exchange
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus’s voyages.
Black Legend
The idea developed during North American colonial times that the Spanish utterly destroyed the Indians through slavery and disease while the English did not. It is a false assertion that the Spanish were more evil towards the Native Americans than the English were.
Bering Land Bridge
Former ice age link between Siberia and Alaska.
Bartolomé de Las Casas
First bishop of Chiapas, in southern Mexico. He devoted most of his life to protecting Amerindian peoples from exploitation. His major achievement was the New Laws of 1542, which limited the ability of Spanish settlers to compel Amerindians to labor.
Reconquista
Beginning in the eleventh century, military campaigns by various Iberian Christian states to recapture territory taken by Muslims. In 1492 the last Muslim ruler was defeated, and Spain and Portugal emerged as united kingdoms.
mercantilism
Economic policy common to many absolute monarchies. Government control of foreign trade is of paramount importance for ensuring the military security of the country. In particular, it demands a positive balance of trade and desires new sources of gold and silver bullion, thus fueling more colonialism.
Right of Discovery
the needs to save the souls of irrational heathens, and the divine rights of entitlement to develop and control the underutilized land occupied by indigenous people. It is important because American Indians didn’t want other to take their land, but Europeans thought it was okay to steal their land from them.
Right of Conquest
In support of its unwavering policies of taking Native American lands Post-war congresses invoked the principle of ________, maintaining that the Native Americans had aided the British and therefore had forfeited the right to their lands.
Treaty of Tordesillias
Pope splits the world between Spain and Portugal, Spain getting most of the Americas and and Portugal getting most of Europe and Africa.
Pueblo Revolt
This event, which occurred on August 10, 1680, in modern-day Santa Fe, New Mexico, was the most successful uprising against Spanish authority in the New World. The Native Americans took over the governor’s residence as their own and remained there to protect their land. In the revolt 400 Spaniards were killed and 2,000 settlers fled.
encomiendas
Grants of Indian laborers made to Spanish conquerors and settlers in Mesoamerica and South America; basis for earliest forms of coerced labor in Spanish colonies.
patroons
manor lords, or another name for New York’s governors, who wanted to create manors out of rent-paying tenants through the selling of their 1.75 million acres. They offered benefits such as building mills, low rents, farm tools, justice in courts, etc. They lived in Dutch New York and became very wealthy, thus giving more people better living conditions.
seigneuries
Large French estates. Such seigneuries along the bank of the St. Lawrence river helped to create the boundary line of French settlement before the Seven Years’ War.
Beaver Wars
Wars that resulted from furious trading and hunting of Beaver pelts by the Dutch, the French, and the New Netherlands. The Over-hunting of Beavers sent prices so high in 1742 that the Dutch armed the Iroquois and what resulted was bloody battles against Pro-French tribes.
Mourning Wars
Indian raids to take captives who would replace their dead relatives and replenish the Manit (spiritual presence). People=power so when low on people, low on spiritual power. People who were kidnapped were abused and tortured (were supposed to show bravery) and adopted afterward if not killed. Europeans saw this as kidnapping and this practice added to their view of Indians as barbarians.
dependency
The ratio of the number of people who are either too old or young to provide for themselves to the number of people who must support them through their own labor. This is usually expressed in the form n:100, where n equals the number of dependents.
Northwest Passage
A water route from the Atlantic to the Pacific through northern Canada and along the northern coast of Alaska. Sought by English and French navigators since the 16th century.
Roanoke
…, Established in 1587. Called the Lost Colony. It was financed by Sir Walter Raleigh, and its leader in the New World was John White. All the settlers disappeared, and historians still don’t know what became of them.
Jamestown
First permanent English settlement; located in Virginia. Founded by London Company
West Country Men
Ambitious lesser nobility and gentlemen living in the western counties of England who were the first promoters of English colonization in the New World.
Francis Drake
Sir Francis Drake (British) was the captain of the sea dogs (fleet). He beats the Spanish Armada (fleet). In 1577, Drake goes from England, around Cape horn, to the coast of California. In the late 1500s, the British were already in the gulf of San Francisco. English claim California, but when the English left, the Spanish settle there- so the British sort of \”lost it.\”
Powhatan
Chief of the Powhatan Confederacy and father to Pocahontas. At the time of the English settlement of Jamestown in 1607, he was a friend to John Smith and John Rolfe. When Smith was captured by Indians, Powhatan left Smith’s fate in the hands of his warriors. His daughter saved John Smith, and the Jamestown colony. Pocahontas and John Rolfe were wed, and there was a time of peace between the Indians and English until Powhatan’s death.
