GSCI – Space

Flashcard maker : Ben Stevenson
globular clusters
tight groups of thousands of stars that are gravitationally bound
open clusters
loosely clustered, generally contain fewere than a few hundred stars that are young
visible light
wavelengh: 38–740 nm
electromagnetic radiation that is visible to the human eye
refraction, defration, interference, reflection
Corpuscular Theory of Light
Proposed by Newton
Treats light as being composed of tiny particles (using a prism to separate light)
Wave Theory of Light
Proposed by Christian Huygens
Describes light as waves that spread from the source of generation.
Each color is a different wavelength
Refraction
The turning or bending of a wave when it passes from one medium to another
Defraction
The process by which a beam of light is spread out as a result of passing through a narrow aperture
Interference
When 2 or more waves of the same frequency combine to reinforce or cancel each other. The amplitude of the resulting wave being equal to the sum of amplitude of combining waves
Electromagnetic Theory of Light
Proposed by James Clerk Maxwell
Describes light as having electric and magnetic properties
-Advanced because it explains how light is generated
transverse waves
waves with motion perpendicular to direction of travel.
A ripple on a pond and a wave on a string are easily visualized transverse waves
-wave goes from left to right but actual ripple is vertical
Electromagnetic Spectrum
High: Gamma rays
x-rays
UV rays
visible light
infrared radiation
micro waves
LOW: radio waves
Black Body Radiation
The color and intensity depend on the temperature of the object
Quantum Theory of Light
-Max Karl Earnest Ludwig Planck
-Describes light as composed of “packets of energy” or photons.
-Energy of photon determines the color
Brightness of Stars Determined By…
-amount of energy (light) produced
-size of star
-distance of star
Absolute Brightness
Expression of luminosity, total amount of energy radiated into space each second from the surface of the star
Cephid Variables
-A type of variable star which exhibits a regular pattern of changing brightness as a function of time.
-The period of the pulsation pattern is directly related to the star’s intrinsic brightness.
-Cepheid variables are a powerful tool for determining distances in modern astronomy.
Stars are made up of
Hydrogen and Helium
Earth is made up of
Nitrogen, Carbon dioxide, Argon
Hertzsprung-Russll Diagrams
-a graph in which the spectral types of stars are plotted against their absolute magnitudes
conductors
materials that conduct electricity
-metals
semi conductors
materials that conduct some electricity
insulators
materials that do not conduct electricity
-non metals
atomic number equals
number of protons
mass number equals
combined number of protons and neutrons
Williard Frank Libby
physical chemist, famous for role in developing radiocarbon dating
nuclear fission
small nuclei combine to form larger nuclei
-power source for stars
kinematics
the study of motion without regard to its cause
Egyptian System
Thought that Mercury and Venus revolved around the sun and that whole system revolved around Earth
Nicolaus Copernicus
“Copernicun Revolution”
-placed sun at center of universe
-described the system’s mechanics using math
-published book of findings after death for fear of condemnation from church
Tycho Brache
-enabled kepler to form laws of planetary motion
-last naked-eye observer
-realized stellar paralax but ignored because he believed in geocentric model
Galileo Galilei
-first invented the telescope (saw moons, satelites, phases, sunspots)
-confirmed Copernican model
Kepler’s 1st law
The orbit of every planet is an eclipse with the sun at one of the two foci
Kepler’s 2nd law
A line joining a planet and the sun sweep our equal areas during equal periods of time
Kepler’s 3rd law
T^2=KR^3
centripetal force
force that makes a body follow a curved path, it’s direction is toward the fixed point in the instantaneous center of curvature of the path
centrifugal force
apparent outward force that draws a rotating body away from the center of rotation.
-caused by the inertia of the body as its path is continually redirected
-negative centripetal force (because of opposite direction)
energy
the capacity to do work
Leibiniz
-found that energy of mechanical systems is conserved so long as masses did not interact
-created equation for kinetic energy
von Mayer
-discovered that heat and mechanical work were both forms of energy
-found quatitative relationship between them
W=FxD
James Watt
-advanced the steam engine that avoided the waste of energy and radically improved the power, efficiency, cost-effectivness
Nicolas Leonard Sadi Carnot
Father of Thermodynamics
Developed the Carnot cycle by which a system is taken through a variety of different stages and returned to its initial stage. By going through this process, the system may do work on other parts, creating heat.
3 Forms of Energy Involved in the Steam Engine
Internal Energy (u)–sum of all the potential and kinetic energy of all the molecules in the system
Heat (q)–thermal energy related to temperature
Work (w)– w=f x d
isothermal
“same temp”
keeps system and surroundings the same temp, heat can flow through boundaries
Adabatic
two separate temps, donsn’t mix between system temp and surroundings temp
Clausius
Father of Entropy
Created the 2nd law of thermodynamics
2nd law of Thermodynamics
Algebraic sum of all the transformations occuring in a cyclical process can only be positive, or in extreme cases, equal to 0.

