Greeks and East 2

Sent to reorganize Lydia, Darius sends him, tyrants removed, democracies established

Leads a preliminary land and naval expedition, campaign in Thrace and Thasos (silver mines here, economic impact); returns after fleet is destroyed near Mt. Athos, returns to Asia

Persian general
___ and Artaphernes begin campaign in 490 BCE, go from Phoenicia to the Levant, island hopping and many medize

Island Hopping Campaign
Datis and Artaphernes begin campaign in 490 BCE, go from Phoenicia to the Levant, island hopping and many medize

Samos medizes

Naxos–retribution for siege of Naxos, can’t surrender, have to pay the price, so the city is burned along with the temples, people flee or are imprisoned

Datis and Artaphernes’ fleet goes to Delos, sacrifices to Ahura Mazda (Apollo)

Datis and _____ begin campaign in 490 BCE, go from Phoenicia to the Levant, island hopping and many medize

Greco Persian Wars
Called this because it was told by the Greeks

Sources: Herodotus, Cornelius Nepos, Diodorus, Ctesias

Huge moment for the Greeks and an insignificant one for the Persians–nothing was different for the Persians they just ended expansion

Wrote the “Histories” about the Persian Wars; 5 books before starting discussion on wars, not just Ionian revolt to put these wheels in motion

Greek source for the Persian Wars

Cornelius Nepos
Greek source for the Persian Wars

Greek source for the Persian Wars

Worked for the Persians as a physician,
was Persian, still an inaccurate representation

His plans for invasion:
Reinstatement of Hippias in Athens
Pretext: burning of Sardis
Reality: Secure boarders of Empire–first campaign is not to conquer Greece

Siege of Eretria
Land in the south, end of its hay day

City besieged for 6 days

2 ___ betray the city, the temples and city are burned in retribution of Sardis

Survivors sent to Mesopotamia where they stay as a Greek community, Alexander the Great meets them and they are easternized

Battle of Marathon

Location of the fight was selected because of advice Hippias gave the Persians, said the people of Marathon will help them because his father was a tyrant there (Peisistratus)–Hippias doesn’t know that regional alliances have changed

Athenians and Plataeans are the only Greek states to unite for this, Miltiades is given supreme command, Themistocles, Callimachus, Aristides all generals under him

Battle Numbers: 10,000 Greeks versus 20,000 Persians; 2:1; Persians lightly armed which shows they were not there to conquer

Big victory for Athens, not so much for Persians

Spartans arrive the next day, after the fight. Athens come out as top dog. Saved democracy from the Athenians, strength of the military is demonstrated, confidence boost, admiration of other Greeks and Athenians

Persian psyche–none, Darius didn’t care, just a skirmish–shows problem with Greek interpretation; Darius was successful in his mission because he secured his borders and burned Eretria and Naxos, did what they set out to do

Darius Prepares for Egyptian campaign as they revolt 487, but dies 486

Commanding general of the Greek forces in the Greco-Persian Wars

Head Athenian general

Athenian general under Miltiades in the Greco Persian Wars

When find Laurium silver, says to use the new wealth to build a navy or “wooden wall;” his idea prevails and Aristides is ostracized

Anticipates a Persian retaliation
Athens given a prophecy that says Athens will be protected by a wooden wall

Athenian general under Miltiades in the Greco Persian Wars

When find Laurium silver, says to dole the new wealth out to the citizens, ostracized when his idea isn’t chosen

Ran a “Marathon”
Ran to Sparta from Athens, like 149 miles/2 days

Sent to convince Sparta to help this time, but they say they have a festival going on

Encounters Pan, running back to Athens, runs through Pan country who says if they set up a cult to him they will win the war

Son of Darius, succeeds without objection
Succession prepared in 490s by Darius

Important because there could have been a problem with his son’s ascension due to questions of his own (Darius) legitimacy

___ wants to annex Greece to go along with tradition of Persian kings expanding empire

Makes preparations for Greek invasion, personally lead expedition

Construction of bridges over the Hellespont, the first bridge was destroyed by a storm

Has the Hellespont flogged and fetters thrown in, whips the water, ritualistic

Invades with 80,000-200,000 men

Persian heralds arrive in Greece, many cities Medize (THEBES, ARGOS)–enemy of Athens and Sparta so like the idea of aligning with Persia, plus they thought Greece would lose

Attic silver mines here, rich vein found
Athenians spending the windfall they find
Aristides says to dole it out to the citizens
Themistocles says to build a navy/wooden wall, his idea prevails, Aristides ostracized
Athenian naval dominance because of this move

Greek warships, three banks of rowers, 50 oars per side, about 200 on ship

giant bronze bow/beak, ram hole into other ship

Hellenic League
481 Congress of Corinth has a meeting of 31 poleis who form this _____

Sparta is elected to lead the ___forces because of the great Spartan reputation, they want to fortify the Isthmus of Corinth

Second Congress 480, decide to fortify the VALE OF TEMPE (Macedonians show Xerxes this passage), decided to fortify the south which makes THESSALY Medize because they don’t want to leave home– which is a huge blow to the ____forces

Battle of Thermopylae
480 BC
City called “Hot Gates” because of their hot springs,

Leonidas and the 300 make their stand here, 5-10,000 Greeks block pass Persian forces 80-200,000

Wall built across pass– from a previous century–rebuilt it

3 days of attacks
–The Immortals–Xerxes’ special forces unit, every time one dies they are replaced immediately; Never lost until they met the Spartans

–Ephialtes–Local Greek who is bribed by Xerxes to show him a small mountain pass; Persians can get Greeks trapped because of this path, attack from both sides

