FTCE ESOL K-12

Universal Grammar
Chomsky-no dialect or language is more complex or sophisticated than the other. We are all born with the capacity to learn any language w/o formal instruction
LAD
Language Aquisition Device
Generative Grammar
set of rules that could be used to produce language
Deep Structure
our ideas, what we mean-derive meaning from social context
Surface Structure
what we say or write-literal meaning of words
Natural Order Hypothesis
Krashen- grammatical structures aquired in a predictable order, independent of the order grammar is taught
Stages of SLA
Krashen-Pre-production (silent period), early production, speech emergence, intermediate fluency, advanced fluency
Input Hypothesis/Comprehensible Input
Krashen-i+1, language input slightly above current level yields optimal growth
Affective Filter
Krashen-mental block can be produced by negative factors such as anxiety, low motivation, self confidence
Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
Vygotsky-distance between developmental level and level of potential development. Area between independent performance and assisted performance
Communicative Competence
learner’s abiity to apply and use grammatical uses, form correct utterances and know how and when to use them appropriately. The ability to communicate effectively and to vary communication styles appropriately in various contexts. Social and pragmatic competence.
Language Interference
effect of L1 on production of L2
Negative Transfer
interference of previous learning inprocess of learning something new
Interlanguage
language system “inbetween” L1 & L2 that student develops while learning the L2 but is neither L1 or L2
SUP
Social underlying proficiency (conversational language)
CUP
Common underlying proficiency – commonalities between L1 & L2, skills, ideas, concepts that students learn in L1 transfer to L2
BICS
Cummins-Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills – social setting language skills
CALP
Cummins-Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency – languatge needed to acquire academic skills and concepts
Cummins Quadrant
A-cognitively undemanding/context embedded; B-cognitively demanding/context embedded; C-cognitively undemanding/context reduced; D-cognitively demanding/context reduced
Phoneme
class of speech sounds, ie. /t/ are the smallest unit o sound that affects meaning.
Monothong
one part vowel
Reduced Vowel
occurs in unstressed word or syllable -schwa most common
Phonology
organization of speech sounds
Homophone
two words pronounced the same but different meaning & spelling, ie. carrot & carat
Homonym
two words spelled the same & sound the same, but that mean different things, ie. left & left
Contrastive
change of meaning by replacing one sound (phoneme) with another
Non-Contrastive
change in sound (phoneme) does not change the meaning
Palatization
when a consonant becomes like a neighboring sound, ie. [d]->[dЗ], did you eat
Digraph
single sound represented by two letters, ie. siNG -> ŋ
Consonant Digraph
ch, sh, th, wh
Consonant Blend
two or more consonants together and each sound is heard, ie. “blend”
Intonation
pattern of pitch movement across a sentence, the meaning of the sentence can depend in part on the intonation, it also helps mark boundaries of a syntactic unit
Graphophonics
sound relationship between the orthography and phonology of a language
Morphology
study of word formation
Morphemes
smallest linguistic unit that can have meaning or grammatical (of, the, and) function. unit consists of root, prefix, suffix
Affix
added pieces to a word (prefix, suffix) – change meaning or syntactic function to what attaches to
Bound Morpheme
has to be attached to something else for it to mean something
Free Morpheme
can stand alone and mean something
Subject
position immediately before verb
Object
position immediately after verb (direct object)
Prepositions
used to express thing involvedin action, possesor, spatial relations, ie. with, in, or into, for, before, without, over, under
Adverbs
express manner, attutude, jusdgment of speaker, frequency, time, place, cause, or degree (answer how, when, where, how much), ie. quickLY, fast, often
Prepositional Phrase
preposition + noun phrase
Clause
a group of words containing a subject and a verb
Indefinite Pronouns
refer to unspecified people of things, many express some idea of quantity, ie. all, seceral, few, none, nobody, somebody
Progressive Form
used to indicate continuity of action vs. its completion, ie. I am singing (-ing verbs), can be used with all 6 tenses
Future Perfect
express action or make statement about something that will be completed in the future before some other future action or event-will have or shall have + past participle, ie. I will have watched
Auxilary Verb
be, do, have, will ,shall
Demonstrative Adjectives
used to emphasize which items are being singled out and/ or distance from speaker. They are never used alone. ie, which, what, this, these, that, those
Articles
to identify or number the nouns they modify – a, an, the
Comparitive Adjectives
adding -er or “more”, ie. careful, more careful
Superlative Adjectives
requires -est or “most”, ie. most careful (the highest of the comparison levels)
Gerunds
verb forms ending in -ing and used as nouns, ie. SKIING is a wonderful sport
Indicative
mood where speaker wishes to make a statement or a question, ie. “He IS leaving tomorrow.” “DOES this plane FLY to London?
