Fundamentals Ch 1 – Nursing, Theory, & Professional Practice

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LO 1.1 : Define *nursing*.
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Nursing is the protection, promotion, and optimization of health and abilities, prevention of illness and injury, alleviation of suffering through the diagnosis and treatment of human response, and advocacy in the care of individuals, families, communities, and populations. (ANA)
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What are nursing standards?
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a minimum set of criteria of practice to provide quality care
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*Holistic*
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treating the pt’s physical, mental, emotional, spiritual, and social self.
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Nursing is seen as a ________ profession that addresses the many dimensions necessary to fully care for a pt.
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holistic
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*Profession*
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an occupation that requires at a minimum specialized training and a specialized body of knowledge.
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Nurses build upon their broad education and understanding of illness to….?
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to promote wellness and health maintenance.
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LO 1.2: Differentiate among the functions and roles of nurses.
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Nurses provide care to patients while functioning in multiple roles as care provider, educator, advocate, leader, change agent, manager, researcher, collaborator, and delegator.
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What are the “primary roles and functions of the nurse”?
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-care provider -educator -advocate -leader -change agent -manager -researcher -collaborator -delegator
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*Collaboration*
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is the process by which two or more people work together toward a common goal.
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*Delegation*
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is the process of entrusting or transferring the responsibility for certain tasks to other personnel, including UAP, licensed vocational nurses (LVN’s), and LPN’s.
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LO 1.3: Describe historical events in the evolution of nursing.
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Historically, the nursing profession has *evolved from a religious and military background* to meet the nursing needs of society.
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*Florence Nightingale*
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-founder of modern nursing -raised the profile of nursing -known for care of sick in Crimean War -influenced epidemiology -established nursing as a respected profession distinct from the medical profession -founded a nursing school -stressed university-based and continuing education
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LO 1.4: Summarize *nursing theories*.
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Nurses use nursing theories to *guide their practice*. Nursing theories began with Florence Nightingale’s work in 1860 and continue to present. *Each theory discusses the four concepts of nursing, person, health, and environment.*
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*Discipline*
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is a specific field of study or branch of instruction or learning
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Florence Nightingale Theory
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-emphasizes illness prevention, clean air, water, and housing. -environmental adaptation with appropriate noise levels, hygiene, light, comfort, socialization, hope, nutrition, and conservation of pt energy. -this theory states that the imbalance b/w the pt and the environment decreases the capacity for health and does not allow for conservation of energy.
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*Nursing Theory*
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LO 1.5: Identify non-nursing theories that influence nursing practice.
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Non-nursing theories that influence nursing practice include systems theory, developmental theory, change theory, theory of human needs, and leadership theories.
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Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
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1. Physiologic needs 2. Safety and Security 3. Love and Belonging 4. Self-Esteem 5. Self-Actualization
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LO 1.6: Articulate the criteria of a profession as applied to nursing.
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Nursing is evaluated against the criteria of a profession, which includes altruism, body of knowledge, accountability, higher education, autonomy, code of ethics, professional organization, and licensure.
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*Altruism*
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pt comes first
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Autonomy
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-*be independent and self-motivated* -nursing professionals make independent decisions within their scope of practice and are responsible for the results and consequences of those decisions.
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*Ethics*
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is the standards of right and wrong behavior
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*Nonmaleficence*
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do no harm
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*Beneficence*
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act in the best interest of the pt
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*Fidelity*
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keep promises
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justice
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relate to others w/ fairness and equality
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*Veracity*
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be truthful
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LO 1.7: Discuss standards of practice and *nurse practice acts*.
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ANA *standards of practice guide and direct the practice of nursing*; state nurse practice acts define nurses’ scope of practice.
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*Nurse Practice Acts*
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provide the scope of practice defined by each state or jurisdiction and set forth the legal limits of nursing practice
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*Scope of Practice*
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defines the boundaries of the practice of nursing and clarifies how it may intersect with other professions or disciplines.
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LO 1.8: Describe the *socialization* and transformation process of a nurse.
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Socialization into the nursing profession follows a process from novice to advanced beginner during nursing school. The nurse reaches the competent level after several years of practice. Transformation takes place when the student gains the ability to perceive and prioritize the situational needs of complex care.
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*Socialization*
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to professional nursing is a process that involves learning the theory and skills necessary for the role of nurses
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Benner’s Novice to Expert Model
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-novice -advanced beginner -competent -proficient -expert
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LO 1.9: Explain the levels of educational preparation in nursing and differentiate among the nurse’s roles depending upon education.
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*Numerous levels of education (diploma, associate, baccalaureate, master’s, and doctoral degrees)* and career opportunities in nursing can be pursued.
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*Licensure*
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Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN) or Licensed Vocational Nurse (LVN)
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12-18 months of training
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Registered Nurse (RN)
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-Associates Degree in Nursing (ADN) (2yrs) -Diploma Programs (3yrs) -Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) (4yrs)
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Master of Science in Nursing (MSN)
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-*Advanced Practice Registered Nurse (APRN)* -other advanced roles (clinical nurse leader, nurse educator, nurse researcher, nurse administrator)
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*Advanced Practice Registered Nurse (APRN)*
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-RN who has met advanced educational and clinical practice requirements at a minimum of a master’s degree level -provides at least some level of direct care to pt populations
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LO 1.10: List possible certifications in various arenas of nursing and professional organizations in nursing.
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*Many different certifications are available to nurses who meet specific requirements and pass qualifying examinations.* Nursing organizations represent all nurses and nursing specialties.
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LO 1.11: Discuss the future directions in nursing.
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Future directions in nursing include dealing with the *nursing shortage*, implementing new *pt safety programs*, and exploring the role of the *independent nurse*.
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National Patient Safety Goals
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-identify pts correctly -improve staff communication -uses medicines safely -use alarms safely -prevent infection -identify pt safety risks -prevent mistakes in surgery

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