Suniverse= Ssystem + Ssurroundings > 0

Boltzman
S(entropy) = k(boltzman constant) ln W(# ways to arrange system’s components)
-mathematically showed that a system with relatively few equivalent ways to arrange its components has less disorder & lower entropy
3rd Law of Thermodynamics
a perfect crystal has zero entropy at a temp of abosolute 0
0 at 0K
Gibbs Free Energy (G)
Change in free energy of a system, is a measure of the spontantaity of the process and of the useful energy available from it
Entropy
a measure of the number of specific ways in which a system may be arranged, often taken to be a measure of “disorder” and randomness in a system
Supergiant Stars
Any of various very large bright stars, such as Betelgeuse or Rigel, having a luminosity that is thousands of times greater than that of the sun.
Giant Star
a very bright star of large diameter and low density (relative to the Sun)
Main Sequence Stars
The main sequence is a continuous and distinctive band of stars that appear on plots of stellar color versus brightness.
White Dwarf Stars
a faint star of enormous density
longitudinal wave
-waves are on same axis as propagation.
-sound waves are good example
isotope
atoms with same number of protons but different amounts of neutrons in their neuclei
law
scientific model that is used to explain many different sets of data
hypothesis
a tentative proposal of a scientific principle that atemps to explain meaningof a set of data collected in one experiment
Joseph Fraunhofer
discovered the solar spectrum
HR Diagram is a plot for..
luminosity vs temperature for stars
stars with large mass
have relatively short lives
theory
explains past events and cannot be used to make predictions
1st law of thermodynamics
delta U= delta q + delta w
conservation of energy law
enthalpy
measure of total energy of a thermodynamic system
change in heat in a system
Gibbs free energy
G= change in enthalpy – T (change in entropy)
measure of the amount of useful work a system can do
Alkane structure
Cn H2n+2
Alkene structure
Cn H2n
Alkynes structure
CnH2n-2
neutron-rich nuclides
-more neutrons than protons
-undergo beta decay
neutron-poor nuclides
-not a lot of neutrons left after match up with protons
-undergo positron decay or electron capture
heavy nuclides
-a lot more neutrons than protons
-undergo alpha decay
half life
time it takes for half of teh nuclei to decay
half life equation
Nt= number of nuclei at time t
N0=initial number of nuclei
(1/2)^n= number of half lives
Nt= N0 x (1/2)^n
mass defect
delta m= delta E/c^2
-the mass decrease that occurs when nucleons are united into a nucleus
-some mass of protons&neutrons is converted to energy to bind the nucleus
-used to calculate the nuclear binding energy
Newton’s 1st Law also known as…
Law of Inertia
planets from Big to Small
Jupiter
Saturn
Uranus
Neptune
Earth
Venus
Mars
Mercury
3rd Law of Thermodynamics also known as
Nearst Heat Theorem
endothermic reactions
-change in Enthalpy (heat) is positive
-absorbs heat
-breaking bonds
exothermic reactions
-change in Enthalpy (heat) is negative
-releases heat
-forms bonds
bond order
number of bonds / number of spaces
difference between condensation and additional polymers?
Condensation polymers lose small molecules in the midst of the reaction process (like water) but additional polymers bond together without the loss of any atoms or molecules

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