Hoplites are heavily armed, Persians keep sending waves and Greeks cut them down

Battle of Thermopylae Spartan general who led the 300 Spartans against the greater Persian army

Sends all but the Spartans and Thespians home–300 Spartans and 700 Thespians face thousands of Persians

The Immortals
Xerxes’ special forces unit, every time one dies they are replaced immediately

Never lost until they met the Spartans

Local Greek who is bribed by Xerxes to show him a small mountain pass

Persians can get Greeks trapped because of this path, attack from both sides

Battle of Artemesium
Naval battle simultaneous with Battle of Thermopylae, the fleet who protects the Greek flank is engaged in battle

600-1200 Persians versus 300 Greeks; persian fleet destroyed by a storm again

Final battle–equal losses, after news of Thermopylae the Greeks retreat

Battle of Salamis
Greek fleets blockaded in the straits of ____
Athens occupied and burned, Xerxes burns the acropolis
Persian fleet 700-1000 versus 110-375 Greek; Greeks minimize disadvantage of numbers by taking advantage of mountainous terrain

Total Greek Victory

Corinth makes it look like their fleet is fleeing so the Persians think they’re bailing and then the Corinthian and Athenian ships attack, really bad Persian navy loss

Battle of Plataea
Mardonios fortified camp near Asopus (River in Boeotia)

Greeks marshal opposite–outnumbered 2 or 3:1

Pausanias of Sparta leads them to a victory, height of Sparta fighting

Athens fights Thebes, Spartans fight Persians, Xerxes not here bc after Salamis he went home to deal with Babylonian revolt; doesn’t invade Greece again until Ottomans

Total Greek Victory, end of second Persian invasion, end of Greco Persian Wars

Battle of Mycale
On the same day as the Battle of Plataea

Greek fleet under Spartan leadership

Leotychidas of Sparta pursues Persians, follows them to Ionian coast to make sure the Persians don’t rebuild their navy

Greeks secure their victory here

Aftermath of ___–Athenians loot the camp, destroy ships; Spartan contingents return home; Athenians stay behind and fortify;continue to get persians out of Sestos
–Siege of Sestos 479, Herodotus ends the Histories with this event, Athenians attack this Persian threshold, not defensive moves anymore, Athens in charade, leads to their empire

General of Sparta pursues Persians in the Battle of Mycale, follows them to Ionian coast to make sure the Persians don’t rebuild their navy

Siege of Byzantium
Final action of the Hellenic League
Revolt of the Ionian Greeks
Pausanias of Sparta removes the Spartan presence, ends the Hellenic League but he rules harshly and cruelly, doesn’t work, corruption

Athens takes over

_____ besieged

Delian League
Problems with Pausanias, Athens assumes control of Hellenic League

Athens creates the _____, as a defensive Greek alliance of mostly islands

Delos is the center

Say we need this league, band together and help protect against Persian attacks, say they’re all equal, contribute ships or money to the ___

____of the Persian Invasion

Sparta–reputation and mystique solidified, 300 Spartans held off Persians

Greek interactions with the East are limited until the end of the century, now Greeks fight each other for like 150 years 431–Pelop War

___Returns after Battle of Salamis, puts down revolt in Babylonia
Sources for remainder of his reign are fragmentary, little known

Much time spent on building projects

Hall of 200 columns, apandana (audience hall) at Persepolis

Assassinated in 465 in a plot by his son Artaxerxes I

Artaxerxes I
Son of Xerxes, plotted an assassination against his father


Doesn’t deal with the Greeks, just keep them fighting one another

Darius Ii
Son of Artaxerxes I
Keeps Greeks fighting each other

Revolt of Inaros
Revolt in Egypt
____king of Lybians, he and Amyrtaeus of Sais revolt agains the Persians

Chartimides of Athens brings 200 ships and helps ___revolt; initial Greek Victory

King defeated and killed by Persians

Helps Inaros revolt against the Persians in Egypt

King of Sais, gets help from Athenians, initial Greek victory

general of Athens, helps Inaros and Amyrtaeus revolt against Persians in Egypt

Defeated and killed by Persians

Persian commander in the Revolt of Inaros

Rebels besieged, Athenian navy is annihilated and Charitimides is killed, Inaros is executed

Persians regain foothold in East Aegean, this is when the Delian treasury is moved to Athens because Athenians says the Persian access to the Aegean leaves the treasury vulnerable

Persians crucify and impale people to make a public statement, Persians solidify Egypt and now have access to the Aegean

Peace of Callias
Mentioned in 4th century sources

Terms: Athens withdraws support from Egypt and Cyprus, and the Persians vow to not intervene with cities in the Delian League

Problem is that no 5th century source talks about this peace, might have been a more informal peace

___of Athens, concerned with mainland rivals, anti spartan, considered Persian are over so changed the politics to Greek matters

Begins building project in 449 (Parthenon), completing transition of Delian League into Athenian Empire

by the mid 4th century, Athens is not concerned with Persia

Athenian Empire
Pericles helps transition the Delian league into the ___

Member states forced to remain a part and pay tribute, Athens becomes major naval empire

Peloponnesian War
Athenian Empire versus Sparta and its allies
Scope: Entire Greek world including Sicily and Magna Graecia
Result: Athenian defeat, fall of the empire

Spartan hegemony starts (404-371)

Spartan Hegemony
Result of the Peloponnesian War, as far as government
____ are the big dogs not

____of the Pelop War

Economic: trade infrastructure was damages, depletion of merchant vessels, ill will after 3 generation of conflict calls for a reluctance to trade, hoplite mercenaries are a big population (a lot leftover, entire life was being a soldier, Persians have money to hire them)

