History 17A EXAM #2

Flashcard maker : Ruth Blanco
The Glorious Revolution
In order to prevent a Catholic Dynasty the English Parliament drove out James II following the birth of his son and replaced him with the protestant Stahoulder of the Nederlands William, and his wife and daughter of James II, Mary II. This was a relativly bloodless revolution. (excepting the Irish Rebellion in which an Catholic coalition of English-Irish-French troops led by James were butchered).
Mercantilism Act
1. Colonies are meant to provide raw materials to the parent country for the growth and profit of that country’s industries. Only goal is to make the parent country rich. 2. England tried to control the economy of the colonies through the Navigation Acts, which set rules about trading practices.
Navigation Act
it was to ensure the british parliament controlled the trade of the colonies, George III introduced this series of laws which prevented colonists from selling their most valuable products to any country except Britain., British regulations designed to protect British shipping from competition. Said that British colonies could only import goods if they were shipped on British-owned vessels and at least 3/4 of the crew of the ship were British
The Stono Rebellion
1739 Slave rebellion that was one of the earliest known acts of resistance against slavery in America. It was organized and led by slaves living in South Carolina. The Rebellion failed and the slaves, who had hoped to escape to Spanish Florida were killed.
Francisco Menendez and \”Mose\”
an escaped South Carolina slave who fought with the Yamasee Indians against the colony, fled to Florida, was reenslaved by the Spanish, became a milita captain, was freed again, and was put in charge of the free-black town of Mose near St. Augustine in the late 1730s, the first community of its kind in what is now the United States
The Enlightenment
A philosophical movement which started in Europe in the 1700’s and spread to the colonies. It emphasized reason and the scientific method. Writers of the enlightenment tended to focus on government, ethics, and science, rather than on imagination, emotions, or religion. Many members of the Enlightenment rejected traditional religious beliefs in favor of Deism, which holds that the world is run by natural laws without the direct intervention of God.
unalienable rights
These rights are fundamental or natural rights guaranteed to people naturally instead of by the law. They include life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
tabula rasa
\”the idea that something or someone is entirely unmarked and uninfluenced\”- this phrase from latin means \”blank slate.\” The philosopher John Locke referred to the mind of a young person unaffected by experience as a tabula rasa.
The Zenger Trial, 1735
Zenger published articles critical of British governor William Cosby. He was taken to trial, but found not guilty. The trial set a precedent for freedom of the press in the colonies.
The First Great Awakening
– 1720s-1740s.
– A series of emotional religious revivals that occurred throughout the colonies (prevalent in New England.)
– Preachers spread a message of personal repentance and emphasized faith as a way to avoid hell.
– Suggested an equality between God and the Bible.
– George Whitefield and Jonathan Edwards became its most dynamic preachers.
– While the Awakening created conflict among those who argued about religion, its ideas helped build connections between the colonies.
– More denomination of Christianity were formed.
– A number of colleges were founded by those who accepted the Great Awakening, including Princeton, Brown, and Rutgers.
Old lights vs New lights
-In the early 1700’s, old lights were simply orthodox members of the clergy who believed that the new ways of revivals and emotional preaching were unnecessary.
-New lights were the more modern- thinking members of the clergy who strongly believed in the Great Awakening.
-These conflicting opinions changed certain denominations, helped popularize missionary work and assisted in the founding educational centers now known as Ivy League schools
The French and Indian War and its influence on the The French and Indian War and its influence on the American Revolution
This war, also known as The Seven Years’ War, started when the French began fortifying the Ohio River Valley region to deter the British from settling further west. In 1754, Lt. Colonel George Washington’s men were sent to prevent the French from putting finishing touches on Fort Duquesne. Washington’s forces proved weak, and finally surrendered. The British were more successful when they turned to conquering Canada. The French surrendered Quebec and Montreal, resulting in the Peace of Paris. This British took control of Canada and Florida, effectively removing the French presence in North America. Influenced AR to fight for independence.
AR-The war between Great Britain and its American colonies, 1775-83, by which the colonies won their independence.
Iroquoia and the \”covenant chain\”
An alliance between the Iroquois Confederacy and the colony of New York which sought to establish Iroquois dominance over all other tribes and thus put New York in an economically and politically dominant position among the other colonies
The Sugar Act, 1764
raised duty on sugar, lowered duty on molasses; established new vice-admiralty courts to try accused smugglers to cut off from sympathetic local juries; affected few NE merchants
The Writs of Assistance, (1761) and natural law
Court orders that allowed British officials the rights to search ANY colonial home, ship, or building for smuggled goods.
-violates people’s natural rights (Universal law that could be understood by applying reason; letting people govern themselves.)
The Stamp Act, 1765
This act imposed a tax on every printed document in the colonies, including newspapers, almanacs, wills, deeds and licenses. This act allowed the British to collect more than ten times as much annual revenue in America as they had been before 1763. This act helped to unify the colonies as it effected everyone who lived in any colony and only benefited the English who were making money of the act.
The Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
Mob violence and the \”press gangs\”
-Colonists began to break out in mobs and, burn down homes in Boston protesting tax, or bury tax collectors, or heckle soldiers.
