First Aid – Heat and Cold Emergencies

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heat cramps
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a painful muscle cramp resulting from excessive loss of salt and water through sweating
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heat exhaustion
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a prostration caused by excessive loss of water and salt through sweating; characterized by clammy skin and a weak, rapid pulse
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heatstroke
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a life-threatening condition of severe hyperthermia caused by exposure to excessive natural or artificial heat
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thermoregulation
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the body’s ability to maintain a normal body temperature despite the weather
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yes
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yes/no For heat cramps in the legs, stretch the cramped muscle.
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yes
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yes/no commercial sports drinks can be given to victims of heat-related emergencies
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yes
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yes/no move victims of heat-related illness to a cool place
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yes
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yes/no victims of heatstroke need immediate medical care – it is a life-threatening condition
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yes
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yes/no cool heatstroke victims rapidly, including the use of ice packs applied to the neck, armpits, and groin.
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no
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yes/no fruit juices are digested quickly and rehydrate the body most rapidly
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yes
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yes/no you can drink too much water and cause water intoxification
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no
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yes/no humidity cannot significantly reduce evaporative cooling
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yes
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yes/no certain medications predispose to heatstroke
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yes
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yes/no heat exhaustion can feel like the flu
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anyone
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given the right conditions, ________ can develop a heat illness
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dispersing, produces
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the human body is constantly __________ the heat that it ________
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heatstroke
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heat illness include a range of disorders from heat cramps to heatstroke. _________ is life-threatening.
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heat cramps
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1. move victim to a cool place 2. stretch the cramped muscle 3. remove excess or tight clothing 4. if the victim is responsive, give water or a sports drink
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cool place, stretch, clothing, water, sports drink
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for heat cramps: 1. move victim to a ______ _______ 2. ______ the cramped muscle 3. remove excess or tight ______ 4. if the victim is responsive, give ______ or a ______ ______
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heat exhaustion
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1. move victim to a cool place 2. have victim lie down 3. apply cool, wet towels to head and body 4. if the victim is responsive, give water or sports drink 5. seek medical care if no improvement within 30 minutes.
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cool place, lie down, wet towels, water, 30
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for heat exhaustion: 1. move victim to a ______ ______ 2. have victim ______ ______ 3. apply cool, ______ ______ to head and body 4. if the victim is responsive, give ______ or sports drink 5. seek medical care if no improvement within ______ minutes.
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heatstroke
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1. move victim to a cool place 2. call 911 3. if unresponsive, open airway, check breathing, and provide appropriate care 4. rapidly cool victim by whatever means possible (cool, wet sheets; ice or cold packs against armpits, side of neck and groin)
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cool place, 911, airway, breathing, cool, wet, ice
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for heatstroke: 1. move victim to a ______ ______ 2. call ______ 3. if unresponsive, open ______ , check ______ , and provide appropriate care 4. rapidly ______ victim by whatever means possible (cool , ______ sheets; ______ or cold packs against armpits, side of neck and groin)
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heat cramps
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painful muscle spasm during or after physical activity; usually lower leg affected
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heat exhaustion
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heavy sweating; severe thirst; weakness; headache; nausea and vomiting
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heatstroke
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extremely hot skin; dry skin (may be wet at first); confusion; seizures; unresponsiveness
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thirsty
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when you are ________ you are already dehydrated
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sodium, potassium
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two minerals that become depleted through sweating and urination
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2 quarts
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how much water is lost each day through normal body functions?