Inter greek trade badly damaged

Artaxerxes II
Darius II appoints him aka Arsaces, his son, successor in 404, takes throne with this name

system of succession is dependent on who king chooses as successor, not necessarily first born (but he is first born in this case)

reigns 404-358

Immediately challenged by his brother Cyrus, Queen mother and wife of Darius II favors Cyrus

Gives his brother the satrapy in Lydia

Cyrus the Younger
Son of Darius II, younger brother of Artaxerxes II, challenges his brother’s reign immediately with the help and favor of the Queen mother Parysatis

Given the satrapy of Lydia, is actually a better ruler than Artaxerxes

His plot versus Artaxerxes is revealed by Tissaphernes, but is pardoned by Artaxerxes because Parysatis tells him to

___gathers an army including 10,000 Greek mercenaries; pretext: quarrel with Tissaphernes over Ionia; reality: march against Artaxerxes

Queen mother of Artaxerxes II and Cyrus the Younger

Favors Cyrus, when he plots to kill his brother she convinces Artaxerxes to pardon him

Replaced by Cyrus the Younger as satrap of Lydia, lets Artaxerxes know of the plot Cyrus has against his life

Quarrels with Cyrus over Ionia, Cyrus marches an army against him and Artaxerxes

Battle of Cunaxa
401 Artaxerxes versus Cyrus, fight for the throne

The Ten Thousand march with Cyrus

Initial victory for Cyrus, charge against Artaxerxes, cyrus’ army flees

Artaxerxes is wounded, has secured the throne–Cyrus sees him going back and takes off after him and is killed

Artaxerxes remains king

One of the first battles to have eyewitnesses from both sides

The Ten Thousand
Greek Mercenaries hired by Cyrus, come on the right flank of Cyrus, under leadership of Clearchos of Sparta

After Cyrus dies, their ruler is dead and they fought the king so they were trapped in the heart of the empire; deal was made, their generals were executed

New leaders were elected by Greeks, including Xenophon

Decisions made about tactics, diplomacy etc, like a moving CITY STATE

Begin marching north toward the Black Sea, Artaxerxes doesn’t do anything to stop them, no one wants to mess with them, March of _____

general of Sparta, leader of the Ten Thousand who march with Cyrus against Artaxerxes

Tissaphernes retreats, Greeks fail to attack Persian center, Greeks still win though

of Athens, witnessed the Battle of Cunaxa, under Clearchos

Wrote “ANABASIS” about expedition of the Ten Thousand because he was one of them

Student of Socrates, well educated mercenary

Ctesias was the eyewitness for the Persian count, physician of Artaxerxes

Written by Xenophon of Athens, Account of the Ten Thousand, Eyewitness account

March of the Ten Thousand
Begin marching north toward the Black Sea, Artaxerxes doesn’t do anything to stop them, no one wants to mess with them

Consequences of the campaign on Greek thought:
–Greeks were victorious at Cunaxa, the Greek army marches through the heart of the Persian Empire, Army was unopposed in direct battle
–First time a Greek army won in the heart of Persian empire, shows the Greeks that their forces are superior

Impact on later generations–Alexander sees this as persia being week, reason to invade

Greeks in Anatolia
Spent a lot of time with Hittites
Alaksandu (Alexander/Paris) and Ahhiyawa (Achaeans) found in Hittite documents

Greeks in Anatolia
___, son of Hellen, descendent of Deucalion–trace their lineage back to him

From Thessaly

Dorian Invasion–People stop speaking ____ in the center of Thessaly, _____ go to coast, still speak it

Boeotians–subgroup of ____, many still speak ____

Northern Asia Minor speaks ___

Son of Hellen, descendent of Deucalion

All ____trace their lineage back to him

–Mysia, Lydia, Ionia

Major Cities:
–Cyme, Smyrna, Pergamum, Lesbos

Smyrna–becomes Ionian in Archaic period

Pergamum–Hellenistic kingdom, founded by Aeolians, becomes powerful after Alex, becomes most powerful kingdom in Anatolia


____son of Xuthus
From the northern Peloponnese
Dorian Invasion forces them out
Connection to Athens, oracle tells ___ to go to Ionia

Ion son of Xuthus
From the northern Peloponnese
Dorian Invasion forces them out
Connection to Athens, oracle tells Ion to go to Ionia

Interaction with Easterners, especially Carians

–Aeolis, Lydia, Caria

Major Cities:
–Chios, Samos

Dark age invaders?
–post invasion settlements of Rhodes, Southern Asia Minor, Sicily

____ vs Ionians in the Pelop War

Interactions with easterners, especially Carians

Sons of Hercules, later come back through the Dorian Invasion after they were kicked out of mainland Greece initially

–Multicultural melting pot (Carians and Greeks)
–Dorian colony in Caria
***Capital of Kingdom of Caria
Artemesia of Caria, Mausolus of Caria, Herodotus, and Scylax from here

from Caria/Halicarnassus

Queen, sends a large navy for the Persian wars

from Caria/Halicarnassus

great king/satrap of Caria in 4th c, doesn’t pay tribute to Persian Empire but is a part of it

Built a “mausoleum,” his was one of the 7 ancient wonders, in Halicarnassus

Ionian Enlightenment
Birth of Philosophy
Presocratics in 6th C
School of Miletus
–Thales, Anaximander, Pythagoras

First Philosopher
Part of Ionian enlightenment

First prose writer
Part of Ionian enlightenment

of Samos
Part of the Ionian enlightenment

Babylonian Astronomers
wrote astronomical diaries, part of the Ionian Enlightenment

