Geog 4 – Flashcard

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Europe
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-Recognize Europe as a postindustrial region with a wealthy declining population -Understand region’s geographic characteristics, landforms and climates.
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•Understand how Europe rose to global political and economic dominance, then declined
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•Trace Europe’s emergence from wartime divisions to supranational unity
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-European Union and its importance
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•Traditionally, Europe is classified as one of the world’s seven continents, but it is not a distinct landmass
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-Actually an appendage or a subcontinent of Eurasia
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•Europe is the culture region made up of the countries of Eurasia lying west of Turkey, Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, and Moldova
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• Area of Europe is half that of conterminous U.S.
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• Europe contains one of the world’s great clusters of human population
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– Population of 532 million (2007) – 1 out of every 12 people in the world is a European
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– Population density varies widely
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• 1,020 persons per square mile in the Netherlands • Only 7 persons per square mile in Iceland
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•4 countries France, Germany, United Kingdom and Italy are the greatest in population
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-83 million Germany -60 million for United Kingdom, France and Italy
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Population
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•Greatest densities of population occur in two belts of industrialization and urbanization.
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-Near coal and hydroelectric power sources -Similar to the Northeastern US, -energy resources were critical in the location and rapid development of many European cities.
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•All of the regions of Europe have populations that are a majority urban.
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•Europe overall has a population that is 74% urban
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•Iceland 90% urban
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•Belgium 97% urban
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•More than 85% of the populations of Germany, Italy, United Kingdom and Luxembourg resides in Cities.
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•The least urbanized countries include;
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-Albania 42% -Bosnia 43% -Slovenia 51%
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•Europe has transitioned from preindustrial high birth and death rates to postindustrial low birth and death rates
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Population of Europe peaked in 1997
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•”Birth Dearth”
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-Low Birth Rates •Employed and educated women choosing not to devote time and money necessary to raise children
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•Birth Dearth cont.
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-Fertility rate below population replacement -No European country maintaining its population through births -Population aging faster than all other world regions
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•Strategies
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-Cash incentives to parents who have multiple children -Offering welfare benefits to immigrants
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•The most distinctive physical characteristics of Europe include;
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-Irregular coastline -High latitude -Temperate Climate
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•Estuaries and harbors offer protection for shipping
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•Estuaries – form a transition zone between river environments and ocean environments.
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-formed by flooding of river-valleys when sea level began to rise about 10,000-12,000 years ago.
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•The main peninsula of is fringed by smaller ones.
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-Peninsula
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A piece of land that projects into a body of water and is connected with the mainland by an isthmus
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isthmus
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– A narrow strip of land connecting two larger masses of land.
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*5 Peninsula around Europe
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• Scandinavian •Jutland •Iberian •Italian •Balkan
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•The Complex shorelines in and around Europe provides many opportunities for maritime activity.
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-seaborne trade, fisheries, sea power and recreation.
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•Much of Europe lies north of the 48 conterminous US.
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•The British Isles are at the same latitude as Hudson Bay in Canada.
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•Caledonian Mountains
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-Oldest in Europe – Dating to the Cambrian Age (542 – 488 million years ago). -Stretch from Scandinavia to the Scotland and the Welsh Uplands •Stumps of higher peaks eroded away -Lowest Elevation -Runs Across North Europe
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Hercynian Mountains
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•Equivalent to the Appalachians of North America •Formed during tectonic plate collisions 460 million years ago •Extend from Spain to the Czech Republic -Middle Age -Middle Europe
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Mountains of Alpine Age
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•West to east direction •High peaks, deep valleys, steep slopes and glaciers •In the America’s the Rockies and Andes are of Alpine age. •Extend from southern Spain eastward throughout south – central Europe -Youngest -Highest elevation
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•Europe has mild climates despite its high latitude
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-Warm Ocean Currents •Gulf Stream •North Atlantic Drift
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•Westerly Winds
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-Winter winds absorb heat from ocean and transport to land -In summer, the ocean is cooler than land, so the winds have a cooling effect -Winds also bring abundant moisture •Average annual precipitation in European lowlands is 20-40 inches
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•Maritime Polar (mP)
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-North Western Europe -Wet cool air that forms over Arctic Seas -Most frequently encountered in winter months •Produces snow -Cold air drops summer temperature to 50
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•Continental Polar (cP)
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-Eastern Europe -Forms over Siberia during the winter -Much of Siberia is frozen over half the year. -In European Russia (west of the Urals) land and lake surfaces are frozen 3 to 4 months -Dry air masses
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•Continental Tropical (cT)
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-Southern Europe -Forms over the Sahara desert -Warm Air mass contributes to long, hot, dry summers in Mediterranean and southern Europe
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•Maritime Tropical (mT)
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-western Europe -Acquires warmth and moisture over the Gulf of Mexico -Travels across Atlantic bringing mild, moist conditions to western Europe -Ports ice free during winter
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•Prior to 15th Century
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-Europe played a minor role in world trade patterns. -Important trade routes connected Italy east to Southeast Asia
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•Silk Road
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Interconnected trade routes across Asia, the Mediterranean world, Northeast Africa and Europe. -Silk -Spices – Arabia, tropical southeast Asia -Gold -Ivory -Exotic plants and Animals
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1492
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– Christopher Columbus set off to find another silk road route to China, and inadvertently found the New World
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Age of Discovery
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•Began with the ideal that European ways of life were superior to others. •Sought to bring much of the world under European influence. •Economic benefits for home countries were the main motivation
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By the end of the 19th Century, Europe had become the economically dominant power.
