Universal Grammar
Chomsky-no dialect or language is more complex or sophisticated than the other. We are all born with the capacity to learn any language w/o formal instruction

Language Aquisition Device

Generative Grammar
set of rules that could be used to produce language

Deep Structure
our ideas, what we mean-derive meaning from social context

Surface Structure
what we say or write-literal meaning of words

Natural Order Hypothesis
Krashen- grammatical structures aquired in a predictable order, independent of the order grammar is taught

Stages of SLA
Krashen-Pre-production (silent period), early production, speech emergence, intermediate fluency, advanced fluency

Input Hypothesis/Comprehensible Input
Krashen-i+1, language input slightly above current level yields optimal growth

Affective Filter
Krashen-mental block can be produced by negative factors such as anxiety, low motivation, self confidence

Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
Vygotsky-distance between developmental level and level of potential development. Area between independent performance and assisted performance

Communicative Competence
learner’s abiity to apply and use grammatical uses, form correct utterances and know how and when to use them appropriately. The ability to communicate effectively and to vary communication styles appropriately in various contexts. Social and pragmatic competence.

Language Interference
effect of L1 on production of L2

Negative Transfer
interference of previous learning inprocess of learning something new

language system “inbetween” L1 & L2 that student develops while learning the L2 but is neither L1 or L2

Social underlying proficiency (conversational language)

Common underlying proficiency – commonalities between L1 & L2, skills, ideas, concepts that students learn in L1 transfer to L2

Cummins-Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills – social setting language skills

Cummins-Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency – languatge needed to acquire academic skills and concepts

Cummins Quadrant
A-cognitively undemanding/context embedded; B-cognitively demanding/context embedded; C-cognitively undemanding/context reduced; D-cognitively demanding/context reduced

class of speech sounds, ie. /t/ are the smallest unit o sound that affects meaning.

one part vowel

Reduced Vowel
occurs in unstressed word or syllable -schwa most common

organization of speech sounds

two words pronounced the same but different meaning & spelling, ie. carrot & carat

two words spelled the same & sound the same, but that mean different things, ie. left & left

change of meaning by replacing one sound (phoneme) with another

change in sound (phoneme) does not change the meaning

when a consonant becomes like a neighboring sound, ie. [d]->[dЗ], did you eat

single sound represented by two letters, ie. siNG -> ŋ

Consonant Digraph
ch, sh, th, wh

Consonant Blend
two or more consonants together and each sound is heard, ie. “blend”

pattern of pitch movement across a sentence, the meaning of the sentence can depend in part on the intonation, it also helps mark boundaries of a syntactic unit

sound relationship between the orthography and phonology of a language

study of word formation

smallest linguistic unit that can have meaning or grammatical (of, the, and) function. unit consists of root, prefix, suffix

added pieces to a word (prefix, suffix) – change meaning or syntactic function to what attaches to

Bound Morpheme
has to be attached to something else for it to mean something

Free Morpheme
can stand alone and mean something

position immediately before verb

position immediately after verb (direct object)

used to express thing involvedin action, possesor, spatial relations, ie. with, in, or into, for, before, without, over, under

express manner, attutude, jusdgment of speaker, frequency, time, place, cause, or degree (answer how, when, where, how much), ie. quickLY, fast, often

Prepositional Phrase
preposition + noun phrase

a group of words containing a subject and a verb

Indefinite Pronouns
refer to unspecified people of things, many express some idea of quantity, ie. all, seceral, few, none, nobody, somebody

Progressive Form
used to indicate continuity of action vs. its completion, ie. I am singing (-ing verbs), can be used with all 6 tenses

Future Perfect
express action or make statement about something that will be completed in the future before some other future action or event-will have or shall have + past participle, ie. I will have watched

Auxilary Verb
be, do, have, will ,shall

Demonstrative Adjectives
used to emphasize which items are being singled out and/ or distance from speaker. They are never used alone. ie, which, what, this, these, that, those

to identify or number the nouns they modify – a, an, the

Comparitive Adjectives
adding -er or “more”, ie. careful, more careful

Superlative Adjectives
requires -est or “most”, ie. most careful (the highest of the comparison levels)

verb forms ending in -ing and used as nouns, ie. SKIING is a wonderful sport

mood where speaker wishes to make a statement or a question, ie. “He IS leaving tomorrow.” “DOES this plane FLY to London?

mood where speaker makes a command or request

uses different form of the past and present to express matters of urgency, formality, possibility, or speculation, ie. “If I WERE…”

Passive Voice
if the subject receives an action, ie. She was sold a box of candy.