Jamestown Massacre
Occurred in 1622; Powhatan Indians were fed up with constant Jamestown expansion due to their tobacco economy so they killed many Jamestown residents and burned houses and crops
proprietary colony
Colonies in which proprietors (those who had obtained their patents from the king) named the governors, subject to the kings approval (WOR)
Royal Colony
A colony under the direct control of a monarch
Virginia Company
A joint-stock company: based in Virginia in 1607: founded to find gold and a water way to the Indies: confirmed all Englishmen that they would have the same life in the New World, as they had in England, with the same rights: 3 of their ships transported the people that would found Jamestown in 1607.
Magna Carta
1215 document that listed the rights of English citizens and limited the power of the English monarch. Rights included trial by jury, no taxation without representation, protection of the law, and habeas corpus
masterless men
Poor men in England who can’t find jobs. They are jobless and they were seen as a danger to society.
headright system
Headrights were parcels of land consisting of about 50 acres which were given to colonists who brought indentured servants into America. They were used by the Virginia Company to attract more colonists.
indentures
contracts binding people to work for another person for a specified period of time
Atlantic Slave Trade
Lasted from 16th century until the 19th century. Trade of African peoples from Western Africa to the Americas. One part of a three-part economical system known as the Middle Passage of the Triangular Trade.
Atlantic Slave Trade
Lasted from 16th century until the 19th century. Trade of African peoples from Western Africa to the Americas. One part of a three-part economical system known as the Middle Passage of the Triangular Trade.
widow’s third
Puritans
A religious group who wanted to purify the Church of England. They came to America for religious freedom and settled Massachusetts Bay.
Pilgrims
Group of Puritan separatists who established Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts to seek religious freedom after having lived briefly in the Netherlands.
Half-Way Covenant
A Puritan church document; In 1662, the Halfway Covenant allowed partial membership rights to persons not yet converted into the Puritan church; It lessened the difference between the \”elect\” members of the church from the regular members; Women soon made up a larger portion of Puritan congregations.
Anne Hutchinson
A Puritan woman who was well learned that disagreed with the Puritan Church in Massachusetts Bay Colony. Her actions resulted in her banishment from the colony, and later took part in the formation of Rhode Island. She displayed the importance of questioning authority.
natural liberty
All humans are naturally free and independent, they can do what they want. The only limitation is your ability—you can try to do anything but you are limited by your physical capabilities
Moral Liberty
The Puritan idea of \”liberty to that only which is good\”; could entail restraints on speech, religion, and personal behavior.
Pequot War
conflict between the Pequot tribe against an alliance of the Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth colonies and the Narragansett and Mohegan tribes; Caused by colonists moving closer and closer to the Pequot tribe area and conflicts arise over unfair trading and destruction of crops; Ended up killing Pequot tribe
Maryland Toleration Act
Act that was passed in Maryland that guaranteed toleration to all Christians, regardless of sect but not to those who did not believe in the divinity of Jesus. Though it did not sanction much tolerance, the act was the first seed that would sprout into the first amendment, granting religious freedom to all.
Lord Baltimore
This British nobleman established the colony of Maryland in response to discrimination against Catholics in England.
William Penn
An English Quaker, founded Pennsylvania in 1682, after receiving a charter from King Charles II the year before. He launched the colony as a \”holy experiment\” based on religious tolerance.
Levellers
Group who thought that poor men should have equal say in government with the upper classes
Quakers
English dissenters who broke from Church of England, They followed a doctrine of pacificism, inner divinity, and social equity, under William Penn they founded Pennsylvania.
Bacon’s Rebellion
Colonial uprising that took place in 1676 in the Virginia colony, led by Nathaniel Bacon. Virginians resented William Berkeley’s friendly policy towards Native Americans. This was the first rebellion in American colonies in which discontented frontiersmen took part.
Glorious Revolution
Following the English Civil War, this event involve the British Parliament once again overthrowing their monarch in 1688-1689. James II was expelled and William and Mary were made king and queen. Marks the point at which Parliament made the monarchy powerless, gave themselves all the power, and wrote a bill of Rights. The whole thing was relatively peaceful and thus glorious.