-British robbing people of their rights, and their belongings. British deserters in the American Navy.
Sons of Liberty
Secret society formed by Samuel Adams to protest new taxes passed by Parliament. It led the Boston Tea Party and threatened tax collectors; also firm supporters of independence.
Boycott
refuse to deal with as a means of protest and persuasion
Thomas Hutchinson and \”patronage\”
Governor of Massachusetts who enforced acts. His house was burned down because of colonial opposition to the acts. (represents British)
-patronage: power to appoint someone to become an authority.
-Hutchinson’s brother-in-law, colonial secretary Andrew Oliver, was given the job of \”stamp master\”, with responsibility for implementing the act in the province.
Republicanism and \”the republic of virtue\”
-A form of government in which people elect representatives to create and enforce laws.
-A republic that seemed new to the world, where civic virtue takes the place of monarchical corruption. It did, various things things, such as renaming streets with new vocabulary of the revolution.
Robespirerre’s idea of a perfect society.
The Townshend Acts
Taxed goods, such as glass, paper, paint, lead, and tea. It also allowed customs officials to search without real reason in order to prevent smuggling. Colonists believed that this tax was an example of taxation without representation.
The Boston Massacre, 1770
British soldiers didn’t make enough money so they searched for shipyard jobs. Colonists believe that they are stealing their jobs. One colonist attacked a British soldier, and the soldier fired. The Sons of Liberty called it a massacre to make the British look bad. Tried to get colonists to unite and fight British, they use propaganda.
The Boston Tea Party, 1774
On the evening of December 16, 1773, a group of men calling themselves the \”Sons of Liberty\” went to the Boston Harbor. The men were dressed as Mohawk Indians. They boarded three British ships, the Beaver, the Eleanor and the Dartmouth, and dumped forty-five tons of tea into the Boston Harbor.
The Coercive Acts, 1774
Also known as the *Intolerable Acts*, consisted of closing the port of Boston, drastically reducing the powers of self-government in Massachusetts, permitting royal officers in America to be tried in other colonies or in England when accused of crimes, and providing for the quartering of troops by the colonists. These acts led to further boycotts of British goods.
The battles of Lexington and Concord
The battles of Lexington and Concord initiated the Revolutionary War between the American colonists and the British. British governor Thomas Gage sent troops to Concord to stop the colonists who were loading arms. The next day, on April 19, 1775, the first shots were fired in Lexington, starting the war. The battles resulted in a British retreat to Boston
Thomas Paine and \”Common Sense\”
an English man who moved to America and wrote a pamphlet that explained why Americans should not be angry at parliament, after all the problem was really in the English constitution, which had apparently caused harm to its own people and could not govern another area. The pamphlet was very popular in the colonies were 100, 000 copies were sold in a few months, and helped create support for the idea of American independence
Thomas Jefferson and the Declaration of Independence
Thomas Jefferson expounded on John Locke’s theories of unalienable natural rights and social contract in the Dec. of Ind.
hearts and minds
being able to win the peoples support in a way other then military; having them truly want your help.
Yorktown
the last major engagement/battle of the war. Washington’s armies along with the French naval fleet under de Grasse surrounded British general Charles Cornwallis and received his surrender It ended major engagements in the colonies, thus putting an \”end\” to the war.
Gordon Wood
Believed the Revolution was not a conservative movement because it completely got rid of a monarchy and because of the ideological change that was instituted into the society which caused CHANGE (therefore making it non-conservative). Although social aspect of society remained nearly the same, the political basis on which the colonies were founded was drastically altered.
Sierra Leone
a small West African colony that was taken over by the British in 1808 to serve as a base for their anti-slave-trade naval squadron. Men, women, and children taken from captured slave ships were liberated here. The capital was Freetown.
Dunmore’s Proclamation
1775, Dunmore promised freedom for any slave that joined the royal army. Slaves who fought for Britain became known as the Ethiopian Regiment, but were very unsuccessful due to smallpox. This proclamation was one of the major factors in the south joining the revolution.
The Gradual Abolition Act
passed by the Pennsylvania legislature on 1 March 1780, was the first attempt by a government in the Western Hemisphere to begin an abolition of slavery.
Absalom Jones
African American abolitionist and clergyman. Founded black congregation in 1794, in 1804 he was the first African-American ordained as priest in the Episcopal Church of the U.S.
Joseph Brant
Mohawk leader who supported the British during the American Revolution.
Judith Sargent Murray
Wrote an essay \”On the Equality of the Sexes\” where she argued that men and women had equal memories but women had a superior imagination. She said women were only inferior to men in reason because they were not trained. This showed how women began to speak more and express their opinions as they became more educated after the Revolution.
Republican Motherhood
The idea that American women had a special responsibility to cultivate \”civic virtue\” in their children.
Camp followers and female fighters
Women and children who followed the Continental Army during the American Revolution, providing vital services such as cooking and sewing in return for rations.
Molly Brant
A Mohawk woman from the Iroquois Confederacy who had been the common-law wife of British diplomat William Johnson, Brant was active in revolutionary-era diplomacy, siding with the British.

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