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Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology Chapter 2

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models (paradigms)
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a set of assumptions and concepts that help scientists explain and interpret observations
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demonological model
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belief that mental illness was a sign of demonic possession or ill humor from divine/spirits
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biological model
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sees physical processes as a key to human behavior
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psychodynamic model
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focuses people’s unconscious internal processes and conflicts
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behavioral model
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emphasizes behavior and ways it is learned
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cognitive model
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concentrates on the thinking that underlies behavior
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humanistic-existential model
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stresses the role of values and choices
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sociocultural model
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focuses on social and cultural forces as the keys to human functioning
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family-social perspective
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focuses on an individual’s family and social interactions
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multicultural perspective
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emphasizes an individual’s culture and the shared beliefs, values, and history of that culture
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neurons
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nerve cells in the brain
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Huntington’s disease
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a disorder marked by violent emotional outbursts, memory loss, suicidal thinking, involuntary body movements, and absurd beliefs
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dendrites
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antenna-like extensions located at one end of the neuron
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axon
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a long fiber extending from the neuron’s body
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synapse
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separates one neuron from the next
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Neurotransmitter
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Chemical released from axon to terminals
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depression
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linked to low activity of the neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine
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endocrine glands
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work along with neurons to control such vital activities as growth, reproduction, sexual activity, heart rate, body temperature, energy, and responses to stress
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endocrine system
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researchers have linked mental disorders to abnormal chemical activity focusing on neurons and neurotransmitters
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hormones
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chemical released into the bloodstream, then propel body organs into action
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adrenal glands
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located at the top of the kidneys secrete cortisol
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cortisol
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a hormone that helps the body deal with stress; lead to anxiety and mood disorders
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genes
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segments that control the characteristics and traits a person inherits; plays a part in mood disorders, schizophrenia and other mental disorders
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Human genome project
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scientists used the tools of molecular biology to map all of the genes in the human body in great detail
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mutation
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an abnormal form of the appropriate gene that emerges by accident
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evolutionary theorist
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argue that human reactions and the genes responsible for them have survived over the course of time because they have helped individuals to thrive and adapt
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schizophrenia
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a disordered marked by delusions, hallucinations, or other departures from reality
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three leading kinds of biological treatments:
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drug therapy, electroconvulsive therapy, and psychosurgery
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psychotropic medications
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drugs that mainly affect emotions and thought processes
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four major types of psychotropic drugs:
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antianxiety, antidepressant, antibipolar, and antipsychotic drugs
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antianxiety drugs
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also called minor tranquilizers or anxiolytics; help reduce tension and anxiety
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antidepressant drugs
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help improve the mood of people who are depressed
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antibipolar drugs
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also called mood stabilizers; help stead the moods of those with a bipolar disorder
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bipolar disorder
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a condition marked by mood swings from mania to depression
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antipsychotic drugs
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help reduce the confusion, hallucinations, and delusions of psychotic disorders
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psychotic disorder
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ex. schizophrenia; disorder marked by a loss of contact with reality
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Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
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uses electricity to cause a brain seizure to help patients feel less depressed
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psychosurgery (or neurosurgery)
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brain surgery for mental disorders
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lobotomy
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a surgeon would cut the connections between the brain’s frontal lobe and the lower regions of the brain
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Id
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the psychological force that produces instinctual needs, drives, and impulses
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pleasure principle
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always seeks gratification
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libido
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sexual energy
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Ego
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employs reason and operates in accordance with the reality principle
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reality principle
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the knowledge we acquire through experience that it can be unacceptable to press our id impulses outright
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ego defense mechanism
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strategies developed by the ego to control unacceptable id impulses and to avoid or reduce the anxiety they arouse
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repression
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prevents unacceptable impulses from ever reaching consciousness
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superego
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represents a person’s values and ideals
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fixated
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a condition in which the id, ego, and superego do not mature properly and are frozen at an early stage of development
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free association
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a psychodynamic technique in which the patient describes any thought, feeling or image that comes to mind, even if it seems unimportant
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resistance
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an unconscious refusal to participate fully in therapy
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transference
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the redirection toward the psychotherapist of feelings associated with important figures in a patient’s life, now or in the past
