Gender Differnces

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Dispositional level
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characertics of persons…the gender role
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Structural level
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positions in society….jobs, postion
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Quantity of friendship
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nature of relationship
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the nature of friendships
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tendency of overstate differences compared to similarities
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INstrumental
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acitivity focus for men (agentic)
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Emotional connection
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conversation focus for women (communal)
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self-disclosure
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Female friendships emphasize
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activities
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male friendships emphasize
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who sex-disclose more
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women
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Characteristics of upholding masculinity interfere with closeness in male friendships
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competition homophobia emotional inexpressiveness
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whose friendships are more overtly competitive
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men
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female different kinds of competion
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personal development
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Competition for men
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limits intimacy lessens friendship satisfactions feel threaten by others achievement
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Emotional Inexpressiveness
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refers to expressing less emotion in releationship
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_______Avoid emotional inexpressiveness because it apperars feminie and is inconsistent
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men
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____ friendships are closer than those of men, they may exprience more conflict and less stability in their friendship
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women
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Cross-Sex Friendship
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a friendship between a man and a woman that is strictly platonic
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______ cross-sex friendships are less intimate
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women
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Maintaing Relationships
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Women more likely to invest in preservation of relationships than do men
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Couple strategies
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cognitive mechanisms that reflect accuracy and bias sexual activity accommodation of gender role attitudes
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Homophily
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is tendency to form fiendships with persons of same ethnic/racial group
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outgroup homogeneity effect
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perceive people of others races as more similar to one another and thus more different form self
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______________ rare in childhood, peak durning adolescence and young adulthood, diminsh substantially among elderly
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Cross-Sex Friendships
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With \”empty nest\” and with retirement, friendship incresingly important for
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women
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With retirement and widowhood, sixe of men’s social network
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shrinks
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Vast majority of adults desire to get married
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desire slightly less in women
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Sexes have similar reasons for entering romantic relationships
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support and companionship
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sex differences more likely to appear when relationships
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are less serious
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evolutionary theory
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A theory presented by the naturalist Charles Darwin; it views the history of a species in terms of the inherited, adaptive value of physical characteristics, of mental activity, and of behavior.
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social role theory
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A theory that gender differences result from the contrasting roles of men and women
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social construction
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The process by which people creatively shape reality through social interaction
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Quantity of Friendships
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size of network
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When we recall information that confirms our stereotypes and disregard information that disconfirms our stereotypes this is
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confirmatory hypothesis testing
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what are intersex conditions
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conditions where there is inconsistency between the individual’s chromosomal sex and phenotypical sex
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biological theories of sex differences focus on
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genes and hormones as well as the structure and functions for the brain
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Which of the following is true about the research on sex differences in personality
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sex differences seem to be larger in more egalitarian cultures where behavior is strongly linked to traits
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which of the following is generally true about the research on sex differences in sexuality
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findings generally depend on how sexuality is defined
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which of the following statements is true of the research on testosterone and aggression
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.there is a clear correlational relationship between testosterone levels and aggression but no certain causal link
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aggressive behavior that is planned and generally socially motivated is
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proactive aggression
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According to social learning theory, what is modeling
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the tendency for a person to reproduce the actions, attitudes and emotional
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according to social learning theory, observational learning increases
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if the model is in a postion of power
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which of the following statements is a fundamental assertion of gender-role socialization theory
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agents in the environment encourage women to be communal and men to be agentic
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who has the most powerful infulence on the the acquisition of gender-role behaviors in childhood
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the child’s peer group
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which of the following is one of the main themes of the heterosexual script portrayed on televison
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sexual double standards are common
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which of the following is true of social cognitive theory
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.it combines elements of social learning
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which statement is true about someone who is gender aschematic
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they would not consider gender roles when deciding what leisure interest to pursue
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which of the following is true about sex differences in verbal ability
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on average, girls talk earlier than boys an develop larger vocabularies than boys.
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What do observational studies of children tell us about sex differences in aggression
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they confirm that boys are more aggressive than girls
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which of the following is true, accourding to the research on sex differences in aggression
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men are more likely to be victims of aggression than women
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which of the following is true about sex differences in mathematical ability
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the differences seem to be between small and zero
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what spatial ability tends to be most in favor of men
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mental rotation
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what is the file drawer problem
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the fact the studies that fail to detect significant differences are unlikely to get published
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what is a moderating variable
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a variable that alters the relation between the independent and dependent variable
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the categorization of the self as male or female and the realization that this category cannot be changed is known as
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.gender constancy
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a category that contains information about the features of the category as well as its assocaitions with other categories is called a
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script
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one of the chaallenges with the way achievement motive was measured was that
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women may not have seen the images depicted on the TAT cards as relevant or intersting to them
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the requirement for a fear of success is
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the person must associate achievement with negative consquences.
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Female 12th graders who aimed to pursue traditionally masculine fields but switched to neutral or feminine fields 7 years later tendered to give which of the following reasons
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all of the above
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why is it that women may appear less confident
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hey are reluctant to display confidence when they have outperformed another person because women dont want to threaten anothers self-esteem
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a reason for lower self-esteem in girls given in the text might be that
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girls have less favorable attitudes than boys toward their gender role
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when defining oneself, men maintain an___ self construal: women, by contrast, maintain__self constual
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independent; interdependet
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from elementray school through graduate school, teachers
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Interact more with boys than girls and give boys better feedback than girls
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the cause assigned to a behavior that orginiates in the environment is called
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external attrubution
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the sense of self based on independence, individuation, and separation from others is called
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independent self-construal
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womens emotions are more likely to be attirbuted to_- whereas men’s emotions are more likely to be attrubuted to
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internal states; situational factors
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Women are more likely to display a___ style of leardership, whereas men are more likely to display a __style of leadership
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.transformational, transactional
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men are more influential than women because
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they are viewed as more credible
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Hall, carter, and horgan conducted a meta-analytic review of the literatire on nonverabal behavior
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females are more accurate in interpereting others
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when we classify language along specific dimensions we find that
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men’s language is more instrumental, succinct, and directive
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when a boy brags to and insults his friend, he is showing
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egoistic dominance
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women engage in more_ behavior than men___
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positve;social
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concerning interaction between children and styles of play, boys play in__ and girls play in
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groups , dyads
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the tendency to assign internal attributions for success and external attributions for failure
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self-serving bias
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the cause for a behavior that does not change over time is called
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stable attribution
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the theory that activating the female stereotypes hinders women’s performance is called
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sterotype threat
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it is possible that the effets of a sterotype thereat may be nullified by
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teaching people about it
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Interdependence is a broad term including a relational and collective compoinent.Women are more likely to emphasize the __ aspect, wheras men and more likely to empaseize the_ aspect
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relational, collective
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accourding to the expectance/value model achievement, we pursue areas of achievement
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that we value and in which we expect to succeed
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theory and cognitive development
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theory by recognizing that the child and the envioronment interact to produce geneder roles
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According to your text_ referes to the biological categories of male and female
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sex

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