Priests of Iran of ahura mazda, Zoroastrian priests

wrote about theology and cosmology

Greeks take the middle east information and make it their own, like with cosmology and constellations making gods

First geographer. 6th c, father of geography

And first prose writer

First World Map
Eastern influences (Egypt and Lydia) like the Babylonian world map with the ocean in a circle around the world

of Miletus, early 5th c

First Historian

emphasizes what happens in these places

wrote the “Aethiopika”

of Lesbos, 5th c
part of the ionian historiographical tradition
Over 30 works

Ionian Historiographical Tradition
Anaximander, Hectaeus, Hellanicus, Herodotus, Ctesias are all a part of this tradition

different from history, not scientific analysis like today, they relate a lot of folk tales, meant to entertain and inform, love the supernatural

Started in Cos and Cnidus
Was a hereditary field, father and sons

Rival schools of _____ between Cos and Cnidus

Asclepiadae–sons of Aesclepias

Best to treat the symptoms or individuals?

Hippocrates of Cos–Hippocratic corpus still used today

Ctesias of Cnidus–mentions Hipp, only have a few of his ___ treatises

Influences on the Egyptians, inherited this from Egyptian doctors, Persian kings originally had all Egyptian doctors, 5th century changes this, Greek doctors become the more advanced/valued

Were considered the help, not axaulted

Sons of Asclepias, trace lineage to him, god of medicine

becomes a more generic term later

Origins in the Middle East

Use of speech to teach virtue (arete)

Itinerant teachers–pay for their services

Development of Greek–Athenian oratory

from Halicarnassus, Father of History

Ancient Geography
Early conceptions of the world
Homer–the Shield of Achilles
—Homer as the first ____ (the Odyssey), Odysseus traveled to all those places, explored the world, shows Greek interest in ____

Shield of Achilles
Homer writes about it, ____has his own weapons and gives them to Patroclus, fights over them and Achilles needs new ____, on the new___ is a depiction of the world

Homer as the first geographer

Babylonian Map
____of the world 9th c
shows a depiction of ocean in a circle around the world, influences later maps/geographers like Anaximander of Miletus

“Navel of the World”, Rock that Cronus swallowed

Zeus sends his two eagles and they meet at this point in the “center” of the world

Hellenocentric description of the world

Mediterranean–“Middle of the World”

of Miletus 550-476

Wrote the first “Periodos Ges”–“Voyage Around the World”
–Maps Gibraltar to India (map of the world)
–Improvement on Anaximander’s map, a bit more knowledge
–is in 2 books
–his travels, visits Egypt
–Account of the inhabited world (Oikoumene=the inhabited civilized world)
–Focus on tribes and geographical attributes
–Skepticism about the myths and folk tales of these people, he reports them but doesn’t believe them
–Influence on Herodotus, he does the same thing/methodology

Periodos Ges
Written by Hecataeus of Miletus
“Voyage Around the World”

Inhabited civilized world
Hecataeus travels to these areas

The Histories
written by Herodotus
His personal travels to places like Egypt and Anatolia
Geographical descriptions of places
Descriptions of distant lands and peoples like Aethiopia
Get Thermopylae wrong, relies on local understandings, fanciful monstrous place like India

Of Samos, Greek Explorer, 7th

First Greek to reach the Pillars of Heracles (Gibraltar)

Trade route to Iberia established after his exploration, discover they have a lot of tin here so it becomes popular

Greek Explorers
Colaeus of Samos

Massaliote Periplous
6th c work
–Geographical handbook for lost merchants
–Description of trade maritime routes to British Isles

Awe and interest in new cultures

6th c Greek Explorer

Reached coastal Africa (Senegal) where Hanno the Carthaginian explore went

4th c, Greek explorer
Reached Northern British Isles and Arctic Circle

maps and circumnavigates the Arctic circle

of Caryanda, Greek explorer

Voyage along the Indus Valley (Darius I) Herodotus doesn’t say anything else about him

Possibly authored a treatise

Later fame–Pseudo ___ 4th c

Know a little about him, a lot attributed to him is fabricated

Greek term for non Greeks, initially their term for Persian

Greek superiority, Greek fascination

Less civilized the farther you go from Greece

Ancient Greek conceptions of the world and its nations, Greece as the center of the world and civilization

Uncivilized customs of the ___
–different language, diet, dress
–unmixed wine
–lifestyle corrupted by luxury

Edges of the known world

East–Aethiopia, Arabia, India, Scythia

N&West–N Europe, Spain, Gibraltar

Natural barriers that form the borders of inhabited land

Monstrous races, marvels, natural wonders

Inversion of normalcy–hybrids of humans and animals, extreme sizes

Beliefs in monsters of the ___
distance from the Greek world, little empirical evidence, accepted by even rational minds like Herodotus

North Eschatiai
Northern Asia, NE Europe
Northern boundary of the known world

The term ____ is a broad term used for a variety of Iranian nomadic tribes

Use of the term by the Greeks
Scythians for N Europe part
Use of the term by Persians, use for all of them

Asian Sythians

European Scythians
North the of the Black Sea (Ukraine, South Russia)

Nomadic tribe, one ruling dynasty?
Herodotus and Strabo are our Greek sources for them

Early Kindgom 7thc, first hay day
N&E Black Sea, expulsion of the Cimmerians, conquest of Caucasus, conquest of Media

Early Kingdom
7th c hay day for the European Scythians

Early 6th c
Scythian philosopher (half Greek, half civilized)
Travels to Athens (citizenship)
Meetings with Solon the Lawgiver

Wrote the “Schythian Discourse” father of this quick Pythian responses, quick response of the opposite, short and to the point