Imperative
mood where speaker makes a command or request
Subjunctive
uses different form of the past and present to express matters of urgency, formality, possibility, or speculation, ie. “If I WERE…”
Passive Voice
if the subject receives an action, ie. She was sold a box of candy.
Independent Clause
expresses a complete thought and can stand by itself in a sentence
Subordinate Clause
part of a sentence but doesn’t express a complete thought and cannot stand by itself
Predicate
what is said about the subject, always contains a verb
Relative Clause
cannot stand alone, conains a subject and a verb; begins with a relative pronoun (who, whom, whose, that, or which) or a relative adverb (whre, when, why); functions as an adjective (answers, “What kind?”, “How many?”, “Which one?”
Indefinite Articles
a, an
Definite Article
the
Determiners
in front of nouns to indicate if referring to something specific or something or a particular type. 3 types: definite articles (a, an, the); demonstratives (this, that, these, those); possessives (my, your, his, her, its, our, their)
Modifiers
words, phrases or clauses that provide description in setences
Idioms
commonly used phrases that are not literal but figurative, ie. “To kick the bucket.”
Semantics
study of meaning
Register
how language is used in a particular setting or for a particular purpose. ie. professor/mechanic
Metacognitive
awareness of own knowledge and ability ot understan, control and manipulate our cognitive processes
Metalinguistic
Code Switching
Paralinguistics
aspects of spoken communication that do not involve words, ie. body language, gestures, pitch
Code Switching
switching between two languages when speaking
Cognates
words that have similar spelling, pronunciation and often meaning in two languages, ie. florist/florista
Phonics
teaching what sounds correspond to what letters and how to blend the sounds together to learn to pronunciate an unknown word
Frontloading
providing lots of information and comprehensible input (realia, videos, etc.) before starting a unit
Behaviorism
acquisition of new behavior; conditioning through environmental stimuli (Skinner, Pavlov)
Formative Assessment
happens during instruction and gives teachers information on whether they need to adjust their teaching and the students learning. Helps ensure students achieve targeted standards. Students are involved in assessing their own learning and helping others.
Performance Based Assessments
demonstrate knowledge, skills, process by which problems are solved, ie, group projects where students need to plan, research, synthesize information and present; portfolios; essays
Formal Assessments
Data driven -> standardized tests
Informal Assessments
aka Authentic Assessments – content and performance driven, ie. writing samples, homework, journals
Content Based Assessments
assess what has been learned in the content area
Language Experience Approach
based on activities and stories developed from the learner’s personal experiences. The Stories are written down by the teacher and are read together with student until s/he associates the written form wth teh spoken form (top down approach)
Top-Down Reading Approach
reading for meaning
Bottom-Up Approach
emphasizes written text. Go from smallest to biggest linguistic units Identify letters ->words->sentence->paragraph->text
Strategy Based Instruction
students are giventhe opportunity ot understand what they can learn and how they can learn the language more effectively and efficiently->make aware of what strategies they can use and who/when to use them
Form Focused Instruction
focus on formal aspects of language (teaching grammar, spelling, intonation…)
Performance Based Instruction
what and why students must learn – performance tasks are directly related to standards.
