Henle Latin Grammar Rules Lessons 1-5

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What four properties do nouns have?
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gender, number, case, and declension
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What is a Declension?
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a declension consists of adding the proper endings to the stem to show the different gender, number, and case.
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1. What tells you the MEANING of a word in Latin? 2. What tells you the FUNCTION of a word in Latin?
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1. The Stem 2. The Declension
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What are the 3 genders in latin?
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masculine, feminine, neuter
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All nouns meaning individual male persons are….
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masculine
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All nouns meaning individual female persons are…
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feminine
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What are the 2 numbers in latin?
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Singular and plural
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How do you find the stem of a latin noun?
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Drop the ending of the GENITIVE SINGULAR
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Genitive
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Possessive (of the..)
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Dative
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Indirect Object (to or for the…)
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Accusative
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Direct Object (the…)
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Nominative
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Subject (the…)
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Ablative
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Object of the Preposition (by, with, from the…)
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How do you determine what declension a noun belongs to?
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Look at the GENITIVE SINGULAR.
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What are the genitive singular endings for each of the five declensions?
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1st – ae 2nd – ī 3rd – is 4th – ūs 5th – eī
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What is the gender rule for nouns of the FIRST declension?
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All nouns naming individual male persons are masculine (nauta, nautae). All others are feminine. There are no neuter nouns in the first declension.
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Where does the verb usually stand in a latin sentence?
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LAST
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Where do adverbs usually stand in a sentence?
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IMMEDIATELY BEFORE the word they modify
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In the Second Declension, nouns are usually what two genders?
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neuter and masculine
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Neuter Second Declension nouns have what nominative ending? How are they declined?
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-um declined like bellum, bellī
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Masculine Second Declension nouns have what nominative ending? How are they declined?
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-us declined like servus, servī
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In Latin, prepositions can be followed by which two cases?
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ablative and accusative
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After a linking verb, the predicate noun is put in which case?
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The same case as the subject (nominative).
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Where do forms of the verb “sum” stand?
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anywhere in the sentence
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What is the rule about appositives?
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An appositive agrees with its noun in number and case.
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“There is”
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Est
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“There are”
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Sunt
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What is the ending for the nominative singular THIRD declension?
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no model ending (various)
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What endings indicate masculine nouns of the 3rd declension?
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Nouns ending in -er, or -or
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What endings indicate feminine nouns of the 3rd declension?
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-s, -o, -x
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What endings indicate neuter nouns of the 3rd declension?
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-l, -a, -n, -c, -e, -t
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What gender rule must be applied BEFORE the ERROR, SOX, and LANCET rule in the third declension?
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nouns naming individual male persons are masculine and nouns naming individual female persons are feminine
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Neuter nouns in the 3rd declension are declined like?
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flūmen
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Masculine and feminine nouns in the 3rd declension are declined like?
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lēx
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What two rules govern whether a noun in the 3rd declension belongs to the i-stem?
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1. Nouns with the same number of syllables in the nominative and genitive singular. 2. Nouns whose stem ends in two consonants (gēns, gents).
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What is the gender rule for the 4th declension?
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All masculine EXCEPT: manus, ūs (f.); domus, ūs (f.) house; cornū, ūs (n.) horn; genū, ūs (n.) knee
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What is the gender rule for the 5th declension?
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All feminine EXCEPT: diēs, diēī
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The latin preposition “in” can take either ablative or accusative nouns. How do you know which one to use?
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When there is MOVEMENT or MOTION, use the accusative. When there is NO MOVEMENT, use the ablative.
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What is the gender rule for the 5th declension?
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All feminine except except diēs, diēī.
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What is the difference between the 3rd declension and the 3rd declension i-stem?
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The genitive plural ending is -ium in the i-stem and.
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What tells you the meaning of a word in Latin?
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The stem
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What tells you the function (subject, direct object etc) of a word in Latin?
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The declension
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How do you find the gender of a noun in the 3rd declension?
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Look at the ending of the nominative singular
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How do you determine the gender of nouns that do not name individual male or female persons?
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The gender of other nouns must be learned by their declension.
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How is the Genitive (possessive) case translated from Latin to English?
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with the phrase “of the..”
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What is unique about the accusative and nominative case in all neuter nouns?
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The ending is the same
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Adjectives agree with their nouns in?
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Gender, number, and case
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Do adjectives of quantity generally precede or follow their noun?
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Precede
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Do adjectives of quality generally precede or follow their noun?
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Follow
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What case is the predicate adjective in?
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Nominative
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What are 2 exceptions of first and second declension adjectives?
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Miser (wretched) Integer (fresh)
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The genitive singular of the first declension ends in?
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ae
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The genitive singular of the second declension ends in?
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ī
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In the second declension nouns are masculine or neuter depending on?
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If the nominative singular ends in ūs=masculine and um=neuter
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The genitive singular of the third declension ends in?
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is
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The genitive singular of the fourth declension ends in?
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ūs
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The genitive singular of the fifth declension ends in?
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ēī

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