Scythian Discourse
Written by Anacharsis
Writings about Sythia
quick and short to the point responses

Darius the Great
512 BC

Crosses the Hellespont and Danube

Reaches the Volga River with little opposition

Retreat, scorched earth policy by the Scyths, don’t have farms so they go where the crops are, this is troublesome for Darius, almost dies here

512 BC
Campaign of Darius the Great

4th C Empire
Scythians become more sedentary
–trade with Greek settlements
–leaders in slave trade

Customs of the Western Scyths
–Great horsemanship
–Strange customs, human sacrifice, hemp usage, Amazons

Strange Customs
–Androphagoi (Man Eaters), use of human bones, skin

Unifies the Scythian tribes

Expansion into Thrace and Balkans–defeat by Philip of Macedon near the Danube

Asian Scythians
Central Asiatic Steppe
Several distinct but related nomadic tribes

Bisitun Monument
4 Scythian tribes mentioned on it

Saka tigraxauda–with the pointed hat

Saka para Sugdum–in Sogdiana

Upper Nile (South) and Sub Sahara

First mentioned in Homer
Hecataeus’ “Aethiopika” fragmentary, history of ___
Herodotus referenced Hecat, but disagreed, gets more detail because he’s asking questions

East ____–India
West ___

Locations of marvelous tribes and creatures

8th-7th centuries

Herodotus’ Aethiopia, border with Egypt,

Meroe–Nubians capital, North Aethiopia,

Capital of Nubia, Kushites

East of Nubia, said to have no head but faces in their chests

What Greeks and Egyptians thought

Topoi of the eschatiai–people of longevity with lots of gold, extreme places of the world

Aethiopia in legend and myth
Homer writes about him

Son of Zeus and Io, story related to the city of Memphis, maybe married to someone named Memphis

Homer says Aethiopians are dark skinned but are Greeks

Father of Andromeda, Aethiopian king,gives daughter as an offering to a monster, rescued by Perseus

Was in Asia actually, forced to Aethiopia

Aethiopia in legend and myth

Asiatic Aethiopia
Jatta and Phoenicia
On the coast of North Africa and between Asia Minor

work that is a part of the Epic Cycle, describes Memnon which was the king of Aethiopia, killed by Achilles

King of Aethiopia
Described in the “Aethiopis”
Son of Eos
Killed by Achilles
Later described as African Aethiopian

Egyptian Priest
Writes the “Aegyptiaka” fragmentary, one who divides Egypt into dynasties**

Greeks on Egypt (Herodotus, ____, Diodorus)
3rd C
Used Greek for the official language, so he writes in Greece even though he was Egyptian

of Sicily, Greek source on Egypt

1st c BC

trade relations with Egypt in the BA

Earliest encounters with Egypt

See Egyptian influence on ____architecture and painting

Renewed contact after the Dark Ages

Two Indias
Idea in the Middle Ages, Greeks write a lot about this land of the marvelous until the 16th c

Indus valley and the greater subcontinent

Who led the first Persian invasion of Greece

Athenian general under Miltiades during the Persian Wars, convinced Athens to use wealth from Laurium silver mines to create a great navy or wooden wall, important for their success as an empire

of Sparta, leader of the Greek forces at the Battle of Plataea

The Immortals
The Persian elite special forces unit

T/F In the mid fifth century Athens lost nearly 200 ships aiding the Revolt of Inaros

T/F The Peace of Callias was signed by Sparta and Athens to end the Peloponnesian War

The one battle from the ancient world of which we have two eyewitnesses accounts from either side

Cyrus the Younger
son of Darius II and Patysatis, immediately challenges older brother Artaxerxes II, given the satrapy of Lydia, tries to get power at Battle of Cunaxa with the help of the Ten Thousand, dies

of the March of the Ten Thousand
Greeks get too confident, see the unmatched Ten Thousand marching through the heart of the Persian Empire as a sign of their superiority, Alexander uses this later

Dealing with Sparta
As leader of the democracy in Athens in the 5th C, Pericles focused most of his attention on____

Capital of Caria, great multicultural and multiethnic city, Herodotus and other historians/philosophers from here

Creator of the first Greek world map

Which was one of the two centers for Greek medicine

Ionian Enlightenment
Herodotus, Hecataeus, and other historians and philosophers from Ionia, start of geography and history in this region

of Miletus, first historian, wrote the Periodus Ges “Voyage around the world”

T/F Pytheas circumnavigated the British Isles

of Samos, Greek explorer, went to the Pillars of Heracles

T/F Certain tribes of the Scythians were said to be cannibals

Scythian philosopher who visited Athens

edges of the known inhabited world, created by natural borders, places like Scythia and Aethiopia

People in Aethiopia who were said to have no heads but faces in their chests

Greek and Persian term for Scythians, Asiatic Scythians

of Caryanda, journey to Indus Valley, no knowledge of the subcontinent of India, only the Indus Valley
No one mentions anything he wrote, thought it circulated in Greek but Herodotus never indicates he wrote anything, just told stories
Later things attributed to him falsely

of Miletus, fragmentary work, mentions India briefly as a satrapy

Provides the first detailed look at India, still brief
Writes about India as a land of proverbial wealth, land produces wealth, Utopian
Animals of unusual size, longevity too, these Homeric figures put on the edge of the world

of Cnidus, wrote the Indika
Nature of the work–corroboration of Greek beliefs and fantasy
Resident at the Persian Court (5th-4th C)

Sources for India
Travelers–Indians, Bactrian merchants, the Silk Road

The Silk Road
Plays a role in the perception of Indians, Bactrians control it, transfer ideas about the goods and peoples of India along this route