Proficiency Based Instruction
focus on listening, speaking, reading and writing -student centered, focus on what students need, know, and can do, taking into consideration different learning styles and diveloping skills and other strategies
Production Based Instruction
based on the output of language
Content Based Instruction
acquire language while using context of subject matter
Multiple Intelligences
Gardner-bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalistic, logical-mathematical, linguistic, musical, spatial
Grammar Based ESL
focused on language structure, function and vocabulary
Communication based ESL
focused on using language in a meaningful context
Content Based ESL
developing language skills and grade level content learning
SIOP
Shelterd Instruction Observation Protocol
Sheltered Classroom
can be gradespecific or an ESL class. COntent is taught by integrating langauage and content objectives in the same lesson. content is scaffolded to provide comprehensible input and modified grade level curriculum. The goal is to make content accessible while working on their English skills
Pull-Out ESL
students taken from regular class in small groups and the work on a specific skill
CALLA- Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach
integrates content area instruction with languge development activities and explicit instruction in learning strategies. Develops CALP skills in English through cognitively demanding activities and comprehension is assisted by contextual support. Scaffolded instruction guides acquisition of conent
Newcomer Program
programs designed to meet the needs of incoming ELL’s with low English literacy skills and limited schooling in their L1. The goal is to acquire beginning Enlish skills and core academic skills and acculturate to school system
Developmental Bilingual Program
continued L1 support for academics through elementary. About 40% of academic instruction in L1. Student is English proficient when mainstreamed. AKA-late-exit bilingual program
Two-Way/Dual Immersion
goal to develop speaking, reading, writing, proficiency in both L1 & L2. CLass is made up of 1/2 English speakers and 1/2 speakers of another common language. Instruciton goes up to 50/50 in each language.
Kagan Strategies
collaborative learning activities
Acculturation
process by which an individual adapts to a new culture
Aspiration
pronunciation accompanied by breathing out
Affective Domain
controls how much input the learner comes into contact with and how much that’s converted into learning. Affected by anxiety, etc.
Circumlocution
the use of more words than necessary to express something, especially to avoid saying it directly
Consonant Clusters
group of consonants which have no intervening vowel, ie. /spl/ + /ts/ for “splits”
Ethnocentrism
belief that one’s culture is superior
LEP
Limited English PRoficient
Nasalization
to make a sound nasal by lowering the soft palate so that air flows through the nose
Proxemics
study of distance individuals maintain between each other in social interactions and how this separation is significant
Semiotics
study of signs and symbols of all kinds, what they mean, and how they relate to the things or ideas they refer to
Silent Period
1st stage of SLA at preproduction stage-students may not communicate during this time except in nonverbal ways
Grammar Translation Method
focus on grammatical rules, syntactic structures, rote memorization of vocabulary and translation of literary texts
Direct Method
oral language focus-instruction is in the target language with no translation to assist. Focuses less on explicit instruciton of grammar rules and structures and more on the repetition and memorization of language patterns.
Audiolingual Method
Uses only the target language. Rapid means of learning a foreign language (used my military). Patterns of drills and dialogue designed to develop grammatical structures and vocabulary in a highly sequential manner. Language acquisition as the memorization and recall of language patterns
Natural Approach
i +1 is applied- communication activities, contextualized acquisition opportunities presented, active demonstrations to convey meaning by associating words and phrases with objects and actions. Comprehension before production, indirect error corretion
Community Language Learning
students choose what they want to learn, the teacher serves as a counselor. Said to ease affective situations. teacher gives students chunks of language in the 1st language to insure understanding
Silent Way
presents learners with simple linguistic situations that they were to observe and then describe in the target language, focusing especially on actions they witnessed. Teacher is silent after sets up classroom situations. Learners have to work with what they know to absorb learning. believes people learn language by forming rules and applying them
Suggestopedia
relaxed environment (dim lights, soft music) students listen to dialogues then practice them Students may “become” a character in the target langauge. Designed to place as much language teaching emphasis on learner personality and motivation as that typically placed on intellect
Lau v. Nichols
equal vs. equitable treatment for LEP students. Supreme Court ruled that schools were to provide LEP students with support to learn English and content
concrete referents
anything that can be seen, heard, felt or touched by the learner that clarifies comprehension.