Independent Clause
expresses a complete thought and can stand by itself in a sentence

Subordinate Clause
part of a sentence but doesn’t express a complete thought and cannot stand by itself

what is said about the subject, always contains a verb

Relative Clause
cannot stand alone, conains a subject and a verb; begins with a relative pronoun (who, whom, whose, that, or which) or a relative adverb (whre, when, why); functions as an adjective (answers, “What kind?”, “How many?”, “Which one?”

Indefinite Articles
a, an

Definite Article

in front of nouns to indicate if referring to something specific or something or a particular type. 3 types: definite articles (a, an, the); demonstratives (this, that, these, those); possessives (my, your, his, her, its, our, their)

words, phrases or clauses that provide description in setences

commonly used phrases that are not literal but figurative, ie. “To kick the bucket.”

study of meaning

how language is used in a particular setting or for a particular purpose. ie. professor/mechanic

awareness of own knowledge and ability ot understan, control and manipulate our cognitive processes

Code Switching

aspects of spoken communication that do not involve words, ie. body language, gestures, pitch

Code Switching
switching between two languages when speaking

words that have similar spelling, pronunciation and often meaning in two languages, ie. florist/florista

teaching what sounds correspond to what letters and how to blend the sounds together to learn to pronunciate an unknown word

providing lots of information and comprehensible input (realia, videos, etc.) before starting a unit

acquisition of new behavior; conditioning through environmental stimuli (Skinner, Pavlov)

Formative Assessment
happens during instruction and gives teachers information on whether they need to adjust their teaching and the students learning. Helps ensure students achieve targeted standards. Students are involved in assessing their own learning and helping others.

Performance Based Assessments
demonstrate knowledge, skills, process by which problems are solved, ie, group projects where students need to plan, research, synthesize information and present; portfolios; essays

Formal Assessments
Data driven -> standardized tests

Informal Assessments
aka Authentic Assessments – content and performance driven, ie. writing samples, homework, journals

Content Based Assessments
assess what has been learned in the content area

Language Experience Approach
based on activities and stories developed from the learner’s personal experiences. The Stories are written down by the teacher and are read together with student until s/he associates the written form wth teh spoken form (top down approach)

Top-Down Reading Approach
reading for meaning

Bottom-Up Approach
emphasizes written text. Go from smallest to biggest linguistic units Identify letters ->words->sentence->paragraph->text

Strategy Based Instruction
students are giventhe opportunity ot understand what they can learn and how they can learn the language more effectively and efficiently->make aware of what strategies they can use and who/when to use them

Form Focused Instruction
focus on formal aspects of language (teaching grammar, spelling, intonation…)

Performance Based Instruction
what and why students must learn – performance tasks are directly related to standards.

Proficiency Based Instruction
focus on listening, speaking, reading and writing -student centered, focus on what students need, know, and can do, taking into consideration different learning styles and diveloping skills and other strategies

Production Based Instruction
based on the output of language

Content Based Instruction
acquire language while using context of subject matter

Multiple Intelligences
Gardner-bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalistic, logical-mathematical, linguistic, musical, spatial

Grammar Based ESL
focused on language structure, function and vocabulary

Communication based ESL
focused on using language in a meaningful context

Content Based ESL
developing language skills and grade level content learning

Shelterd Instruction Observation Protocol

Sheltered Classroom
can be gradespecific or an ESL class. COntent is taught by integrating langauage and content objectives in the same lesson. content is scaffolded to provide comprehensible input and modified grade level curriculum. The goal is to make content accessible while working on their English skills

Pull-Out ESL
students taken from regular class in small groups and the work on a specific skill

CALLA- Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach
integrates content area instruction with languge development activities and explicit instruction in learning strategies. Develops CALP skills in English through cognitively demanding activities and comprehension is assisted by contextual support. Scaffolded instruction guides acquisition of conent

Newcomer Program
programs designed to meet the needs of incoming ELL’s with low English literacy skills and limited schooling in their L1. The goal is to acquire beginning Enlish skills and core academic skills and acculturate to school system

Developmental Bilingual Program
continued L1 support for academics through elementary. About 40% of academic instruction in L1. Student is English proficient when mainstreamed. AKA-late-exit bilingual program

Two-Way/Dual Immersion
goal to develop speaking, reading, writing, proficiency in both L1 & L2. CLass is made up of 1/2 English speakers and 1/2 speakers of another common language. Instruciton goes up to 50/50 in each language.