Bactria as the biggest entry to the west, play a big role on this route

Bactrian merchants push this idea of India fantasy, create stories to to make their merchandise more exotic and expensive

Land of India
Indus Valley, Sindhu is a river and stream
Greek view of India as the largest place on Earth, Ctesias says India is the largest place

Artifacts from India
Gold, silver, tin, iron-abundant
Perfumes–unmatched aroma
Foods–cheese, wine

Exotic other, difficult and hard to obtain, better

Gold of India
Found in the desert according to Herodotus
Mines in the mountains according to Ctesias
Guardians who kill you if they try to get the ___, Gold digging Ants (Herod) Gold Guarding Griffins (Ctesias)
Fantastic locations

Sardonyx, onyx
Emerald (Smaragdus)
Amber from the Siptachora tree
Pantarbe stone

Amber from this tree, sap goes into water and becomes solid, only happens 30 days a year


Stone, Magnetic properties, used to retrieve other gemstones


Indian Reeds
Enormous size, make canoes from them

Indian Flora
Palms and dates three times the size of Babylonian ones, Date wine of great quality, sweetest of all

Magnetic roots
Uses–attracting gold, silver, etc
Used for hunting
Medicinal uses–given for bowel irritation

Scented Rose, oils for perfume
reserved for royalty
smell from a mile away, finest perfume

Miraculous Springs
Greek Topos–water paradoxographers list the marvels
Fantastic produce, health benefits like healing springs

Spring of Liquid Gold–uses of iron from the bottom

Lake near the Pygmies–gathering of oil, quality

Land gives freely and better quality

Spring of solidifying water–truth serum

Sila (River or Spring)–everything sinks, relaying authentic Indian tradition Greeks not making it up

Miraculous springs of India

Repulses whatever goes in except gold, etc

Gold sinks to the bottom, everything else floats

Uses–clears leprosy and mange, cures specific ailment

Indian Fauna
Excessive size (large or small)

Hybrids multi-species, human characteristics, these things are believed to actually live here

Completely fantastic–were all hybrids make believe? no, some based on real animals seen for the first time by them, exist on some level , some completely false

Indian roosters are small
Indian dogs are massive and fight lions
Gold guarding ants
livestock of the pygmies are small

Common animals with one attribute at different or unusual size–fat tailed sheep, monkeys with exceedingly long tails

Indian Elephant
First western account of these by Ctesias, reliable descriptions of marvelous creatures

Ctesias is the first westerner to see this

Enormous size and strength, Autopsy done

Manhout in Babylon is a trainer of these

Influence–Aristotle uses this information from Ctesias’ account

Ctesias earliest account
Accuracy, methods still used today
Did Ctesias see this first hand?

Basis for Greek Reports
Autopsy–reliable accounts, can actually see them, good detail, if you see some marvels then why wouldn’t the others exist

Oral Tales–highly unreliable, how fantastic descriptions of beasts arise, what types of creatures tend to get embellished , animals that are feared, a lot of it is fear aspect, tends to be the scary creatures that are embellished

Bittakos, Psittakos
Ctesias first hand witness to marvel, was brought to the Persian palace, talks, colorful, never seen before, speaks Persian because it was brought by a Persian merchant

Possibly the plum headed parakeet

Fantastic Creatures
Properties of these
Magical properties–health and medical benefits, poison sometimes

Hybrids–Reasons for lack of autopsy because they are too dangerous, fierceness, hard to reach locations, rarity or distant location

Ordinary creatures with marvelous attributes
–The serpent:
Amber venom if you drain the snake while alive and die immediately, black venom from dead snake die within a year

Ctesias gives first western account, real zoology mixed with fantasy

“Indian Ass” white with crimson head, donkey, tri colored horn

Magical properties of the horn (cure for epilepsy and poison)

Methods of hunting–rhinos hunted for magical properties of the horn, cups fashioned from horns

Basis for reality–Indian Rhino? some think antelope or gazelle, Megasthenes lives in India and says there is a three band horn

aka Martichora
Hybrid feline, human face, scorpion tail

Fierceness and fighting abilities, methods of hunting–had to do on an elephant because they were impervious to the needles shot out

Basis–possibly a tiger, Pausanias said he thinks it was a tiger and the name comes from the Persian word for man-eater which is what Indians called tigers, did Ctesias really see one, said it had a huge face and made trumpet noise, if he saw one it would have been caged

Tale becomes more elaborate, middle age adds wings to it

Avian and feline attributes–bird headed

Gold miners, live where gold is, guard their nests, think miners are coming for their young

Hunting them–only hunt the young, can only catch them when young, too ferocious when grown, can only go out at night to get gold

Always have a guardian aspect, status to guard doors and tombs

Indus Worm
Enormous size, only two teeth
feeds on oxen, camels, etc

Methods of hunting–tie goat to chain and wait

Oil from their fat is combustible, use as a weapon, kill it and make and oil from it, impervious to water

Maybe a crocodile is the basis, but they’ve seen it, so crocodile like thing

Dikairon Bird
Roll up dung ball like dung beetle, collect dung from birds, good poison because you blissfully die, royalty would administer to themselves for a peaceful death if become ill

Peoples of India
Longevity (up to 200 years)–typical of distant places live longer, better, land produces abundance Utopian, but still uncivilized

Just nature–great warriors, just, loyal, don’t steal, immune to certain illness

Physical characteristics–skin color, equated with Aethiopians, Ctesias says he saw light skinned Indians, not burned by the sun, just by nature

Fantastic characteristics–hybrids, size, etc

Other races with fantastic attributes–tribe with no anus when young, tribe with white hair when young and black when old, tribe with 8 finger and toes, inversion of normal