Walking Purchase
A treaty supposedly signed by William Penn and Lenape chiefs that gave Penn the land west of the Delaware River as far \”as a man can go in one day and a half.\”
deference
(n.) courteous yielding to the wishes and ideas of another person; great respect marked by submission, as to a superior
salutary neglect
Prime Minister Robert Walpole’s policy in dealing with the American colonies. He was primarily concerned with British affairs & believed that unrestricted trade in the colonies would be more profitable for England than would taxation of the colonies.
slave codes
Laws that controlled the lives of enslaved African Americans and denied them basic rights.
French & Indian War
American version of the 7 Year’s War, French and Indians fight colonists and are victorious in early stages, then British pour on the pressure and emerge victorious, end-result French are removed from North America and Britain is left in debt.
Seven Years’ War
(1756-1763 CE) Known also as the French and Indian war. It was the war between the French and their Indian allies and the English that proved the English to be the more dominant force of what was to be the United States both commercially and in terms of controlled regions.
Proclamation Line
________________(MAP) After the French and Indian war this was drawn by the British King and his council to separate the colonists from hostile Amerindians that rose up during Pontiac’s Rebellion.
Pontiac
1763 – An Indian uprising after the French and Indian War, led by an Ottowa chief named Pontiac. They opposed British expansion into the western Ohio Valley and began destroying British forts in the area. The attacks ended when Pontiac was killed.
Great Awakening
(1730s and 1740s) Religious movement characterized by emotional preaching (Jonathan Edwards & George Whitefield). The first cultural movement to unite the Thirteen Colonies. Associated with the democratization of religion.
Jonathan Edwards
American theologian whose sermons and writings stimulated a period of renewed interest in religion in America (1703-1758)
Stono Rebellion
The most serious slave rebellion in the the colonial period which occurred in 1739 in South Carolina. 100 African Americans rose up, got weapons and killed several whites then tried to escape to S. Florida. The uprising was crushed and the participants executed. The main form of rebellion was running away, though there was no where to go.
Stamp Act
An act passed by the British parliament in 1756 that raised revenue from the American colonies by a duty in the form of a stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents
Stamp Act Congress
A meeting of delegations from many of the colonies, the congress was formed to protest the newly passed Stamp Act It adopted a declaration of rights as well as sent letters of complaints to the king and parliament, and it showed signs of colonial unity and organized resistance.
Intolerable Acts
(4.1) passed by Parliament in 1774 in reaction to the Boston Tea Party. Passed series of measures including shutting down Boston Harbor and the Quartering Act, which allowed British commanders to house soldiers in vacant private homes and other buildings. This resulted in the colonists forming the First Continental Congress and drawing up a declaration of colonial rights. – Tom says this was a combination of the Coercive Acts and the Quebec Act.
Townshend Act
In 1767 \”Champagne Charley\” Townshend persuaded Parliament to pass the Townshend Acts. These acts put a light import duty on such things as glass, lead, paper, and tea. The acts met slight protest from the colonists, who found ways around the taxes such as buying smuggled tea. Due to its minute profits, the Townshend Acts were repealed in 1770, except for the tax on tea. The tax on tea was kept to keep alive the principle of Parliamentary taxation.
Tea Act
(1773) Legislative plan by the British to make English tea marketable in America. The North administration hoped to reaffirm Parliament’s right to levy direct revenue taxes on the colonies. Lord North had repealed four of the five Townshend duties, but he kept the tax on tea. This tax led to the Boston Tea Party (1773).
Tea Parties
Most radical attempt to achieve the above occurred in Boston where locals, riled up by Sam Adams and John Hancock (#1 Smuggler) resulted in several colonists in Indian dress boarding ships illegally and dump 342 chests of tea into the harbor. Colonists generally underestimated what the reaction in England would be to the destruction of British property. parliament was ready to punish.
virtual representation
English principle stating that the members of parliament represented all of Britain and the British Empire, even though members were only elected by a small number of constituent
Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania
A 1767 pamphlet by Pennsylvania attorney and landowner John Dickinson, in which he eloquently stated the \”taxation without representation\” argument, and also stated that the only way that the House of Commons could represent the colonies in a meaningful way would be for actual colonists to be members of it
Jonathan Boucher
He was a Loyalist and was very religious and used his sermons to spread his religious beliefs
Sons of Liberty
A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept. After the repeal of the Stamp Act, many of the local chapters formed the Committees of Correspondence which continued to promote opposition to British policies towards the colonies. The Sons leaders included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere.