Kagan Strategies
collaborative learning activities

process by which an individual adapts to a new culture

pronunciation accompanied by breathing out

Affective Domain
controls how much input the learner comes into contact with and how much that’s converted into learning. Affected by anxiety, etc.

the use of more words than necessary to express something, especially to avoid saying it directly

Consonant Clusters
group of consonants which have no intervening vowel, ie. /spl/ + /ts/ for “splits”

belief that one’s culture is superior

Limited English PRoficient

to make a sound nasal by lowering the soft palate so that air flows through the nose

study of distance individuals maintain between each other in social interactions and how this separation is significant

study of signs and symbols of all kinds, what they mean, and how they relate to the things or ideas they refer to

Silent Period
1st stage of SLA at preproduction stage-students may not communicate during this time except in nonverbal ways

Grammar Translation Method
focus on grammatical rules, syntactic structures, rote memorization of vocabulary and translation of literary texts

Direct Method
oral language focus-instruction is in the target language with no translation to assist. Focuses less on explicit instruciton of grammar rules and structures and more on the repetition and memorization of language patterns.

Audiolingual Method
Uses only the target language. Rapid means of learning a foreign language (used my military). Patterns of drills and dialogue designed to develop grammatical structures and vocabulary in a highly sequential manner. Language acquisition as the memorization and recall of language patterns

Natural Approach
i +1 is applied- communication activities, contextualized acquisition opportunities presented, active demonstrations to convey meaning by associating words and phrases with objects and actions. Comprehension before production, indirect error corretion

Community Language Learning
students choose what they want to learn, the teacher serves as a counselor. Said to ease affective situations. teacher gives students chunks of language in the 1st language to insure understanding

Silent Way
presents learners with simple linguistic situations that they were to observe and then describe in the target language, focusing especially on actions they witnessed. Teacher is silent after sets up classroom situations. Learners have to work with what they know to absorb learning. believes people learn language by forming rules and applying them

relaxed environment (dim lights, soft music) students listen to dialogues then practice them Students may “become” a character in the target langauge. Designed to place as much language teaching emphasis on learner personality and motivation as that typically placed on intellect

Lau v. Nichols
equal vs. equitable treatment for LEP students. Supreme Court ruled that schools were to provide LEP students with support to learn English and content

concrete referents
anything that can be seen, heard, felt or touched by the learner that clarifies comprehension.

context embedded
language that is supplemented by contextual or visual stimuli that assist comprehension.

language that is not supplemented by contextual clues or visual stimuli, e.g. lectures, some types of text books, or telephone conversations.

cooperative learning
Kagan — positive interdependence, individual accountability, face-to-face interaction, collaborative skill development and group processing.

norm-referenced tests
i.e. percentile — how students’ performance compares to other students’ performance

cultural adjustment
4 stages: honeymoon stage, hostility stage, humor stage, home stage

cultural bias (in testing)
Cultural bias occurs when success on the test depends upon understanding specific aspects of the dominant language and culture.

deep vs. surface culture
deep culture = non-tangible aspects of culture such as feelings, attitudes and rules for interaction. Surface culture – visible aspects: food, art, dress, etc.

when two dialects of the same language exist in the same community and are used in different contexts: often formal vs. casual (academic/professional vs. “street”

holistic approaches
instructional approaches that focus on an integrative whole rather then division of a task into discrete sub-skills: in language this means focusing on speaking, listening reading and writing in an integrative mode.

spelled the same, sound different (take a bow/tie a bow)

LEP Committee
Made up of parents, teachers and /or administrators. Students are referred to this committee once there are concerns about testing, deficiency, retention, or reclassification for exits.

Local Education Agency: a board of education or some legal authority having administrative control over public education.

monitor hypothesis
the hypothesis that language learners constantly monitor their language output in accord with the rules of the language as they have learned them — reduced fluency.

phonetic element

the study of a language’s sound system including sound-letter correspondence, intonation, stress and rhythm

process writing
focuses on the communicative processes involved in producing a written product rather than the form — may include invented spellings, symbolic writing or other: pre-writing, drafting, responding, revision, editing and publishing.

focuses on how individuals acquire and use language

second language acquisition theory
related hypotheses to account for observed phenomena in second language acquisition: acquisition vs. learning hypothesis, the monitor hypothesis, the (comprehensible) input hypothesis, the affective filter hypothesis and the natural order hypothesis.

semantic mapping
integrated language teaching strategy that includes a variety of ways to make visual displays of information within categories related to a central topic. Strategy helps elicit students’ previous knowledge and adds new information while demonstrating a relationship between concepts and terms that are being learned. (advanced organizers or review)

the study of sentence structures and word-order patterns

how language is used by different societal groups and across various social situations

subtractive bilingualism
loss or limited development of one’s first language when learning a second language. The result limits they speaker’s language repertoire when compared to additive bilingualism.

transitional bilingual program
provides content area instruction in a student’s first language while offering ESL instruction simultaneously. The content material gradually shifts to the complete use of the second language.