Homeric ____ fought cranes, placed in Aethiopia originally

Indian ____–Ctesias tells this story, not like Homeric story, Physical description–says they’re ugly, short, stub noses, Unusual Clothing–older ones grow hair long and belt it, use as clothes, genitalia is large

Megasthenes–reconciles two traditions, lives in India, describes Ctesias’ Indian ___ and also says they fought cranes

Dog Heads
Location–live in mountains of Indus, because no one goes there

Human Hybrids–speech (howl), diet (semi cooked meat), sexual habits (like dogs)

Confusion with Cynamolgoi (Dog Milkers) tribe of people who live specifically off of dog milk

Tribe with one unusual characteristic

One leg

Trib with one unusual characteristic

Shadow feet, use feet as shield from the sun

Confusion of this tribe with the Monocoli by the later sources, this tribe later has one large foot

Tribe with one unusual characteristic

Huge ears, sleep with ears as blankets

could be real, exaggeration of tribes who gage their ears, kernel of truth

Alexander in India
Crossing of the Indus
Battle of the Hydaspes

Mutiny of the Hyphasis–farthest point east the Greeks get, forced to go down the Indus because troops refuse to cross the mountains

Crosses Indus, wants to see the land of fantasy, wants to get to end of the word, 4th C Alexander and troops first to see Indians

Battle of Hydaspes
Alexander in India
326 BC against King Porus of the kingdom on the banks of the ____ River (Jhelum river)

Most costly battle because the crossing of the monsoon swollen river, complete Macedonian victory and the annexation of the Punjab

Mutiny of the Hyphasis
Beas, Alexander in India

Alexander continues to conquer east Persian empire, his army mutinies at the _____ River (Beas River) and refuses to march further east, this making this river the eastern most extent of Alexander’s conquest

forced to go down the Indus because troops refuse to cross mountains

Admiral of Alexander the Great
Similar route as Scylax

Voyage of____

Fighting and resistance by the natives, seen as exotic tribes

Other hardships–hunger and supply shortages, not the utopian India they heard of

Impact of the Voyage
–first definitive Greek accounts of the region
–New insight into customs, peoples, etc
–fantastic elements remain, didn’t get to the places where these things live, didn’t reach it

Served under Seleucus I after Alexander

Ambassador to Chandragupta Maurya, conflict between empires, gets way past where other Greeks went, writes about it

Greek diplomat, important source for India and Maurya dynasty

Indika–fragmentary, nature of the work–autopsy versus oral reports, impact of Greek tradition on accounts of Heracles and Dionysus–India isn’t just fantastic, was visited by Heracles and Dionysus in myth, cults here

Indika describes the history of India and was a major source from which Arrian drew from on his own Indika

Chandragupta Maurya
Sandrocottus–Greek name for him

Founder of the ___ Empire and the first emperor to unify most of Greater India into one state.

Known in the Hellenistic world for conquering Alexander’s easternmost satrapies, and defeating Seleucus I in battle

Married Seleucus’ daughter to formalize an alliance and established a policy of friendship with the Hellenistic kingdoms, which stimulated Indias trade and contact with the western world.

Greek diplomat Megasthenes visited the ___ capital and is an important source of ___ history

Periplous of Erythraean Sea
Manual for merchants, don’t know anything about the author

Means Red Sea, written by anonymous

Trade relations facilitated by Silk Road

Name for the Red Sea, Persian, Gulf, Indian Ocean, all of this is the red sea to them

Nature of the work–trading, where to get goods, maritime, unusual people and food

Pliny the Elder
1st C AD Added to the Roman views of India

Becomes the primary source for these manticores and marvels because people forgot Greeks read Latin sources

Continuity of Greek views (marvels, continue India as fantasy land)

3rd c AD Added to the Roman views of India

Continuity of Greek views, marvels, continue India as fantasy land

Sassanid Empire
3rd-7th C

Succeeded the Parthian Empire, which was main power in western Asia

Decline of Indo Roman trade

Trade from India and contact lost, becomes unreachable place again

Of Seville

7th C wrote the Etymologiae
Medieval Encyclopedias

Medieval views of India, continuity of classical views, impact of Christianity

Written by Isidore of Seville, medieval encyclopedias

Marco Polo
medieval traveller
13th C
wrote Il Milione

Goes to China, passes India

Accounts of India and its marvels, Cynocephaloi and Pygmies says they’re mummified monkeys and live in the islands

Il Milione
Written by Marco Polo, medieval travelers, 13th C, goes to China and passes India, accounts India and its marvels

John Mandeville
14th C traveler
Plagiarism of classical account, exactly what Ctesias and Megasthenes said, to modern people this stuff was believed

Sebastian Munster
16th c wrote the “Cosmographia”
Discovery of the Americas (New India), new Eschatiai

Earliest German description of the world

German cartographer and cosmographer

Written by Sebastian Munster, 16th c

earliest German description of the world

Discovery of the Americas, new India

Joseph Francois Laufitau
18th C
French Jesuit missionary and naturalist, discovery of ginseng, writings on the Iroquois

Discovery of the Americas, New India

Psammetichus I
Psamtik 664-619 BC

King of Egypt

Offended all the other kings of Egypt and got exiled, came in contact with Greek mercenaries, Ionians and Carians, hires them to push Assyrian influence out of Egypt for a while

Keeps the Greek mercenaries (Ionians and Carians) around because they are a great force to have if there is an attack;

Egypt is fairly unstable, needed some force completely disconnected from the Egyptian social structure to maintain authority;

Positive relationship with the Greeks, maintains a great deal of trade with the Greek isles to create a sense of economic dependence