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1 cup, 20 minutes
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drink __ ____ of water for every ____ ______ while working in hot weather
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water intoxification
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hyponatremia – results when people replace sweat loss with plain water instead of an enhanced fluid including electrolytes
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at risk for heat illness
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obesity, chronic illness, alcoholics, elderly, infants, young children, outdoor laborers, certain medications
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humid
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a ______ climate can significantly reduce evaporative cooling
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vasoconstriction
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tightening of the blood vessels
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exposed skin
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vasoconstriction occurs in the _______ __________ and can lead to cold injuries
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shivering
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the body’s main involuntary defence against the cold
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conduction
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direct contact with a cold object
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convection
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loss of heat from the body by air blowing over the skin
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evaporation
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conversion of liquid on the skin to a vapor; accounts for 20% of heat loss
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radiation
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primary method of heat loss; warm body gives off heat to cooler air
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conduction, convection, evaporation, radiation
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4 mechanisms of loss of body heat
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shivering
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produces heat by forcing the muscles to contract and relax rapidly
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98.6
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normal body temperature
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at risk for cold injury
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unfit, dehydration, very lean, elderly, alcohol use, caffeine use, nicotine use, inadequate nutrition, illness, injury, previous cold injury
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altitude, water, wind
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3 conditions affecting cold
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layering
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best method of clothing for outdoor activities
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base layer
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clothing that removes perspiration from the skin
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middle layer
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clothing that insulates against the cold
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outer layer
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clothing that protects against wind and rain
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head
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loses more body heat than any other body part
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chilblain
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nonfreezing painful cold injury that includes tender, swollen skin, blisters, can worsen to an achy, prickly sensation
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trench foot
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serious non-freezing cold injury that may develop when feet are exposed to moisture and cold for prolonged periods (12 hours or longer)
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frostnip
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caused when water on the skin surface freezes; skin appears red and sometimes swollen
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frostbite
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tissue is frozen and blood supply to tissue is obstructed
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frostbite
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skin is white, waxy or grayish yellow; feels cold and numb; may be tingling, stinging, or aching sensations
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1st degree frostbite
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affected part is warm, swollen, and tender
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2nd degree frostbite
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blisters from minutes to hours after thawing and enlarge over several days
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3rd degree frostbite
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blisters are small and contain reddish blue or purplish fluid
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4th degree frostbite
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no blisters or swelling; the part remains numb, cold, and white to dark purple
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frostbite care
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1. get the victim out of the cold and to a warm place 2. remove any wet clothing or constricting items 3. seek immediate medical care 4. if partially thawed, use warm water to rewarm rapidly 5. give aspirin (adults only) or ibuprofen 6. treat the victim as a “stretcher case”
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cold, warm, wet, constricting, medical, water, ibuprofen, stretcher
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frostbite care: 1. get the victim out of the _______ and to a _______ place 2. remove any _______ clothing or _______ items 3. seek immediate _______ care 4. if partially thawed, use warm _______ to rewarm rapidly 5. give aspirin (adults only) or _______ 6. treat the victim as a “_______ case”
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rewarm
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if there is a risk of refreezing, do NOT _______
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hypothermia
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life-threatening condition in which the body’s core temperature falls below 95 degrees
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acute exposure
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cold exposure of 6 hours or less; also known as “immersion”
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subacute exposure
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also known as “mountain or exhaustion exposure”; occurs when exposure is 6-24 hours and can be land or water based
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chronic exposure
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also known as “urban exposure”; involves long-term cooling; generally occurs on land and exceeds 24 hours
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mental status, shivering, abdomen, low
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recognizing hypothermia 1. change in ________ ________ 2. muscles will be ________ 3. cool ________ 4. ________ body core temperature
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umbles
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grumbles, mumbles, fumbles, stumbles – signs of mild hypothermia
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air, water
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when a person is surrounded by ________ or ________ cooler than the body temperature, the body loses heat
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hypothermia
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life-threatening condition in which the body’s core temperature falls below 95 degrees F.
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dehydration
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occurs because of unperceived fluid loss combined with inadequate fluid
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mild hypothermia
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uncontrollable shivering; confusion, sluggishness, cold skin even under clothing
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severe hypothermia
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no shivering, muscles stiff and rigid, skin ice cold, appears to be dead
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mild hypothermia
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treatment for ________ ________: 1. move victim to a warm place 2. prevent heat loss by -replacing wet clothing with dry -covering the victim’s head 3. give warm, sugary beverages 4. do not add anything warm to the skin; let the shivering rewarm the body
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severe hypothermia
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treatment for ________ ________: 1. move victim to a warm place 2. prevent heat loss by -replacing wet clothing with dry -covering the victim’s head 3. do NOT rewarm unless in a very remote location 4. call 911
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warm place, loss, wet, dry, head, rewarm, 911
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treatment for severe hypothermia 1. move victim to a ________ ________ 2. prevent heat ________ by -replacing ________ clothing with ________ -covering the victim’s ________ 3. do NOT ________ unless in a very remote location 4. call ________
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warm place, loss, wet, dry, head, beverages, skin, shivering
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treatment for mild hypothermia 1. move victim to a ________ ________ 2. prevent heat ________ by -replacing ________ clothing with ________ -covering the victim’s ________ 3. give warm, sugary ________ 4. do not add anything warm to the ________ ; let the ________ rewarm the body
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yes
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yes/no shivering is a signal that clothing and shelter are inadequate to protect the body form the cold
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no, 50%
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yes/no up to 100% of the body’s total heat production can be lost by radiation through a person’s unprotected head
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yes
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yes/no physically unfit people are more susceptible to cold injury
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yes
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yes/no frostnip is caused when water on the skin surface freezes
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yes
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yes/no shivering produces body heat
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no
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yes/no rub a frostbitten part to rewarm it
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no
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yes/no rewarm a hypothermic victim quickly in a hot show or with chemical heat packs
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yes
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yes/no replace any wet clothing with dry clothing for a hypothermic victim
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yes
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yes/no seek medical care for a severe hypothermic victim
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no
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yes/no below-freezing temperatures are required for hypothermia to occur

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