context embedded
language that is supplemented by contextual or visual stimuli that assist comprehension.
context-reduced
language that is not supplemented by contextual clues or visual stimuli, e.g. lectures, some types of text books, or telephone conversations.
cooperative learning
Kagan — positive interdependence, individual accountability, face-to-face interaction, collaborative skill development and group processing.
norm-referenced tests
i.e. percentile — how students’ performance compares to other students’ performance
cultural adjustment
4 stages: honeymoon stage, hostility stage, humor stage, home stage
cultural bias (in testing)
Cultural bias occurs when success on the test depends upon understanding specific aspects of the dominant language and culture.
deep vs. surface culture
deep culture = non-tangible aspects of culture such as feelings, attitudes and rules for interaction. Surface culture – visible aspects: food, art, dress, etc.
diglossia
when two dialects of the same language exist in the same community and are used in different contexts: often formal vs. casual (academic/professional vs. “street”
holistic approaches
instructional approaches that focus on an integrative whole rather then division of a task into discrete sub-skills: in language this means focusing on speaking, listening reading and writing in an integrative mode.
homograph
spelled the same, sound different (take a bow/tie a bow)
LEP Committee
Made up of parents, teachers and /or administrators. Students are referred to this committee once there are concerns about testing, deficiency, retention, or reclassification for exits.
LEA
Local Education Agency: a board of education or some legal authority having administrative control over public education.
monitor hypothesis
the hypothesis that language learners constantly monitor their language output in accord with the rules of the language as they have learned them — reduced fluency.
phonogram
phonetic element
phonetics
the study of a language’s sound system including sound-letter correspondence, intonation, stress and rhythm
process writing
focuses on the communicative processes involved in producing a written product rather than the form — may include invented spellings, symbolic writing or other: pre-writing, drafting, responding, revision, editing and publishing.
psycholinguistics
focuses on how individuals acquire and use language
second language acquisition theory
related hypotheses to account for observed phenomena in second language acquisition: acquisition vs. learning hypothesis, the monitor hypothesis, the (comprehensible) input hypothesis, the affective filter hypothesis and the natural order hypothesis.
semantic mapping
integrated language teaching strategy that includes a variety of ways to make visual displays of information within categories related to a central topic. Strategy helps elicit students’ previous knowledge and adds new information while demonstrating a relationship between concepts and terms that are being learned. (advanced organizers or review)
syntax
the study of sentence structures and word-order patterns
sociolinguistics
how language is used by different societal groups and across various social situations
subtractive bilingualism
loss or limited development of one’s first language when learning a second language. The result limits they speaker’s language repertoire when compared to additive bilingualism.
transitional bilingual program
provides content area instruction in a student’s first language while offering ESL instruction simultaneously. The content material gradually shifts to the complete use of the second language.
CAL
Center for Applied Linguistics
FEP
Fluent English Proficient
FLEP
Former-Limited-English-Proficient
NABE
National Association for Bilingual Education
NCBE
National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education (funded by Title VII)
NEP
Non-English Proficient
PAC
Parent Advisory Council or Committee
PEP
Potentially English Proficient
SEA
State Education Agency
TBE
Transitional Bilingual Education Program
pitch
determines the context or meaning of words or series of words. ie. “I can’t go.” statement / “I can’t go?” question
stress
can occur at a word or sentence. ie. CONflict – noun / conFLICT – verb
phonographemics
refers to the study of letters and letter combinations
pragmatics
the study of how the contents impacts the interpretation of language ie. bartender asks “What would you like to drink?”
cognitive processing procedure
the learning takes place more through thought process
pycholinguistics procedure
learning through speech
discourse
a linguistic unit (as a conversation or a story) larger than a sentence
empty language
is polite discourse that has little meaning but is important in social exchange. ie. “How are you?” This type of discourse is considered BICS
dialect
is a complete system of verbal communication with its own vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation. often associated with specific regions or social groups
Chomsky-LAD
nature is more important than nurture
Piaget
language is a reflection of thought
Vygostsky
social communication which promotes language and cognition
Collier
children are active learners who construct their worlds
Acquisition Learning Hypothesis
Krashen-we acquire language subconsciously with a feel for correctness. Learning a language on the other hand is a conscious process that involves knowing grammatical rules.