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•Gradually set into motion European colonization of the America’s, Africa, Asia and the Pacific.
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•Transferred wealth from the colonies to Europe by;
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-Movement of indigenous laborers to serve European interests •Slaves to the Caribbean and Southeast United States
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•Settlement of Europeans in agriculturally productive colonies.
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•Subjugation of indigenous cultures to European.
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-American Native Americans -Australian Aborigines – Africans -Indians
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European Supremacy
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Colonial enterprise developed Europe as the world’s wealthiest region for several centuries.
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•During the Age of Discovery, technological advancements continued European economic domination
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-Shipbuilding -Navigation -Manufacturing
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•Industrial revolution
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-Transition from agricultural economy to industrial •Water power •Steam power
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•Steam power
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-Used coal as a major resource for the first time. -Greatly increased power of machinery for manufacture
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•Technologies developed to make iron smelting cheaper
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Multiplied the outputs of machinery driven by steam – textiles
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-In the 19th century, technologies developed that allowed for inexpensive production of steel.
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•Created massive industrial production •Brought changes to landscapes and ecosystems around the globe
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•By 1900, western Europe created 90% of the world’s manufacturing output
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-Textiles -Steel -Shipbuilding -Chemical production
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By the mid-20th Century;
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-World trade and industry declined to 25% of the World’s manufacturing output.
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•1. Warfare
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-Europe suffered great losses in population and industrial capability during World Wars I and II
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•2. Nationalism
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-Former colonies began to strive for independence from Europe. -Took advantage of a weakened Europe after World War II
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-3. Transfer of power
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•Europe’s predominance was eroded by rising political and economic power of the US and Soviet Union. •Outpaced Europe in military power, economic resources and world influence.
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-4. Shift in Global Manufacturing
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Once dominated by Europe •Shifted to the United States •Shifting again to Asian countries – Japan, South Korea, China and Taiwan. •In the late 20th Century, become industrial forces effectively competing with Europe and the US in markets all over the world.
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-5. Dependence on foreign energy.
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•Coal dependence was undermined by advancements in technology and rising environmental concerns. •Although North Sea oil reserves have been developed; -Majority benefits Britain and Norway •Europe as a whole is very dependent on Middle Eastern Oil.
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Marshal Plan
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U.S Rebuild Europe[nato pact] -manufacturing boom -prevent soviet union from moving west
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•Belgium Premier Paul-Henri Spaak
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-“We must unite Europe. We cannot afford more civil wars among nations or we will destroy civilization”
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•Total War
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-Civilians shelled, starved, deported and massacred -Industry destroyed over much of Europe -Infrastructure destroyed
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World War II
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•During World War II, Nazi Germany Killed as many as 6 million Jews and 500,000 Gypsies during the Holocaust. •Total loss of life during World War II up to 60 million.
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•If definition is expanded to include ethnic Poles, Romani, Soviet civilians and prisoners of war, people with disabilities, homosexuals, Jehovah’s Witnesses, and other political and religions opponents
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•Number climbs to between 11 and 17 million people
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*1945
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End of World War II -Approximately 72 Million died between 1939 and 1945
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*1951 Coal and Steel Community
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-Integrating steel resources; one market, equal access to resources
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*1957 European Economic Community
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-Promote free movement of goods, labor and capital.
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•The Coal and Steel Community (1951)
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-First institution involving the original 6 members of what would become the EU •France •Germany •Italy •Belgium •The Netherlands •Luxembourg
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European Union (1993)
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•Signed in the Dutch town of Maastricht in 1991.
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•1993 EU becomes law -1991 Collapse of the Soviet Union -1989 Fall of Belgium Wall -1987 EEC
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•Collapse Soviet Union (1991) allowed
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-Neutral countries •Finland •Sweden •Austria -To join in 1995
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•By 1996, 9 additional members –
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-Great Britain, Denmark, Ireland, Greece, Portugal, Spain, Austria, Finland and Sweden.