Greek Mercenaries
Ionians and Carians
Pirates brought in by storm
Settlement in two camps on the Pelusian Nile (East)

First foreign settlers in Egypt

Necho II
King of Egypt, son of Psammetichus

Educated by Greeks, construction projects, sent out an expedition of Phoenicians which sailed from the Red Sea around Africa to the Nile


King of Egypt

Employed descendants of Greek mercenaries

War with Amasis II and defeat, bad defeat, people revolt against ___

___ sends Amasis to deal with it, Egyptian soldiers claim Amasis pharaoh and form a coup, defeat ___ Greek Mercenaries and Amasis rules as Amasis II

Amasis II
War with Apries and victory
Apries sends him to deal with people revolt, Egyptian soldiers claim ___ pharaoh and form a coup, defeats Apries and his Greek Mercenaries, rules

Policies with the Greeks:
Naucratis–city, likely a foreign emporium of some time before, gives this city to the Greeks, pays to relocate all of them
Ladice of Cyrene–marries the daughter/princess of Cyrene which they once warred with

Foreign emporium of some time before, Amasis gives this city to the Greeks, pays to relocate all of them, in Egypt

Greek run city, major trading center (emporium)

Maintain contacts with Greek world, proto-Alexandria

Amasis controls the Greeks in Egypt this way, keep them isolated

Amasis gave the Greeks money to build this city

Melting pot of ethnicities–Greeks, Phoenicians, Carians, Egyptians

Renown center for prostitution

Herodotus Book 2
5th C
Travels to Egypt–Memphis and Thebes—main sources for him are the Theban priests of Hephaestus/Egyptian Ta

Value as a source for Egyptology, mixture of fact and legend

Book __ is entirely about Egypt

Three “Logoi”
–Egyptian Geography
–Customs and Animals

Also recognizes the alluvial nature of the Nile Valley, discussion on the floods, rejects certain theories

Psammetichus’ experiment with language
Attempt to determine the oldest race, which this Egyptian king said was the Phrygians based on this ____

Takes children to shepherd, don’t talk around them, end up speaking after 2 years, kids say “bekas” which is the Phrygian word for bread, so he determines that’s the oldest language and race

Egyptian Customs
Herodotus writes about them

Opposite those of the Greeks, focus on these inversions

Women work outdoors in the market

Men work indoors weaving

Egyptian Religion
Herodotus writes about this in Book 2

Diet and practices of the Egyptian priests (completely shaven, can’t eat fish or beans)

Have sacred animals like the Apis Bull, Cows (Isis), and cats

Fantastic creatures honored–crocodile, hippo, phoenix

Herodotus says Heracles was an Egyptian god who became a Greek hero

People of Mendes had a reverence for the Greek got Pan, cult center of Banebdjedet (Ram God)

Origins of Greek rituals like divination and purification from Egypt

Equates Greek and Egyptian gods, Zeus-Ammon and Helios-Atmun

Says Greeks got their religion from Egyptians, says his Greek religion is the lesser one–which is odd

Herodotus says he was an Egyptian god who later became a Greek hero

Says Greeks got their religion from the Egyptians, says his Greek religion is the lesser one–odd

Egyptian History
Herodotus talks about this in Book 2

Arrival of Helen and Paris after the fall of Troy–Paris kidnaps Helen and is going back to Troy by way of Egypt, PROTEUS initially arrest Paris but then lets him go and keeps Helen

Different version from Homer

Fairly accurate account of early Egyptian history like the account of the pyramids (incorrect dating though), provides other narrative legends that are inaccurate

Later history–accounts of Psammetichus and Amasis, emphasis on Naucratis and the Greeks, more reliable information on this

Neith and Athena
The first is an early Egyptian goddess and was the patron deity of Sais, where her cult was centered in the western Nile delta

Goddess of war and hunting, virgin mother goddess, weaving

Herodotus says that the Egyptian citizens of Sais in Egypt worshipped ___ and identified her with the Greek goddess ____ possibly as a result of the identification of both goddesses with war and weaving

Foundation of Sais
Herodotus and Diodorus recount that Athena built this city before the deluge that supposedly destroyed Athens and Atlantis. While all the Greek cities were destroyed during this flood, the Egyptian cities including___survived.

Foundation of Heliopolis
City of the Sun, City of Helios
one of the oldest cities of ancient Egypt
Worship focused on Atman
Main cult of Ra

Built by Actis, who was the son of Helios who killed one of his brothers and fled to Egypt and founded this city

one of the Heliadae, son of Rhodos and Helios

He and three of his brothers were jealous of the fifth brother Tenages’ skill at science so they killed him. ___ escaped to Egypt and according to Diodorus and Herodotus built the city of Heliopolis in Egypt to honor his father Helios

It was from him that the Egyptians learned astrology

The seven sons of Helios and Rhode and grandsons of Poseidon

They were expert astrologers and seafarers, and were first to introduce sacrifices to Athena at Rhodes

Actis and Tenages are the main ones, Actis and three other brothers kills Tenages out of jealousy, they have to flee Rhodes, Actis goes to Egypt

Wrote the Indika, one of the main ancient sources of Alex the Great

Historian, military commander, philosopher of Roman period

Known for Anabasis of Alexander and one of the best sources on the campaigns of Alexander the Great, Indika is a description of Alexander’s commander Nearchus’ voyage from India to the Persian Gulf

Written by Arrian, mainly tells the story of Alexander’s officer Nearchus’ voyage from India to the Persian Gulf after Alex’s conquest of the Indus Valley

In depth describing the history, geography, and culture of the ancient Indian subcontinent.

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