Center for Applied Linguistics

Fluent English Proficient


National Association for Bilingual Education

National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education (funded by Title VII)

Non-English Proficient

Parent Advisory Council or Committee

Potentially English Proficient

State Education Agency

Transitional Bilingual Education Program

determines the context or meaning of words or series of words. ie. “I can’t go.” statement / “I can’t go?” question

can occur at a word or sentence. ie. CONflict – noun / conFLICT – verb

refers to the study of letters and letter combinations

the study of how the contents impacts the interpretation of language ie. bartender asks “What would you like to drink?”

cognitive processing procedure
the learning takes place more through thought process

pycholinguistics procedure
learning through speech

a linguistic unit (as a conversation or a story) larger than a sentence

empty language
is polite discourse that has little meaning but is important in social exchange. ie. “How are you?” This type of discourse is considered BICS

is a complete system of verbal communication with its own vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation. often associated with specific regions or social groups

nature is more important than nurture

language is a reflection of thought

social communication which promotes language and cognition

children are active learners who construct their worlds

Acquisition Learning Hypothesis
Krashen-we acquire language subconsciously with a feel for correctness. Learning a language on the other hand is a conscious process that involves knowing grammatical rules.

Private Speech
2nd stage of SLA. learner knows about 1000 receptive words and speaks in one-or-two word phrases. ie. yes/no; either/or

Lexical Chunk
3rd stage of SLA. learner knows about 3000 receptive words and can communicate using short phrases and sentences.

4th stage of SLA. learner knows about 6000 receptive words and begins to make complex statements, states opinions, ask for clarification, share thoughts and speaks at greater length

5th stage of SLA. When the learner develops a level of fluency and can make semantic and grammar generalizations

interpersonal communication
involves verbal and non verbal communication

verbal communication
communication that uses written or spoken words

non verbal communication
communication between individuals that relies on an unspoken language of facial expressions, eye contact, and body language

Skills for communicating
include summerizing, paraphrasing, listening, questioning, initiating, turn-taking

Total Physical Response
teacher gives and acts out commands

Communicative Approach
emphasizes use vs. usage

applying grammar rules in areas they don’t apply (“I writed a story”; goed; comed)

the practice of modifying language to facilitate comprehension

aka stablization…plateaus with L2…so accustomed to an error that he does not hear the correct use even though he is relatively fluent

Factors influencing Bilingualism
reason for learning,
level of immersion,
social attitude,
block scheduling,
community value,
family and home environment

cognitive skills
any mental skills that are used in the process of acquiring knowledge, including reasoning, perception and intuition.

Social Factor that influence SLA
social class or status
family’s educational level

Civil Rights Act of 1964
established that schools, as recipients of federal funds cannot discriminate against ELLs

Castaneda v. Pickard
established 3 specific criteria schools must use to determine the effectiveness of bilingual education programs

NAEP-National Assessment of Education Progress
keeps an ongoing record of school performance

NCLB-No Child Left Behind
schools can no longer rely on high-performing students to average out the low performance of language challenged students

social trends that have affected the education of ELLs
demands by ELL groups, polarity among the different racial/ethnic groups, multiculturalism

Stages of Acculturation
Honeymoon stage
Hostility Stage
Humor Stage
Home Stage

assimilation theory
the process by which minorities gradually adopt patterns of the dominant culture

accommodation theory
We adjust our speech to accommodate others and commonly convergence occurs

Levels of scaffolding for learning and problem solving

asynchronous learning
interchange of communication on a computer in which you start and stop while waiting for reply. ie. off-line applications

a steady stream of communication on a computer. ie chatroom, IM, videoconferencing

language proficiency tests
measure how well students have met s=certain standards in a particular language. ie. TOEFL

language placement tests
is designed to place students within a specific program

language achievement tests
these test relate t a specific curriculum or course of study. ie Final exams

diagnostic language tests
these test are designed to identify individual students’ strengths and weaknesses in language

the L1/L2 learner omits a phoneme. ie pronounces “ar” instead of “bar”

the L1/L2 learner substitutes a phoneme. ie pronounces “take” instead of “rake”

the L1/L2 learner pronounces a phoneme incorrectly, and the sound produced is not considered normal. ie pronounces “three” as “free”

the L1/L2 learner additional syllables to a word. pronounces the word “like” as “like-id”

a transposition or reversal of two phonemes in a word (e.g., basket bakset; spaghetti pasghetti)

communicative language teaching
Language as a tool for communicating information and ideas through teaching. Create realistic context for SLA in classroom, focus on functional language usage and ability to express self.

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