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•External tariffs
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– regulate imports from the outside world.
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Share a common currency – the Euro
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•Advantages -Lower transaction costs -More certainty for investors -Enhanced competition -Consistent pricing
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•Not all countries have accepted the Euro
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-Swedish, Danish and British •Sweden feared loss of fiscal independence. •Danes feared it would threaten generous welfare benefits •British were hesitant due to their strong financial standing in the world economy
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•In 2004 Eastern European countries began to join the Union
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-Created an economy than captured most of the European region. -Valued at 10 trillion, almost that of the US
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•Resulted in east Europe joining NATO and the EU in 2004
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-The Baltics (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania) -Poland -Czech Republic -Slovakia -Slovenia -Hungary -Greek Cyprus -Malta
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Differences between old and new member
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-The old EU includes some of the highest GDP, PPP in the world. -New states are much less affluent, even approaching LDC status. -The old members hold 95% of the Wealth -When the 10 Eastern European countries entered, the EU’s average wealth per person fell 13%
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France
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•77% Urban – agriculture very important to economy •35% of the landscape is agricultural •World’s largest exporter of; •Wine •Barley
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France
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•See themselves as an agricultural nation •Customs of a family farm play large role in cultural identity.
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Jose Bove
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Targeted McDonald’s as a symbol of how unchecked globalization can trample local culture and threaten French Agriculture.
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Germany
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•Diverse economy – lead by advantages of central location and diverse environment •Generally; Low-lying undulating plain in the North – higher elevations in the south
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•Lowland North German Plain part of the North European plain.
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•Farmers contend with generally poor soil conditions grow; •Rye •Cabbage •potatoes
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Higher elevations are mainly composed of rounded, forested hills and low mountains
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•In the extreme south, are the moderately high German (Bavarian) Alps
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•Slope gradually down to the Danube River
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Eastern Europe
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•Countries are re-inventing themselves after 40 years of control by the Soviet Union.
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•Eastern Europe is a classic Shatter Belt region.
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-A large strategically located region composed of conflicting states caught between conflicting interests of larger powers
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•Soviet power into Eastern Europe at the end of World War II was a continuation of the regions history
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-Middle Ages, Eastern Europeans were politically independent, and controlled extensive territories -Autonomy (state of being self governing) changed after Middle Ages.
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•Stronger powers of Germany, Austria, Turkey and Russians pushed into Eastern Europe to form Empires.
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•Empires frequently collided resulting in;
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-Wars, which devastated people, large areas -Change of authority -Large transfers of people from one area to another
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Switzerland
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•Scenic resources make it a major tourist destination. •Most raw materials and natural resources need to be imported -More mountainous – less arable land -Fewer natural resources -More prosperous? •Buffer state – position geographically between greater powers. •Surrounded by countries in conflict, managed to stay out of 2 World Wars •Policy of strict neutrality
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•Swiss Plateau
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•Many small industrial centers •Obtain their electricity from hydropower. •5 of the 6 largest cities located on plateau
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•Basel
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•Found at the point where the Rhine River turns between Germany and France. •Head of navigation for Rhine barges that connect Switzerland and North Sea ocean ports via river and canals
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Switzerland & Austria
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•Natural Resource base often linked with economic success.
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•Austria
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-More arable land -More land per person -More forested land -Better mineral natural resource base -Less prosperous? •Although Austria has a better natural resource base, undermined by conflict •Present political boundaries result of the disintegration of Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1918 with defeat in WWI •Prior to 1914 diverse economy centered on Iron Ore deposits and coal from Moravia and Bohemia (now Czech Republic) •Today – major elements of the economy center on Natural resources (timber), autos hydroelectric power and clothing •Agriculture specialized in dairy and livestock. •Feed crops such as barley and corn.
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•Switzerland gross national income about 15% higher than Austria
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•Switzerland has benefited from peace and stable political boundaries
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•Austria – has felt the affects of 2 world wars, changing boundaries and political climate
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•Shatter belt
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-A large strategically located region composed of conflicting states caught between conflicting interests of great powers
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Norway
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•Stretches 1,000 miles along the western side of the Scandinavian Peninsula •Extremely rugged •Little soil due to glaciation •Coniferous forests and tundra •3% of the land is Arable •Rich natural resources for population (5 million) •Timber •Oil and gas •Hydropower •Fishing and seafaring tradition that dates back to the Vikings
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•Terrain hinders
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-Agriculture -Transportation
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-Glaciers created fjords
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ong, narrow and deep extensions of the sea, edged by steep cliffs

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