Private Speech
2nd stage of SLA. learner knows about 1000 receptive words and speaks in one-or-two word phrases. ie. yes/no; either/or
Lexical Chunk
3rd stage of SLA. learner knows about 3000 receptive words and can communicate using short phrases and sentences.
Formulaic
4th stage of SLA. learner knows about 6000 receptive words and begins to make complex statements, states opinions, ask for clarification, share thoughts and speaks at greater length
Experimental
5th stage of SLA. When the learner develops a level of fluency and can make semantic and grammar generalizations
interpersonal communication
involves verbal and non verbal communication
verbal communication
communication that uses written or spoken words
non verbal communication
communication between individuals that relies on an unspoken language of facial expressions, eye contact, and body language
Skills for communicating
include summerizing, paraphrasing, listening, questioning, initiating, turn-taking
Total Physical Response
teacher gives and acts out commands
Communicative Approach
emphasizes use vs. usage
overgeneralization
applying grammar rules in areas they don’t apply (“I writed a story”; goed; comed)
simplification
the practice of modifying language to facilitate comprehension
fossilization
aka stablization…plateaus with L2…so accustomed to an error that he does not hear the correct use even though he is relatively fluent
Factors influencing Bilingualism
reason for learning,
level of immersion,
social attitude,
block scheduling,
community value,
family and home environment
cognitive skills
any mental skills that are used in the process of acquiring knowledge, including reasoning, perception and intuition.
Social Factor that influence SLA
gender
social class or status
age
occupation
family’s educational level
Civil Rights Act of 1964
established that schools, as recipients of federal funds cannot discriminate against ELLs
Castaneda v. Pickard
established 3 specific criteria schools must use to determine the effectiveness of bilingual education programs
NAEP-National Assessment of Education Progress
keeps an ongoing record of school performance
NCLB-No Child Left Behind
schools can no longer rely on high-performing students to average out the low performance of language challenged students
social trends that have affected the education of ELLs
demands by ELL groups, polarity among the different racial/ethnic groups, multiculturalism
Stages of Acculturation
Honeymoon stage
Hostility Stage
Humor Stage
Home Stage
assimilation theory
the process by which minorities gradually adopt patterns of the dominant culture
accommodation theory
We adjust our speech to accommodate others and commonly convergence occurs
Levels of scaffolding for learning and problem solving
Modeling,
Shared,
Interactive,
Guided,
Independent
asynchronous learning
interchange of communication on a computer in which you start and stop while waiting for reply. ie. off-line applications
synchronous
a steady stream of communication on a computer. ie chatroom, IM, videoconferencing
language proficiency tests
measure how well students have met s=certain standards in a particular language. ie. TOEFL
language placement tests
is designed to place students within a specific program
language achievement tests
these test relate t a specific curriculum or course of study. ie Final exams
diagnostic language tests
these test are designed to identify individual students’ strengths and weaknesses in language
omission
the L1/L2 learner omits a phoneme. ie pronounces “ar” instead of “bar”
substitution
the L1/L2 learner substitutes a phoneme. ie pronounces “take” instead of “rake”
distortion
the L1/L2 learner pronounces a phoneme incorrectly, and the sound produced is not considered normal. ie pronounces “three” as “free”
addition
the L1/L2 learner additional syllables to a word. pronounces the word “like” as “like-id”
metathesis
a transposition or reversal of two phonemes in a word (e.g., basket bakset; spaghetti pasghetti)
communicative language teaching
Language as a tool for communicating information and ideas through teaching. Create realistic context for SLA in classroom, focus on functional language usage and ability to express self.