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dream
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a series of ideas and images that form during sleep
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manifest content
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the consciously remembered dream
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latent content
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dream’s symbolic meaning
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catharisis
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a reliving of past pressed feelings
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working through
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the patient and therapist examine the same issues over and over in the course of many sessions, each time with greater clarity
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principles of learning
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the processes by which these behaviors change in response to the environment
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conditioning
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a simple form of learning
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operant conditioning
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a process of learning in which behavior that leads to satisfying consequences is likely to be repeated
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modeling
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individuals learn responses simply by observing other individuals and repeating their behaviors
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classical conditioning
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learning occurs when two events repeatedly occur close together in time
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Ivan Pavlov
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a famous Russian physiologist; first demonstrated classical conditioning with animals
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systematic desensitization
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a behavioral treatment in which clients with phobias learn to react calmly instead of with intense fear to the objects or situations they dread
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phobia
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a specific and unreasonable fear
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fear hieracrchy
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a list of feared objects or situations
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cognitive abilities
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special intellectual capacities to think, remember, and anticipate
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Albert Ellis and Aaron Beck
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proposed that cognitive processes are at the center of behaviors, thoughts and emotions and that we can best understand abnormal functioning by looking to cognition–the cognitive model
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overgeneralization
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the drawing of broad negative conclusions on the basis of a single insignficant event
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cognitive therapy
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a therapy developed by Aaron Beck that helps people recognize and change their faulty thinking processes
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Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT)
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help clients to simply be mindful of and accept many of their problematic thoughts rather than judge them, act on them, or try fruitlessly to change them
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humanists
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believe that human beings are born with a natural tendency to be friendly, cooperative, and constructive
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self-actualization
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the humanistic process by which people fulfill their potential for goodness and growth
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existentialists
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believe that human beings must be an accurate awareness of themselves and live meaningful lives in order to be psychologically well adjusted
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Carl Rogers
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pioneer of the humanistic perspective; believe the road to dysfunction begins in infancy
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client-centered therapy
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a warm and supportive approach that contrasted sharply with the psychodynamic techniques of the day
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conditions of worth
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standards that tell them they are lovable and acceptable only when they conform to certain guidelines
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gestalt therapy
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the humanistic therapy developed by Fritz Perls in which clinicians actively move clients toward self-recognition and self-acceptance by using techniques such as role playing and self-discovery exercises
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skillful frustration
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gestalt therapists refuse to meet their clients’ expectations and demands
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role-playing
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the therapist instruct clients to act out various roles
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existential therapy
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a therapy that encourages clients to accept responsibility for their lives and to live with greater meaning and value
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family-social theorist focus on three kinds of factors:
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social labels and roles, social networks, and family structure and communication
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family systems theory
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a theory that views the family as a system of interacting parts whose interactions exhibit consistent patterns and unstated rules
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group therapy
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a format in which a therapist meets with a group of clients who have similar problems
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self-help group (or mutual help group)
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a group made up of people with similar problems who help and support on e another without the direct leadership of a clinician
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family therapy
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a therapy format in which the therapist meets with all members of a family and helps them to change in therapeutic ways
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couple therapy (or marital therapy)
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a therapy format in which the therapist works with two people who share a long-term relationship
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structural family therapy
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therapists try to change the family power structure, the roles each person plays, and the relationships between members
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conjoint family therapy
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therapists try to help members recognize and change harmful patterns communication
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cognitive-behavioral couple therapy
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uses many techniques from the cognitive and behavioral perspectives
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integrative couple therapy
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helps partners accept behaviors that they cannot change and embrace the whole relationship nevertheless
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community mental health treatment
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a treatment approach that emphasizes community care
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three types of prevention:
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primary, secondary, and tertiary
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primary prevention
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consists of efforts to improve community attitudes and policies
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secondary prevention
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consists of identifying and treating psychological disorders in the early stages, before they become serious
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tertiary prevention
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to provide effective treatment as soon as it is needed so that moderate or severe disorders do not become long-term problems
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culture-sensitive therapies
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approaches that seek to address the unique issues faces by members of cultural minority groups
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biopsychosocial theories
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state that abnormality results from the interaction of genetic, biological, developmental, emotional, behavioral, cognitive, social, cultural, and societal influences
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diathesis-stress explanation
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how the various factors work together to cause abnormal functioning