Daughters of Liberty
This organization supported the boycott of British goods. They urged Americans to wear homemade fabrics and produce other goods that were previously available only from Britain. They believed that way, the American colonies would become economically independent.
Thomas Paine
American Revolutionary leader and pamphleteer (born in England) who supported the American colonist’s fight for independence and supported the French Revolution (1737-1809)
Olive Branch Petition
On July 8, 1775, the colonies made a final offer of peace to Britain, agreeing to be loyal to the British government if it addressed their grievances (repealed the Coercive Acts, ended the taxation without representation policies). It was rejected by Parliament, which in December 1775 passed the American Prohibitory Act forbidding all further trade with the colonies.
Lord Dunmore’s Proclamation
An offer by the British governor and military commander in Virginia for freedom to any slave who escaped to his lines and bore arms for the king
John Locke
17th century English philosopher who opposed the Divine Right of Kings and who asserted that people have a natural right to life, liberty, and property.
social contract
A voluntary agreement among individuals to secure their rights and welfare by creating a government and abiding by its rules.
republican motherhood
An idea linked to republicanism that elevated the role of women. It gave them the prestigious role as the special keepers of the nation’s conscience. Educational opportunities for women expanded due to this. Its roots were from the idea that a citizen should be to his country as a mother is to her child.
Anti-Federalists
Anti-Federalists rose up as the opponents of the Constitution during the period of ratification. They opposed the Constitution’s powerful centralized government, arguing that the Constitution gave too much political, economic, and military control. They instead advocated a decentralized governmental structure that granted most power to the states
Federalist
Supporters of the Constitution that were led by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. They firmly believed the national government should be strong. They didn’t want the Bill of Rights because they felt citizens’ rights were already well protected by the Constitution.
federalism
A system of government in which power is distributed among certain geographical territories rather than concentrated within a central government.
Massachusetts Compromise
Bill of Rights. Controversy between the Anti-Federalists and Federalists. In support of the Constitution and led to the creation of the Bill of Rights. They agreed that when Congress met the first thing that they would do is pass the Bill of Rights. Serious opposition in Massachusetts. Anti-Federalists agreed to ratify the Constitution if there were amendments to the Constitution, and the Federalists finally agreed.
Three-fifths Clause
• During the framing of the Constitution, Southern delegates argued that slaves should count toward representative seats, while the delegates of Northern states argued that to count slaves as members of the population would grant an unfair advantage to the Southern states in Congress. The result of this debate was the adoption of the three-fifths clause, which allowed three-fifths of all slaves to be counted as people.
Fugitive Slave Clause
Article IV, Section 2, Clause 3 of the Constitution, which stated that slaves who escaped must be returned to their owners. It was later abolished in the Thirteenth Amendment
Slave Trade Clause
written in Constitution: for 20 years, US could not interfere with states trading, EX: international slave trade
Northwest Ordinance
The 1787 Northwest Ordinance defined the process by which new states could be admitted into the Union from the Northwest Territory. He ordinance forbade slavery in the territory but allowed citizens to vote on the legality of slavery once statehood had been established. The Northwest Ordinance was the most lasting measure of the national government under the Articles of Confederation
empire of liberty
Thomas Jefferson and the Louisiana Purchase (1803), he believes liberty can be achieved if all people have access to property. Expanding the US to include the west gives that opportunity for the individual, property and enfranchisement…ideals which were lauded in this new Republic of virtues. Reflects the United States dogma as a new nation with high hopes for liberty, but also limited liberty…a democracy for white men. Women and people of colour didn’t have the ability to own property.
Naturalization Act
(1798) Required that aliens be residents for 14 years instead of 5 years before they became eligible for U.S. citizenship.
civic nationalism
type of nationalism where a pride of a nation is based on government system or political ideals that transcends ethnicity
ethnic nationalism
type of nationalism where a pride of a nation based on identity with specific culture
a form of NATIONALISM that says you are a member of the nation because of your ancestry

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